英文学研究
Online ISSN : 2424-2136
Print ISSN : 0039-3649
ISSN-L : 0039-3649
37 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の29件中1~29を表示しています
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. Cover1-
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 目次
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. Toc1-
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 高柳 俊一
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 149-163
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 湯浅 信之
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 165-186
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 笹山 隆
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 187-200
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    Revenge is so vitally connected with the essence of Elizabethan tragedy that it can never be analyzed away as a mere theatrical device for sensationalism. The present paper is an attempt to see how in the works of each playwright revenge as an actional pattern was affected and modified by his vision of tragedy. The Biblical phrase "Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord." was ringing in popular ears; it was nothing less than an abominable sin of pride to anticipate the justice of God. Besides, in all the extant plays of Seneca, whose influence on contemporary tragedy was so potent, the revengers were always depicted as villains. From these circumstances came a line of villain-revenger plays from The Jew of Malta to The Cardinal. God's dictum against human revenge, however, also implied a commitment to divine vengeance. And if the heavenly justice be realized, not by supernatural means alone, but through the agency of man, it would not be impossible that an act of revenge should be justified, though the revenger himself must suffer death as the price of his sin. Thus a lawful revenger was often looked upon at once as a hero and a sinner. This was part of the mystery of the cosmic fate and was closely related to the ambiguity which exists in the core of tragedy. Already in The Spanish Tragedy we find the author confronted with the problem of how to deal with this paradox. By gradually adding the hero-revenger a Machiavellian aspect, Kyd deliberately cancelled the pity aroused for him and simplified the audience's response accordingly. Fletcher in his Valentinian went on this line so far as to disintegrate tragedy through a totally implausible transformation of the protagonist's character. Here as in many other tragedies by Fletcher or Shirley, revenge was linked up with such an ego-centric concept of honour that it had lost its universal ethical meaning. A Woman Killed with Kindness and The Atheist's Tragedy might be considered as potential revenge tragedies in which revenge is transcended either with the spirit of forgiveness or the absolute confidence in divine providence. In The Changeling the author seems to point out incisively that a sinful crime, regardless of the motive, must inevitably germinate a revenge upon the criminal himself. The characters in Women Beware Women and The Revenger's Tragedy inhabit the heart of darkness where various evils latent in human flesh devour each other in complicated plots of revenge and counter-revenge. Webster in his two great tragedies stood above easy moralization; for him revenge was an instrument with which to set off the vain absurdity of being and extol the glory of the human soul that boldly challenges it. Massinger tried to impress somewhat melodramatically the emptiness of self-righteous human justice, whereas Ford utilized revenge only as an aesthetic medium to sustain the pale icy glow of beautified suppressed passions. Chapman in The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois tackled philosophical problems of revenge, but failed to give unity to his tragedy through the obscurity of his own footing. In Hamlet, when we reflect upon the growing cognizance in the hero of the ubiquitous providence since the incident on the sea, it seems quite reasonable to see in his killing of Claudius not so much a consummation of the revenge which occupies his whole mind in the earlier acts as an instance of divine intervention. Such an interpretation makes way for Hamlet's salvation, and brings him nearer to the hero of Oresteia in his sacrificial role.
  • 川崎 寿彦
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 201-217
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    This study of Andrew Marvell's garden poems aims at a partial explanation of the poet's characteristic use of imagery, and his eventual abnegation of it in favour of more straightforward poetic language. Comparing Marvell's "The Garden," V with Ben Jonson's "To Penshurst," ll. 41-44, a subtle but radical difference is found in the imagery of those two verses which treat of the same subject: i.e., the plenitude and variety of garden fruit. Marvell's fruits seem, as it were, to have an inward propulsion and have a positive effect upon the beholder, while Jonson's remain sedate and serene. A close study of Marvell's garden poems in the light of the age-old traditions of European garden literature will reveal that he rejected the "Epicurean" garden for that of the Stoics. His garden was a place for peaceful and virtuous contemplation, and was fundamentally incompatible with the erotic passions of the traditional "jardin d'amour" on the one hand, and with war and antagonism on the other. And we must remember that war was actually being waged outside the garden of Lrod Fairfax's Nun Appleton House when the poet was an inmate there in 1651-52. Especially significant apropos of this thesis is the technique with which the poet expressed the qualities of his garden: he not only depicted its peace and beauty through straightforward images, but set forth its virtues by giving to them the subtle foil of heterogeneous ideas. Among them is the introduction of sexual passion as a foil to his own solitary bliss among trees and flowers, and of rebellion as a foil to the peaceful state of the garden. These ideas are delicately and ironically superimposed upon the main, straightforward imagery, so that the latter gathers force in the course of description. Lastly the Christian hortus conclusus will explain that peculiar inner propulsion of the fruits in Marvells' graden. The hortus, according to the tradition of medieval Christian Platonism, was a symbol of the Christian soul engaged in contemplation as well as the mise en scene of the contemplation. There God worked upon man and was worked upon by him through nature, and this traffic agitated the trees, flowers and fruits. It is possible that this conscious and complex eclecticism of traditional garden literature and of related images is akin to the "amalgamating" quality which T. S. Eliot found in metaphysical poets. But, perusing Marvell's poems, we perceive that this eclectic technique was employed by the poet to create an artificial peace, a sort of poetic "enclosed garden," within him. Marvell, while using the imagery of war and rebellion as technical foils to the peaceful state of the garden, was acutely conscious of the artificiality of his garden and, simultaneously, of his poetry; and was drawn toward what was more real, what was outside the walls of his garden. This ambivalence is disclosed in, e.g., "The Mower against Gardens," and also in his complex attitude toward Cromwell, who was in fact the cause of his patron's retirement to Nun Appleton, and who was obliquely referred to as a "mower" in some of his poems. It is significant, therefore, that Marvell, in his "Horatian Ode," depicted Cromwell's assumption of Puritan generalship by the image of a man's leaving the peace and seclusion of his private garden. Marvell himself renounced Fairfax's garden when he became tutor to a ward of Cromwell's and, subsequently, threw himself into the turbulent life of an active M.P. He never returned to his enclosed garden again; and his poetic pathway also led him gradually away from the "metaphysical" to a direction more explicitly logical, more "Augustan." If we limit ourselves to Marvell's garden poems, Eliot was right in his later and more reserved

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  • 由良 君美
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 219-235
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    The essay consists of four parts. After the preliminary remarks in the first part that the New Critics' belief in so-called Intentional Fallacy, if pushed to an extreme, tends to make them miss the root or the variety of the matter, and that their favourite method of Close Reading should also be applied to the documents of intention, the second part deals with the basis for the whole study. No official intention is revealed by the author himself about the Rime of the Ancient Mariner. The only exception may be sought in his much-discussed remarks in the Table Talk (31st May 1830) where his intention about the moral of the Rime indirectly disclosed. From J.L. Lowes through R.P. Warren down to Mr. Brett, every scholar has paid considerable attention to this. To my way of thinking, three points, however, seem to have been overlooked: the possibility of a) detecting closer connection of the whole Tale of the Merchant & the Genie with the Rime; b) finding deliberate implications in Coleridge's italics; c) reading between the lines his personal feeling against Mrs. Barbauld. These ponits are discussed successively. a) H. N. Coleridge, the editor of the Table Talk, misled nearly all the critics by abridging the Tale as if it were complete in itself as he quotes it in the foot note. But the Tale, considered in its entirety, unlike the abridged one, bears several analogies with the Rime, whose light may serve to illuminate his intention. The fact that: i) according to the abridged one, the Tale is nothing but a tale of compensation, whereas the whole Tale is that of compensation followed by that of redemption and reconciliation; ii) three old men play important role in the whole Tale, while none of them appears in the abridged one; iii) they confess respectively tales of man's transformation into animal; bears the close parallel to the Rime. Because: i) its main stress is laid not on compensation but on redemption and reconciliation following compensation; ii) as these three old men convert Genie's idea of revenge by telling their strange experiences, so the old navigator in the Rime do the same with the Wedding Guest; iii) where the Tale revolves round the three confessions of animal transformation, the Rime enfolds its mechanism with the very implicit symbolism of animal transformation at its centre, presenting Albatross as 'consubstantial' with the human. b) Coleridge's own italics (must, because) in his reply to Mrs. Barbauld hides a clue to surmise his intention. The gist of the 'must-because' may be called the legislative reason or the eye-for-eye logic, by which both the Rime and the Tale are half motivated. Here, what Polar Spirit to Albatross is what Genie to his Son. But Coleridge, regarding the 'must, because' as a mertinet's error, finds himself justified in giving the positive meaning to the final triumph of the higher Sacramental Love and reconciliation, a moral more true to life than the mere code of compensation. c) A perusal of newly edited Complete Letters of Coleridge will show that Mrs. Barbauld to whom he paid high respect earlier, has later fallen in his estimation, and at the lowest of his estimation the reply to her stricture was made. Furthermore, the moral lesson habit in her juvenile books caused serious dissatisfaction to him. What the tone of Coleridge's jocular retort suggests is that though both the Rime and the Tale are superficially the same moral tale of revenge (and in this sense the Rime seems to fall short of completeness), they are really the tales not of 'must, because', but of reconciliation and love through the mystery of animal transformation. In her excessive moral awareness, Mrs. Barbauld failed to perceive this. In the third part a brief exposition is given of the Rime's abrupt symbolic change from obsessive passivity to spontaneous activity. From the

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  • 池谷 彰
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 237-253
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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    In present-day English there are quite a number of suffixes which have their origin in OE or which have been derived directly or indirectly from French, Latin or Greek. These various kinds of suffixes have made the English vocabularies very rich by forming many derivative words. Thus it is evident that suffixes have played an important role in word formation. Concerning the derivational suffixes, there appeared a few treatises such as Koziol's Handbuch der englischen Wortbildungslehre or Jespersen's Modern English Grammar vol. VI. These linguists focused their attention mainly on the origin or meaning of suffixes, disregarding the formal description. With structural linguistics, on the other hand, the center of interests has been placed on the description of formal character of the derivational suffixes and a few fragmental literatures based on this methodology have been written by the linguists, but no exhaustive and systematic study has yet been presented. This paper, though I do not by any means claim to be a complete research, aims at making a descriptive statement of the morphological and functional characteristics of English derivational suffixes. In the introductory section a definition of such technical terms as 'base', 'stem', 'prefix' and 'derivational suffix' will be given in order to provide a starting point of the discussion. The forms of a suffix, needless to say, must be described in terms of their phonemic form, not in terms of their spelling. So, in section I, phonemic forms occurring in the word final or non-word final position will be stated. In the next suffix is appended. There are few derivational suffixes which cause some sorts of phonemic alternation or stress shift in the preceding base or stem. In the third section mention will be made of the type of alternation caused by such suffixes. In the foregoing two sections (sec. 2 & 3) I have made a description of a base, stem and a suffix quite irrespective of each other, so in section 4 a descriptive statement will be presented as to the interrelation of these two elements. In some cases several suffixes occur in succession after a base or a stem. The fifth section will deal with the interrelation of these suffixes appearing successively after a base or a stem and section six will be devoted to the statement as to how to make a description of the function of a suffix. In the last section which is added as an appendix, I will show, taking the suffix 'ity' as an example, how to describe English derivational suffixes, by closely following the statements which have been made thus far.
  • 桝井 迪夫
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 255-258
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 高村 新一
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 258-261
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 岡 照雄
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 262-264
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 濱田 政二郎
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 265-269
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 土方 辰三
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 270-271
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 清水 護
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 272-273
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 村岡 勇
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 273-275
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 吉田 正俊
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 275-277
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 福永 和利
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 277-279
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 大橋 健三郎
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 279-281
    発行日: 1961/03/25
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  • 刈田 元司
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 281-282
    発行日: 1961/03/25
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  • 吉田 弘重
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 282-284
    発行日: 1961/03/25
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 285-291
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 291-302
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 302-305
    発行日: 1961/03/25
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 305-
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 305-
    発行日: 1961/03/25
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  • 原稿種別: 文献目録等
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 306-
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. App1-
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. App2-
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1961 年 37 巻 2 号 p. App3-
    発行日: 1961/03/25
    公開日: 2017/04/10
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