Conversion-type active materials show promise for use in large-scale lithium-ion batteries by virtue of their low cost and large specific capacities. However, there are some challenges in the application of these materials to practical Li-ion batteries. To adapt the conversion-type active materials to the next-generation Li-ion batteries, it is necessary that we understand the conversion reaction in detail. In this review, the electrochemical properties of the iron-based conversion cathode are introduced, and their reaction mechanisms are described based mainly on our own experiments. Finally, we introduce a composite of LiF as an Li source and FeO as an anion accepter as a novel cathode system for the next-generation Li-ion batteries.
Reactive species generated by the oxidation and reduction of organic compounds are generally unstable. To utilize the reactive species as intermediates for organic synthesis and functional materials, it is crucial how to treat them. In this headline, electrochemical reactions utilizing stabilized reactive cations, which enabled benzylic C–H/aromatic C–H cross-coupling, aromatic C–H/C–H cross-coupling, and aromatic C–H amination are demonstrated. Furthermore, energy storage materials utilizing stabilized anions, which enabled to develop organic materials for lithium-ion batteries with high voltage of ca. 3 V and solvent-free redox flow batteries with high energy density, are demonstrated. These studies show the usefulness of stabilized reactive species.
Group I-III-VI2 semiconductor-based quantum dots, such as AgInS2, CuInS2 and their solid solution with ZnS, have recently been reported to show intense photoluminescence, the wavelength of which is tunable in a wide range from visible to near-infrared (NIR) light regions by controlling their chemical composition and/or size. Due to their low toxicity and tunable optical properties, these multinary semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been intensively developed as alternative materials to conventional Cd- and Pb-based QDs for applications to photoluminescent devices, photocatalysts, quantum dot solar cells, and biological imaging materials. In this review, the recent progress in the photofunctionality of I-III-VI2-based semiconductor QDs prepared by the colloidal method is outlined with foucus on two advances: (1) extension of the photoluminescence wavelength to NIR light for in vivo biological imaging and (2) improvement of photoenergy conversion properties by nanostructure control of QDs.
Advanced electrode materials and tailored design of the electrified interface are essential for electrochemical processes that rely on electrode/electrolyte interfaces. In particular, electrochemical capacitors (supercapacitors) and electrocatalysts depend on surface confined reactions and thus high surface area nanomaterials are preferred. In this review, key advances in the development of conducting oxide nanosheets towards aqueous pseudocapacitors and fuel-cell related electrocatalysts will be highlighted, emphasizing results primarily from the authors’ laboratory. The synthesis of conductive nanosheets and its application towards pseudocapacitors and hybrid capacitors will be reviewed. The use of nanosheets as co-catalysts for Pt-based electrocatalysts as well as catalysts will be described. The morphology-property relation will be established for nanosheet electrochemistry, hopefully encouraging researchers in materials chemistry and electrochemistry to communicate and move forward together to stimulate enhancement in the important and expanding field of electrochemical energy storage and conversion.