英文学研究
Online ISSN : 2424-2136
Print ISSN : 0039-3649
ISSN-L : 0039-3649
26 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の30件中1~30を表示しています
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. Cover1-
    発行日: 1949/12/10
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 目次
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. Toc1-
    発行日: 1949/12/10
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • KAICHI MATSUURA
    原稿種別: 本文
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 125-184
    発行日: 1949/12/10
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 後藤 武士
    原稿種別: 本文
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 185-220
    発行日: 1949/12/10
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    All the books that come between Liza of Lambeth and The Moon and Sixpence are regarded in this essay as so many records of Mr. Maugham's long pilgrimage to find himself. Among them Mrs. Craddock and Of Human Bondage are especially important for the study of his later works. There are two minor characters worthy of note in Mrs. Craddock. The one is Miss Ley, whose attitude towards life is a shrug of the shoulders, and whose temperate philosophy of "live and let live" is also entirely that of the author. The other is Dr. Ramsay, whose position in this novel is the very one which Mr. Maugham later steps into to write in the first person. For all its defects as a novel, the attractive sincerity of the author makes Of Human Bondage a highly original book. Seeing that his own philosophy of life as outlined in The Summing Up about twenty years later is practically that of Philip almost unmodified, I felt justified in accepting the hero's spiritual adventure which ends in a triumphant nihilism or refined agonsticism as the foundation of the author's compassion and tolerance, the keynotes of his later works. Of Human Bondage, however, is, like Liza of Lambeth, an isolated attempt which has no successor. In The Moon and Sixpence we see the emergence of Somerset Maugham, the mature writer who has found his material and his style. His outlook on life has acquired new freedom and composure. Moreover, he adopted a new technique of writing in the first person singular. This may be but a variety of the autobiographical form suggested by the method of Henry James, but it is a technique so perfectly in keeping with his disposition that it makes us feel the more that he has at last found himself. In spite of the author's disapproval of the technique of "the stream of consciousness," the psychoanalytical view is found reflected in the treatment of Strickland's art and in the author's own reference to the psychology of the writer in creating scoundrels. Cakes and Ale and The Razor's Edge are direct successors to this novel. Importance is attached to those written in the first person as works most characteristic of Mr. Maugham and more detailed comments are given to them than to the rest. The importance of The Painted Veil, otherwise a negligible book, lies in the fact that it is the first instance of Mr. Maugham taking up the theme of the reality of the spirit. In Cakes and Ale the art of Mr. Maugham is revealed in full maturity. It is indeed the work of a man who knows his own limitations. Rosie is most typical of his excellent characterizations. The Narrow Corner reflects a conflict in the author-a conflict between the self that has accepted the actualities of human life as they are and another self that now begins to suspect the existence of the spirit that the former has tried to believe non-existent. Those who were disappointed by Theatre, Up at the Villa, and Christmas Holiday must have been pleased to find a worthy successor to Cakes and Ale in The Razor's Edge. From every point of view it shows the culmination of Mr. Maugham's novels written in the first person. Its central theme makes one suspect the presence, in the author's heart, of a craving for God and immortality which his reason has forced back to the deep recesses of the subconsciousness. Both of the two latest works Then and Now and Catalina are to be regarded as the products of Mr. Maugham's belief that the novelist should turn to the historical novel towards the end of his career, a lesson the author learned from the failure of his second book. Mr. Maugham has rightly complained that the critics have, using the word in a slightly depreciatory sense, called him "competent." But it can not be denied that what we feel after we have read some of his novels is not unqualified admiration. For all the merits they have, they always leave for (at

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  • 近藤 いね子
    原稿種別: 本文
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 221-238
    発行日: 1949/12/10
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    The present writer owes the title of this paper (read at the great annual meeting of Nippon Eibun Gakukai, May 1948) to that of Mr. Blunden's essay, "Charles Lamb the Reader," which appeared in the Rising Generation April, 1948. However, what she proposes to do here is only a study of Northanger Abbey, for, of all Jane Austen's finished novels, the book provides the most interesting materials for examining her both as a novel-reader and a novel-writer at the very beginning of her career. Two kinds of fiction are mentioned in the fifth and sixth chapters of Northanger Abbey, one, the novels of Radcliffian school which are read most enthusiastically by the heroine and her friends, and the other, such novels as Cecilia, Camilla, and Belinda, to which the highest praise is given by the author herself. Northanger Abbey, in which Jane at once satirizes the Gothic romance, and declares what sort of novelist she wishes to be, seems to owe its conception both to Mysteries of Udolpho and to Evelina. Now there is a striking resemblance between Belinda and Evelina, in that Belinda also deals with a young heroine in her first adventures in the fashionable life of London. It also contains criticisms of Radcliffian romances. Thus a comparison between Northanger. Abbey and Belinda is possible. By this comparison is brought forward Jane Austen's superior quality as a writer, which is further emphasized by another comparison with E. S. Barrett's The Heroine. Jane Austen is essentially a psychologist, while Edgeworth's chief interest lies in moral issues, and Fanny Burney's in the manners of the day. The study of the relationships between Jane Austen's readings and her novels is a tremendous work-perhaps too difficult to pursue in Japan where very few books are available. But even a few readings in Jane's favourite novels convince one of the perfection of her workmanship, throwing into relief her chief interest and method which were far more advanced than her contemporaries.
  • 藤原 博
    原稿種別: 本文
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 239-260
    発行日: 1949/12/10
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    At the name of W. B. Yeats, there floats before our eyes a figure of a subrective poet who, breathing in the Celtic Twilight, sang, "I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree." As a matter of fact he was also the leader of the Irish Dramatic Movement. We can not but perceive a deep gulf between a subjective poet and a dramatist combined in the same personality. Seeking to bridge that gulf, we find in his autobiographies his father's liking of dramatic poetry, the poet's habit of playing characters while writing and emotions stirred from a clubhouse with a little theatre in the Bedford Park. And we must not overlook his fancy to the delicate rhythm of poetical speeches which drove him to seek the stage where to exhibit it again in the presence of hearers. He desires to escape from the modern civilization, putting the Golden Age in the ancient world, and admiring the ancient arts which came to a man at his work. In this inclination of his we can trace William Morris's influence upon Yeats. He loved the Irish with all his heart, in whom he found a simple-minded people not yet baptized with the modern civilization and-commercialism. Here his ideas of civilization and patriotism met together. The drama is the most familiar and intimate form of art to people. Even unlettered people, he thought, must listen to impassioned dialogues. Then he took up the dramatic movement to return to the people. But at last in 1919 he said, "I want to create an unpopular theatre." At his failure in the movement we are conscious again of the conflicts between subjectivity and activity, and the superiority of the former in Yeats. Well, the disintegration of one whole personality into subjectivity and activity, soul and body, it may be one of the most remarkable features of the modern civilization.
  • 乾 亮一
    原稿種別: 本文
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 261-276
    発行日: 1949/12/10
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    (i) The grammatical terms, in some cases, have different names, and where things are not called by their right names, some difficulties or ambiguities cannot be avoided. The so-called 'Cognate Object' is one of them. In the first place, the true function or functions of the Cognate object must be made clear. Laying undue stress on the name of Cognate object (and accordingly on its governing verb), grammarians, one and all, are accustomed to explain that noun as one which 'repeats the meaning of the verb' (H. Sweet), 'repeats the meaning of the verb ..., states the result or effect of activity' (H. Poutsma), 'repeats and explains more fully the idea experssed by the verb' (G. O. Curme), or as one which falls under the head of 'a subdivision under the object of result' (O. Jespersen), etc. These grammatical definitions, however, cannot afford even to serve the lexical exposition that it is 'used adverbially' (P.O.D., C.O.D., N.E.D.). Some examples in OE and in early Mod. E do show us that the Cognate object was not always in the accusative case, but sometimes in the instrumental, and sometimes in the dative. Taking this historical fact into consideration, the adverbial function of the object may be considered of original or inherent nature, which cannot be disregarded at the present time when the case forms of nouns have been levelled. But the function in question, I should think, leaves something essential yet to be clarified. How should the following examples be expounded 'resultantly or effectually' or 'adverbially'?-'Mr. Stoyte smiled to himself, a smile of triumphant self-satisfaction' (A. Huxley) | He smiled at Ed, the strange, wondering smile, again' (J. Steinbeck). Cf. He stood there and waited, suspended' (D. H. Lawrence) | 'He had stepped out of his own shadow, a live quivering creature' (J. Galsworthy). In the Cognate expression, I would venture to assert, the verb, being subservient to the object noun, is in reality a kind of 'Form-word' (or 'Empty-word'), adding nothing significant to the noun in which something characteristic of the 'Predicative' is predominant. Cf. 'She didn't die dead (J. Steinbeck) | Where the blackbird sings the latest, Where the hawthorn blooms the sweetest, ... (J. Hogg). (ii) In the second place, the question naturally arises why this cognate has come into more and more frequent use? To this query, so far as my conjecture is concerned, five points of answer may be given mainly from syntaco-stylistic points of view. (iii) Thirdly, the endeavour is made to show how this syntactic idiom has been influencing on the Japanese language. There were, or have been in that language a native expression identical with the. Cognate which, curiously enough, have no designation whatever in Japanese grammar. The difference of its usage between the two languages is this :-In English, as a general rule, the 'Full (or Modified) object' prevails, while in Japanese the 'Inane (or unmodified) object' is indigenous. The 'Full (or modified) object', being on the increase in Japanese, can be said to be a sort of translation loan-phrase from English (and other Western languages). This foreign influence, however, has not yet found its way in the colloquial or conversational Japanese. Another noteworthy difference is that a similar expression native to our mother tongue can we find in such stereotyped phrases as 'owarai ni warau' (=laugh a hearty laugh), 'otokonaki ni naku' (=weep manly tears), 'hitonemuri ni nemuru' (=sleep an undisturbed sleep), etc., which seems to be equivalent to OE Cognate object in the instrumental or in the dative.
  • 山川 喜久男
    原稿種別: 本文
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 277-309
    発行日: 1949/12/10
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    From a historical point of view English connectives may be divided into two classes: demonstrative determinatives and indefinite determinatives. These form, as it were, the two main currents with which the English subordinate constructions have been drifted down from their earliest stage of parataxis. In OE the demonstrative determinatives included se (>that), with its inflected forms, panne (>then), paer (>there), swa (>so), swelc (>such), etc. In performing the function as determinatives it was more usual that they were intensified in double forms. Se was often accompanied by the indeclinable particle pe, whose origin was also demonstrative. Swa and swelc were usually employed correlatively with paet, neuter singular of se. The indefinite determinatives included the following words derived from the indefinite stem *hwa-: hwa (>who), hwat (>what), hwelc (>which), hwfier (>whether), hwanne (>when), hweer (>where), etc. Besides the function of introducing dependent questions, as in the case of hweet and hwee2er, they were used as determinatives, usually intensified by the correlative demonstratives swa ... swa, e.g. swa hwa swa. Already in the OE period the duplicated type peer ... paer by employing the indefinite hweer instead of the demonstrative paer in the subordinate clause. Through the ME and Mod E periods the two kinds of OE determinatives have undergone considerable changes, both formal and functional. As to the demonstrative determinatives, (I) the two typical ones paet and pe, which had early weakened their original demonstrative nature and been developed into merely linking particles, have had their function inherited by the one modern connective that. (2) The characteristic correlative type has survived in ModE, as in the case of the ... the, so (...) that, such (...) that, etc. (3) The old duplicated forms have been supplanted by the differentiated forms, such as it ... that, those (...) who, as ... so, etc. (4) The OE temporal demonstrative janne has been weakened into the abstract connective than. (5) The intensified demonstrative al-swa (=quite so) has turned into the common connective as. Finally (6) the new demonstrative determinative like, shortened from like as (if), has revived the old determinative function. The tendency of indefinite determinatives superseding demonstrative determinatives has been furthered in and after the ME period, especially by the imitation of the Latin models. (I) While the single indefinite who has retained its determinative use in the archaic style of Mod E, the more usual type swa hwa swa has been popularized in the new indefinite form whoever. (2) The determinative with more restrictive reference, which, has first established its function as a definite relative, mostly shortened from which that or the which. (3) As definite relatives who and which have been differentiated in use. (4) The double type, then ... then or there ... there, through the differentiated when ... then or where ... there, has been simplified into when or where. (5) The originally indefinite pronoun whether has turned into a mere conjunctive particle introducing a dependent question or a concessive clause. Of the two currents above more idiomatic features proper to the native English seem to be preserved in the first one.
  • 石田 憲次
    原稿種別: 本文
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 310-319
    発行日: 1949/12/10
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • EDMUND BLUNDEN
    原稿種別: 本文
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 320-323
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • EDMUND BLUNDEN
    原稿種別: 本文
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 323-324
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • 中島 文雄
    原稿種別: 本文
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 324-328
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • 平井 正穗
    原稿種別: 本文
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 328-332
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • 西川 正身
    原稿種別: 本文
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 332-336
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • 厨川 文夫
    原稿種別: 本文
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 337-343
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • 市河 三喜
    原稿種別: 本文
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 343-345
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • 神津 東雄
    原稿種別: 本文
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 345-348
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • 大和 資雄
    原稿種別: 本文
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 348-351
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • 岩崎 良三
    原稿種別: 本文
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 351-355
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • 原稿種別: 文献目録等
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 356-363
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • 原稿種別: 文献目録等
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 363-
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 364-365
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 366-
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 367-
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 367-373
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 374-376
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 377-381
    発行日: 1949/12/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. App1-
    発行日: 1949/12/10
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. App2-
    発行日: 1949/12/10
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1949 年 26 巻 2 号 p. App3-
    発行日: 1949/12/10
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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