英文学研究
Online ISSN : 2424-2136
Print ISSN : 0039-3649
ISSN-L : 0039-3649
35 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の28件中1~28を表示しています
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. Cover1-
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 目次
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. Toc1-
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 佐山 栄太郎
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 1-16
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    William Chamberlayne, one of the minor poets of the Caroline period, does not seem to be much read in England and America, still less here in Japan. But his major work, Pharonnida deserves, to the writer's mind, more attention of the students of English literature. He is anything but a craftsman in poetry, but his poetic imagination has been given free play, perhaps too free, in Pharonnida. The work is called an epic poem and in structure some resemblance to The Aeneid may be found, but it is only superficial. More remarkable is that it has certain characteristics of the Elizabethan dramas. Some scenes in Pharonnida might have been written as a tragedy-a kind of tragedy which depends not so much on the development or psychology of the characters as on the plot and action. It is significant that Pharonnida was composed of five books, each book containing five cantos, corresponding to the five acts of a tragedy, instead of twelve books of an epic. The worst fault of the poem is the lack of ordonnance. If we read the poem for the narrative we may be disappointed before we have reached the second book. This is not to say, however, that there are no scenes which can absorb readers' whole attention for a while. What interests us, readers of the 17th century poetry, is the abundance of brilliant passages which have attained the height of the best of the metaphysical poetry. Prosodically considered, his poetry might be interesting, representing an extreme case of the heroic couplet in enjambement. Chamberlayne was a poet who looked back to the past, the Elizabethan dramatic literature, and never turned his eyes to the future, the new tendency in the poetry of the Restoration period and the following generations of Dryden and Pope. We discover, however, affinity between him and the poets of the period of the Romantic Revival. In the present article, those points above mentioned are cursorily treated, with several illustrative passages, as well as a somewhat lengthy outline of the whole story. The article will, I hope, serve as an introduction to Pharonnida for Japanese readers who are interested in the poetry of the 17th century.
  • 石井 正之助
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 17-33
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    Herrick's poetry is often called, depreciatingly, 'simple', while Donne's, appreciatingly, 'complex'. A recent criticism has not exempted even two brilliant pieces in his Hesperides, Corinna's going a-Maying and To the Virgins, to make much of Time, from being given similar disparaging remarks, 'having no discipline ' and 'lacking complexity'. Is Herrick really simple? And if so in what sense? A careful study of the two poems proves the criticism to have been hastily made. Herrick is indeed simple in much of his poetry, but it is also true that some are quite complex under the disguise of simplicity. Herrick has been and is still often grouped together with such poets as Carew, Suckling, and Lovelace, under the label of 'the Cavalier poets'; he is regarded as one of the least 'Metaphysical' among his contemporaries. The term 'Metaphysical' itself contains many problems and is often vaguely and misleadingly used. But if it is taken as pointing to such characteristics as 'far-fetched imagery' and 'witty conceits' found in Donne and Cowley, Herrick's poetry is not without their instances. Herrick's 'simplicity' can be ascribed to various elements in both the subject and form of his poetry and has to be approached in its two different phases-'genuine simplicity' and 'simplicity in disguise'. Of the former much has been written since his revival in the latter half of the previous century. As for the latter, more attention is invited since it is a medium through which his unique world is revealed, his world built upon the dualism of pagan and Christian attitudes toward life. His repeated identifications of human creatures with flowers and plants is remarkable, making us believe that there he had really something to say. His obsessions of time and death, mitigated by his favourite themes of love and rebirth, give a complex undertone to his smooth verse. Perhaps we Japanese are better qualified than others in being a congenial appreciator of Herrick's simplicity, which has much in common, as Emile Legouis has pointed out, with our poetry of shorter forms and sensuous qualities.
  • 早乙女 忠
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 35-50
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    Paradise Lost has been naturally thought to be a religious poem. The readers have admired or rejected it on the ground of its extremely religious quality. Is this epic so religious? The nineteenth century critics praised Milton's Satan extravagantly: often in terms of inspiration. Does their appreciation not make an attack on the central idea of Paradise Lost? So this work may be paradoxically considered as a irreligious poem in the interest of Satan's heroic and even Promethean figure. Indeed Milton often makes his devil heroic, though not a hero. But the world of Paradise Lost is the religious one. The epic displays human ambiguities, and that in order to conquer them. As for Satan, the poet introduces him as "Th' infernal Serpent" and banishes him in the same way. Satan is not a "hero or fool" but a "hero and fool." Perhaps he saw in himself the anti-religious world as obviously as the religious one. It is supposed that he often had to "justify the ways of God" to himself. In his character, Satan, there is alter ego or "what is dark", struggling against divine order. The story of Satan described in the earlier books of the epic is not only a "prelude in heaven" but a reflection of human tragedies. And he can show the tragic and the harmonious world at the same time. The world of Paradise Lost is harmonious, though tragic; religious, though seemingly irreligious. It will not be strange even if we say Paradise Lost is all the more religious work because it is often irreligious.
  • 越智 文雄
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 51-74
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    Our main concern here in this article is to examine in detail the problem of Milton's love lyrics and consider how and why he finally shrank from his so-called juvenile "vana trophaea". Almost all of his English lyrics are far from being called love-poems, except Sonnet I (O Nightingale ...) and Sonnet IX (To a Virtuous Young Lady). The latter is dedicated to a young lady, but is not a love-poem in the ordinary sense of the word, while in the former the poet is "merely in love with love", as Cleanth Brooks aptly puts it. Thus we are obliged to turn our attention to his poems both Italian and Latin in order to find the poet's youthful ardour. Among his Italian sonnets, Sonnet III and Canzone are remarkable in their fresh and original flavour as not found even in Petrarch's sonnets; but most significant to us, so far as his amatory experience is concerned, are the Sonnets IV and VI. These two love-sonnets are very similar in their atmosphere to his Latin love poem-Elegia Septima. A rather close analysis of Elegia Septima leads us to the problem of its date and numbering. The unusual numbering as Septima instead of Ouinta involves us in the problem of the ten-line postscript annexed to the end of the Elegia Septima. This "epilogistick palinode", if we use Thomas Warton's phrase, suggests to us something of the poet's attitude towards his love poems in general, though it seems to be originally intended for the Elegia Septima only.
  • 佐藤 公子
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 75-89
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    Thinking about the problem of evil in this world, Pope would explain it with the popular philosophy of the time, a philosophy based largely on the now obsolete ideas of the Chain of Being and the doctrine of Plenitude. Unlike deists, our poet admits a closer relation between God and Nature, and every natural phenomenon as a sort of theophany. Therefore, it follows that not only the universe as a whole but each creature in itself should be perfect because all beings are created and ever informed by God and our world is the best of all possible worlds. Thus, in the concluding line of the first epistle of his Essay on Man, he says, "Whatever is, is right." This optimism, though closely resembles to Leibnitzian theory, is not the fruit of long and arduous philosophical thinking, but rather founded on the stabilized social life as well as Victorian poets'. Yet, looking over his view of man, we find our poet is never satisfied with the status quo. According to the traditional division of human nature he admits two principles-Reason and Passion. Notwithstanding, he does not always recognize the greatness of Reason, but rather the strength and significances of Passion in human conducts; he tries to establish his favourite theory of Ruling Passion. He also does not hesitate to indicate human weakness and frailty, though he calls man the 'lord of all things'. Compared with Milton's portrait of man, Pope's has not a relic of the conception of the Fall, and consequently no religious hope. For him man's imperfectness is destined by providence and should be accepted with some gratitude and resignation. So, his view of man assumes an aspect suggesting a kind of fatalism. Meanwhile, although the traditional superiority of Reason to Passion is not wholly denied, Reason can hardly support the human soul any more. Then, losing the traditional belief in the story of the Bible and the power of Reason, Pope is to cling to the universal order and would find man's completeness when he renounces himself to the Great Chain and becomes its essential part to make it perfect. Supported partly by the Augustan society of peace and partly by the traditional conception of the universal order, our poet does not become a pessimist; yet, considering the above mentioned, we cannot regard his affirmation 'Whatever is, is right' merely as a hopeful creed.
  • 岩崎 宗治
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 91-106
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    Anyone who contemplates T. S. Eliot's Four Quartets and The Waste Land would be sure that these two poems are quite different in their character and that Four Quartets can be described as affirmative, and The Waste Land as negative, in expression and implication. When we study the texts more closely we notice in The Waste Land many passages where negative words are found in succession and that the predominant tone is clearly negative, while in Four Quartets lines are found by far the opposite, a typical phrase being "all shall be well and All manner of thing shall be well," where everything that exists is affirmed and accepted. Examining the conclusion or recapitulating part of each of the four quartests together with that of The Waste Land, these five poems, we discover, have some consistency, which may perhaps be identified as the development of an attitude toward history and religion. We also notice that the development is also the transmutation of the author's concern from a survey of fragments found in the present world to the realization of unity within him. If the two poems are looked at from this point of view, The Waste Land may be perceived as a poem of fragments and Four Quartets as a poem of unity. This conclusion coincides with the structural devices of the two works: the lines of The Waste Land seem disconnected as the result of employing the stream of consciousness technique, and the sustained musical rhythm and structure of the Quartets integrate the whole poem into a unity. In the fragmented Waste Land repetition is a mere succession of the same word like "Burning burning burning burning," while in the closely-knit Quartets the repeated words form a new and higher unity as we see in such a line as "Distracted from distraction by distraction." Besides, the titles and the epigraphs of the two poems confirm this view. From the view-point of Eliot's literary career, the separate exercise of his talent as a playwright of poetic drama and poet of meditative poetry in his later years has resulted chiefly from his growing wish to help to establish order in the outer world (or at least to mend the contemporary fragmentariness) through the theatre and his yearning for unity in his inner life. Eliot has from the first been a pilgrim searching for order and unity (remember Henry Adams in his Education), and while he has apparently resigned the hope of attaining them in the outer world -though he never ceases to explore-he still cannot avoid the urge within him for the unity of his inner life. And the result is the Quartets. If we take Four Quartets as a poem of unity, the very last line of the whole Quartets, "And the fire and rose are one," may be regarded as its key line. These seven words, according to Raymond Preston, mean that "divine love and human love meet." But Stephen Spender criticizes Four Quartets, protesting against its lack of "human love." His naive and genuine criticism commands the present writer's assent, but why do Eliot and Spender disagree here, when they agree in their recognition of the contemporary world as fragmentary? Accepting the suggestion of T. E. Hulme, the present writer concludes that in crossing the logical discontinuity from historical judgement to ethical attitude Spender supports the will to life and Eliot the will to death.
  • 篠田 一士
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 107-119
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    The most immediate way to gain the genuine poetic experience from reading Richard Crashwe's poems is, I think, to make oneself free from the fort of Barockstil which has been strenuously constructed by the students of Crashaw since half a century ago. This firm fort of study, often forces readers to undergo a barren experience in reading poetry. In Prof. Austin Warren's Richard Crashaw (1939), for instance, the unhistorical poetic experience under the influence of New Criticism is captured in the historical method. On the other hand, Prof. Mario Praz's analysis of the style of Crashaw's poem, "The Weeper" (The Flaming Heart) is far more revealing. Applying his profound knowledge in Marinismo, Prof. Praz is not confined in the knowledge itself, but anatomizes from the inside of "The Weeper". It is regrettable to say, however, that Prof. Praz's analysis often runs too dogmatic. It could be said that he is rather possessed by the aesthetics of "harmony" of Romanticist's. It is Prof. William Empson's analysis that showed the most exhilarating result of the poetic experience in reading "The Weeper" (Some Versions of Pastoral). He trusts in the consummate poetic world evoked from this poem far more than the analysis of himself. His explanations are, eccentric as they may seem sometimes, to be said that the imagination of a poet soars after the "winged" poetic world of Crashaw. In short, the most immediate way to approach the poetic experience in "The Weeper," which essentially contains Lisztesque variations, is to make variations of the reader's own.
  • 刈田 元司
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 121-125
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 中沼 了
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 125-129
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 本田 錦一郎
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 129-134
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 水田 巌
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 134-138
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 加納 秀夫
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 139-140
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 江川 泰一郎
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 140-142
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 村岡 勇
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 142-143
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 倉長 真
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 143-145
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 高野 フミ
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 145-146
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 谷口 陸男
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 146-147
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 生地 竹郎
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 147-148
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 相良 次郎
    原稿種別: 本文
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 148-149
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 文献目録等
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 150-156
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 157-164
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 164-167
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. 167-
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. App1-
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. App2-
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1958 年 35 巻 1 号 p. App3-
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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