英文学研究
Online ISSN : 2424-2136
Print ISSN : 0039-3649
ISSN-L : 0039-3649
36 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の33件中1~33を表示しています
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. Cover1-
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 目次
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. Toc1-
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • JOSEPH PRESCOTT
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 1-13
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 岸 英朗
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 15-30
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    Here I mean by 'imitation' such a type of poetry as Pope's Imitations of Horace and Johnson's London or The Vanity of Human Wishes, 'in which', as Johnson himself described, 'modern examples and illustrations are used for ancient, or domestick for foreign.' When we consider the aspects of eighteenth-century poetry in terms of 'Neoclassicism', it would be impossible to go without seeing a large part imitation played in it. Ever since Cowley and Denham poetry of this kind had come to be traditional. And in that age it reached its full growth. Though originally imitation was thought to be a kind of translation, it suggests creativeness rather than translation. Even in Dryden, who declared to use the method of paraphrase, and not that of imitation, there is a germ of the creative side of imitation. It is properly mentioned by some critics today about all the poetical works of Pope that he made them by imitating. He was inspired by the 'poetic fire' of the ancients. And this 'poetic fire' sustains the creative part of his imitation. This is, however, Pope's foible as well as his forte. Following Horace, Pope shows the very figure of himself, and always takes advantage of the effect which the original satire gave to the readers. Accordingly true appreciation of Imitations of Horace is confined to the circle of the readers who are acquainted with the original. Here Horace is in harmony with Pope's personal disposition. In such personal affinity Pope, as if he were another Horace, produced parallelism of style between his work and its original. In Human Wishes Johnson gives another pattern which is not to be expected from Pope. The work consists of his experiences completely transfigured into general experiences which always appeal to the common readers. We seldom find Johnson's self-expression in it. His achievement in imitation is on a level with the way of writing of his contemporaries, making effectual use of personification and generalization. Still remaining as one of the methods of translating, it is, at the same time, independent of its original. In reading this poem we may feel it is his original work, and not an imitation of Juvenal. Dryden, Pope and Johnson were aware that Latin literature is neo-classical as Greek literature is classical. The work of imitation in eighteenth century is a product on the background of such consciousness. Maturity of imitation leads to creativeness. Evidently this maturity appears in Pope and Johnson, in the form of objective correlative.
  • 中村 純男
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 31-45
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    In Tristram Shandy, Tristram as the narrator is endowed with many peculiarities and eccentricities of the author himself, as well as a sound judgement representing the rational viewpoint. Characters in the work also, more or less share something of the author's idiosyncrasies and fancies. And so it is natural that the peculiarity of the book should be regarded in the same light with that of the author Sterne, and that the book is concerned with personal feelings and sentiments provides A cause of its being treated as 'sentimental.' But how Sterne reveals himself in his work is in a somewhat complicated manner. In his letters he frequently speaks in the person of Tristram or Yorick, and avoids direct statements about himself. This attitude in his lettets holds good in Tristram Shandy, that is, Sterne reveals himself in his work to the same extent and in the same manner as he avoids revealing himself in his letters. Consequently, there is always a kind of detachment in the narrator from the sentiments of the characters, and Sterne is far from sentimental, and the characters thus handled are inevitably exaggerated only in their own peculiarities and obsessions, and are represented as eccentric. Sterne declares that he writes his characters from 'Hobby Horse,' which implies that he is not writing all the phases of a character: Sterne's character drawing is not of realism. The utter lack of mutual understanding between the eccentric worlds within which these eccentric characters confine themselves naturally brings about comical effects in their contact with each other. This sort of comical effects are those of a farce, and the eccentric characters, puppets, as it were, are befitting to making it of a farce. The position of Tristram the narrator corresponds to that of the chorus, or the commentator in the play, who introduces, explains, and moralizes this 'comedy of errors' performed on the stage. In the capacity of audience, the reader also participates in this theatre, for Tristram as the chorus frequently speaks directly to the reader, calling to him in various appellations from 'your worship' to 'my ignorant reader,' and now and then in delineation of an incident, he even suspends his narrative to insert dialogues between the narrator and the impatient and inquisitive reader. The fundamental mechanism of Tristram Shandy can be seen as of a puppet show, and its atmosphere and effects as of a farce. The detachment from the character's viewpoint, presentation of eccentric characters, contrast between different views of value,-these are also of the fundamental attitude of a satirist. In fact, Tristram Sbandy was a book of scathing satire in its original conception. But it is the characteristic quality of Sterne's satire that his way of handling the objects contributes more to producing comical effects than to the sardonic ridicule and derision.
  • 沢崎 順之助
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 47-62
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    Edwin Muir's imagery is of a quality which can readily be distinguished as his own; not so new and modern in any sense as that of his contemporary poets, it has, to borrow his words, "a stationary, timeless pattern". Every figure in his imagery, deprived of minor details, takes shape in bold outlines and stands for what is universal and eternal in itself. (Hence his frequent use of gods and heroes in old myths, who are always the same entities to us.) And the actual happenings of the time, even the two world wars he went through in his lifetime, are almost shut off from his imaginary world of poetry. Such characteristic pattern of imagery is not only confined to his poems but seems to have been the pattern of his looking at things in actual life, which can be traced back to his childhood when he saw his surroundings not as they were but as clear-cut images of life, as is told in his autobiography. (And such images turned out his dominant motive to be a poet.) Most of his everyday experiences were reduced to simple visions of mythical or fabulous origin, representing some aspect of man's life, and those which failed were not felt as real to him, as he said, nor could he realize what they were about. So frail and insignificant was his actual world, and so solid his vision; it made it seem to him like "a distant dream" in comparison. And almost all the time he stepped into the vision of his own creating, so that he came near to confusing both spheres of life. And the visionary world in which one is set free from time's confinement and one can "see life timelessly" was far more congenial to him than the actual.
  • 船戸 英夫
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 63-80
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    Edwin Muir is, like many other modern poets, obsessed by the theme of Time and Eternity, which is skillfully worked out in his poems by employing many popular Biblical stories as well as Greek myths, expressing the anxieties of the age and man's ambivalent attitude toward Eternity. This persistent pursuit of the fundamental gives a religious atmosphere to his poetry, accompanied by his wistfulness for the days of innocence among the idyllic scenes of the Orkney Islands, which are in his vision transformed into those of Eden. We come to recognize, therefore, that it is indispensable that we regard his poems in close relations to his childhood and the Biblical vision peculiar to him. Among his images a most recurring one is a road, partly because Muir has led a wandering life both spiritually and residentially, and partly because a white road running on the green hill in his native land has been deeply impressed upon his mind. So he considered our life as nothing but a journey, and even the commonest journey of men on some trivial errand transfigures itself into a pilgrimage to his eye. And in his mind's journey he goes back to the immemorial days exploring what we were before the Fall, aided by dreams and hallucinations in which our racial memory betrays itself out of the unconscious dark. In his later works, looking down on the time-ridden world from the Garden of Eden, he shows us what we are, presenting a marked contrast to what we should be. In this process of probing into the present and the past, he indicates the future-the Millennium in which 'the long-lost archaic friendship' between men and animals is to be restored; and, as a herald of the Millennium, an apocalyptic horse makes its appearance, Lsuggesting us the end of our journey and the place where we are. In addition to this, Muir's increasing stress is upon the close affinity between God and man. Accordingly, he continues to insist that the Fall of Adam is all the more significant, because every human being must experience the similar fall when he grows out of infancy and because 'realization of the Fall is a realization of a universal event'; and that Christ becomes all the more real as the Saviour, because he lived an ordinary man's life, suffering from all the mundane agonies, in spite of the fact that he is the Son of God. Muir does not acclaim God sonorously, but his solitary soul, while his body is ensnared in the labyrinth of Time, calmly praises Him and His works in all sincerity, hoping for the blissful tranquillity in which men and beasts shall enjoy a happy coexistence, bound together by natural piety. This integrity of purpose in his life and work makes us realize his poems as a coherent, organic whole, and besides, makes us imagine an innocent and faithful farmer in Muir who sows Light and Wisdom, and cultivate our minds with Poetry.
  • 宮本 陽吉
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 81-92
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    Feeling a curious intimacy, the hero of the Man with the Golden Arm decided to rescue a roach which fell into the slop bucket, but then he changed his mind. Later when he looked into the bucket again to take out the roach, he found it already drowned. ... This episode seems to symbolize the theme of Nelson Algren's two novels, Never Come Morning and The Man with the Golden Arm. The heroes and minor characters in these novels are always described as victims; they are deformed by the conditions beyond their power to change, as it is in the case in every naturalistic novels since Zola. Zola's naturalism was introduced into America by W. D. Howells in the early 1890's. Howells, however, did not take the naturalistic point of view in his works, but held fast to the genteel realism of Boston. First creator of a type of novel ruled by scientific law, was Frank Norris who was absorbed in reading Zola's novels in his college days. At the turn of this century a new kind of commerce animated Chicago, as the grain and livestock in near prairie states are funneled through Chicago to the East. Chicago made rapid development as a trading center of grain and livestock. Norris went there to write the second novel of The Epic of the Wheat; with this as a momentum many writers of social protest appeared in this city, and the naturalism still plays a fairly important part in Chicago writing. After the second World War, Nelson Algren may be regarded as the most typical successor of this trend. Of course, we find some differences between Nelson Algren and the early Chicago naturalists. First, the world of Algren's novels is far narrower and limited to a special society. Second, the heroes of his two novels retain human pride under any circumstance. ... In these differences, we find his theme is more personal and pessimistic than early Chicago naturalists. Algren got his colloquial style from the crowd of the new city in which he was born and brought up. He sometimes mentions Whitman and Carl Sandburg in his works ; this reminds us of the history of Chicago poetry, where the revival of free verse has been the most important element since the publication of Poetry: A Magazine of Verse. ... Algren's style too, is closely connected with Chicago. Considering these Algren's connection with Chicago, we find out that the experiments tried once in this city has been digested perfectly in his two novels.
  • 野崎 孝
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 93-108
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    In Death in the Afternoon Ernest Hemingway states that his literary objective is "to get the real thing, the sequence of motion and fact which made the emotion and which would be as valid in a year or in ten years, or, with luck and if you stated it purely enough, always." This would mean a poetic, or even symbolic prose aiming at a "fourth or fifth dimension," though Hemingway himself says "it is much more difficult than poetry." In such prose the important thing would be not explanatory intellect but an acute sensibility, not logical reasoning but an intuitive insight. Early aware of his own sensibility, early in boyhood having become convinced of the essential meaninglessness of life, Hemingway later experienced, during the war, a continuation of this clear vision of the unsatisfactory nature of existence. This negative vision of life, annulling all old values, he, with unsurpassed clarity, projected into his earlier stories and novels. Yet, strong points are often weak points turned inside out. After the young Americans ceased following the sophisticated ideal, and rather took part in the social reconstruction of the 1930's, Hemingway found his negative vision of the world entirely outside the new confines of American society. One of the reasons, certainly, was that Hemingway entirely lacked a social perspective. He detested "thinking to know" and relied solely upon sensibility-which was reflected in his failure to project an affirmative vision. His attitude is clearly revealed in his short address to the Second National Congress of American Writers, wherein he plainly stated his hatred of fascism. Yet one cannot help but find this hatred-as he expressed it-slightly childish; one cannot help doubting that he had any true understanding of its essential qualities. Upon looking back on A Farewell to Arms-often cited as his "masterpiece"-one cannot help but realise that it is a battlefield novel and not a war novel in any real sense of the word: and the reason is that Hemingway could not comprehend the enormously complicated activities of a whole society embattled-and this is one of the limitations under which all literature of sensibility must necessarily operate.
  • 野中 涼
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 109-125
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    William Faulkner wrote two of his major novels with the so-called 'stream of consciousness' method-The Sound and the Fury and As I Lay Dying; but what kind of results did they contribute, considering from the point of method, to the modern psychological school of novelists such as Joyce and Woolf? Faulkner, like other writers of stream-of-consciousness fiction, applied various techniques in his writing-inner monologue, free association, images and symbols, unity of time, etc.-to represent human consciousness in its acting features. Unlike other writers, however, he has some different peculiarities which may be reduced to two characteristics: (1) his two novels contain their closely intertwined substantial plots of stories, the thing that is lacking in all other stream-of-consciousness literature, and (2) both of his novels have accomplished a somewhat success in character-description by distinguishing the levels of awareness in conscious activities pertaining to each character, the thing that is failing in all other stream-of-consciousness fictions. Faulkner had started with the method of Henry James-the point of view-when he managed to present a plot though his 'point of view was the one far more developed from the first innovation, the consciousness depicted in its streaming activity. The Sound and the Fury tells, in spite of its extreme complexity in appearance, a pathetic story of declining: process of the Compson family from 4 viewpoints of consciousness. As I Lay Dying gives a tragi-comedy of the poor Bundren family by means of the consciousness of 15 characters as 15 points of view in narration. In addition, Faulkner describes the differences of every consciousness very subtly and realistically. Even at a slight perusal we can understand that he has discerned and caught differences of the levels on which the consciousness of the characters plays, varying from the lowest emotional perception of the idiot Benjy, insane Darl, little Vardaman to, the highest intellectual reasoning and fancying of Quentin or the settled. conventional thinking of wicked Jason, good Dilsey, simple-minded Anse Bundren. In short, he practised effectively what Joyce and Woolf had wished to do but not tried or had tried and failed halfway-their works were too much loaded with intentions and techniques to afford any care for making distinction of each mental life in a scientific psychological manner. Faulkner's two novels with the 'stream of consciousness' method, then, have to be considered as the significant works that contributed synthetic achievement of James and Joyce to the modern psychological novel and presented an example of one of the more promising ways to the new novel-writing had it been understood with due attention.
  • 吉田 正憲
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 127-131
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 阪田 勝三
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 131-136
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 岩田 昇
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 136-140
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 柏木 秀夫
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 141-146
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 安藤 正瑛
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 147-154
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 工藤 好美
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 155-156
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • A. James Herbert
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 157-159
    発行日: 1959/10/30
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  • 小池 滋
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 159-160
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 米田 一彦
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 160-162
    発行日: 1959/10/30
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  • 大沢 衛
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 162-163
    発行日: 1959/10/30
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  • 二宮 尊道
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 164-165
    発行日: 1959/10/30
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  • 原田 敬一
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 165-166
    発行日: 1959/10/30
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  • 羽柴 正市
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 167-168
    発行日: 1959/10/30
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  • 神津 東雄
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 168-169
    発行日: 1959/10/30
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  • 山川 喜久男
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 169-170
    発行日: 1959/10/30
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  • 酒向 誠
    原稿種別: 本文
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 170-172
    発行日: 1959/10/30
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  • 原稿種別: 文献目録等
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 173-180
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 181-194
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 194-211
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. 211-215
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. App1-
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. App2-
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1959 年 36 巻 1 号 p. App3-
    発行日: 1959/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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