Among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the association between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and renal function remains controversial. We therefore investigated this issue among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study included 687 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. BNP levels were divided at quartile points on the basis of the distribution. We used four outcomes regarding the renal function: 1) chronic kidney disease (CKD): estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60ml/min/1.72m2, 2) advanced CKD: eGFR < 30ml/min/1.72m2, 3) microalbuminuria: urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥ 30 mg/g creatinine, and 4) macroalbuminuria: UACR ≥ 300 mg/g creatinine. The prevalence values of CKD, advanced CKD, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria were 27.4％, 2.5%, 31.4%, and 9.3%, respectively. Highest BNP (≥ 39.2 ng/ml) was independently positively associated with microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria (adjusted ORs, 2.61 [95% CI: 1.53-4.49] and 3.45 [95% CI: 1.46-8.72], respectively). High BNP was not associated with advanced CKD or CKD. There was a statistically significant positive exposure-response relationships between the BNP level and advanced CKD, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria (p for trend = 0.047, 0.001, and 0.003, respectively). BNP level may be independently positively associated with advanced CKD, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria but not CKD in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The association between serum testosterone level and liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is unclear. To clarify this association, we investigated the relationship between serum free testosterone concentration and markers of liver fibrosis in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus but no obvious features of alcohol consumption. This retrospective observational cross-sectional study enrolled 248 men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The FIB-4 index was measured as a marker of liver fibrosis, and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine its association with serum free testosterone concentration. In addition, the 7S domain of type IV collagen (IV-7S) was examined in 140 of the 248 patients. The mean free testosterone concentration was 10.6 ± 6.8 pg/mL and the means of the FIB-4 index and IV-7S were 1.64 ± 1.19 and 4.02 ± 1.11 ng/mL, respectively. After adjusting for all relevant variables, serum free testosterone concentrations were inversely associated with both the FIB-4 index and IV-7S (β; -0.28, P < 0.0001, and β; -0.28, P = 0.002, respectively). Measuring serum free testosterone concentrations in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus may help to predict progression to advanced liver disease. Identifying patients at risk may help to prevent the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Thyroid cancer and Graves’ disease may present simultaneously in one patient. The incidence of the development of hyperthyroidism from metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma is rare. We herein report a case of metastatic follicular carcinoma complicated with Graves’ disease after total thyroidectomy. A 57-year-old woman underwent right hemithyroidectomy for follicular carcinoma. Metastatic lesions appeared in the lungs and skull two years after the first surgery, and remnant thyroidectomy was performed for radioactive iodine-131 (RAI) therapy, during which the TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) was found to be negative. The patient was treated with RAI therapy four times for four years and was receiving levothyroxine suppressive therapy. Although radioiodine uptake was observed in the lesions after the fourth course of RAI therapy, metastatic lesions had progressed. Four years after the second surgery, she had heart palpitations and tremors. Laboratory data revealed hyperthyroidism and positive TRAb. She was diagnosed with Graves’ disease and received a fifth course of RAI therapy. 131I scintigraphy after RAI therapy showed strong radioiodine uptake in the metastatic lesions. As a result, the sizes and numbers of metastatic lesions decreased, and thyroid function improved. Metastatic lesions produced thyroid hormone and caused hyperthyroidism. RAI therapy was effective for Graves’ disease and thyroid carcinoma.
Noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was reclassified as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). To date, no studies on NIFTP have been reported in Japan. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, cytological, and pathological findings of 54 cases of NIFTP from a single center in Japan, and compare them with those in the western countries. There were no significant differences in age, sex, or tumor size between patients with NIFTP and those with invasive encapsulated follicular variant -PTC. Ultrasound investigation showed a high suspicion lesion in 6.5% of NIFTP and 44.1% of invasive encapsulated follicular variant -PTC (p<0.001). On fine needle aspiration cytology, 75.7% of NIFTP cases were reported as suspicious for malignancy or malignant. Nuclear grooves and irregular-shaped nuclei were observed in 94.6% of cases of NIFTP. Pathologically, 27.8% cases of NIFTP and 13.0% cases of invasive encapsulated follicular variant -PTC had been originally diagnosed as macrofollicular variants of PTC. There were no NIFTP cases with nodal metastasis. We concluded that NIFTP should be renounced noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant -PTC, and should be considered as a malignant tumor with exceeding indolent behavior, and lobectomy alone should be satisfactory for the diagnosis and treatment.
Estrogen plays pivotal roles in body weight regulation through its effects on central estrogen receptor-α (ERα) expression. ERα is found on neurons that express the hypothalamic anorexigenic factors steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mediate these effects of estrogen. As the gonadal hormonal milieu is drastically altered during the developmental period, the expression levels of SF-1 and POMC might also change during this period. In this study, we showed that hypothalamic SF-1 and ERα mRNA expression did not change during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period (from postnatal day 10 to 30), and there were no significant differences in the hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of these molecules between males and females at any examined age. On the other hand, hypothalamic POMC mRNA expression and the serum estradiol (E2) level increased during development in both males and females. Significant positive correlations were detected between the serum E2 level and hypothalamic POMC mRNA expression in both males and females. Hypothalamic ERα and POMC mRNA expression were decreased by fasting in male rats at all examined ages, whereas fasting had no effect on hypothalamic ERα or POMC mRNA expression in the female rats. These results indicate that the regulatory system involving E2 and hypothalamic POMC expression might already be established in the neonatal period and that the roles of POMC and ERα in body weight regulation during development might differ slightly between males and females.
The efficacy and safety of once-weekly dulaglutide 0.75 mg (dulaglutide) compared with once-daily insulin glargine (glargine) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were evaluated according to subgroups stratified by baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (≤8.5% or >8.5%). This exploratory analysis of a randomized, open-label, phase 3 study included 361 patients. In both HbA1c subgroups (patients with baseline HbA1c ≤8.5% or >8.5%), a statistically significantly greater reduction in HbA1c was observed in dulaglutide-treated patients compared with glargine-treated patients after 26 weeks of treatment (HbA1c ≤8.5%: dulaglutide, -1.27%; glargine, -0.72%; HbA1c >8.5%: dulaglutide, -2.04%; glargine, -1.47%; p < 0.001 for both). Mean body weight was decreased from baseline in both subgroups of the dulaglutide group and increased in both subgroups of the glargine group; there were statistically significant differences between the treatment groups in both subgroups (p < 0.05 for both). In both subgroups, similar reductions in fasting blood glucose were observed for dulaglutide- and glargine-treated patients, and a greater reduction in postprandial blood glucose was observed for dulaglutide-treated patients compared with glargine-treated patients. Although dulaglutide increased gastrointestinal adverse events compared with glargine in both subgroups, all gastrointestinal events of diarrhea, nausea, constipation, and vomiting in dulaglutide-treated patients were mild in intensity and well tolerated. In both subgroups, there was a lower incidence of hypoglycemia with dulaglutide than with glargine. Dulaglutide demonstrated significantly greater HbA1c reduction compared with glargine, with an acceptable safety profile, regardless of baseline HbA1c.
Thyroid disease is known to be associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We investigated the prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH) or heritable PAH (HPAH), and the factors affecting the pathogenesis of thyroid disease. We retrospectively evaluated 59 patients with IPAH or HPAH who had been diagnosed with PAH before the age of 20 years. Thyrotoxicosis was detected in 12 of the 59 patients (6 patients with Graves’ disease, 3 with hashitoxicosis, and 3 with silent thyroiditis) after the start of PAH treatment. The proportion of patients who received epoprostenol in the thyrotoxicosis group was significantly higher than that in the euthyroid group (12/12 vs. 27/47, p=0.015). In the 39 patients treated with epoprostenol, the proportion of patients who received combination therapy with epoprostenol and an endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) in the thyrotoxicosis group was significantly lower than that in the euthyroid group (5/12 vs. 23/27, p=0.016). Logistic regression analysis revealed that thyrotoxicosis development was significantly associated with administration of epoprostenol (odds ratio [OR] 8.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-53.74, p=0.028) and non-administration of ERA (OR 5.33, 95% CI 1.29-22.06, p=0.021). The prevalence of thyrotoxicosis was high in patients with IPAH or HPAH. The onset of thyrotoxicosis might be promoted by epoprostenol and inhibited by ERA.
The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-B) in Korean adults with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study included 5,188 adults aged 20 or older using the 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data, which represents national data in Korea. A covariance test adjusted for covariates was performed for HOMA-IR and HOMA-B in relation to CKD. The present study has several key findings. First, in T2DM, HOMA-IR (p = 0.035) was higher in the CKD group than in the non-CKD group after adjusting for the related variables but HOMA-B (p = 0.141) was not significant. Second, in non-T2DM, HOMA-IR (p = 0.163) and HOMA-B (p = 0.658) were not associated with CKD after adjusting for the related variables (except age). However, when further adjusted for age, HOMA-IR (p = 0.020) and HOMA-B (p = 0.006) were higher in the CKD group than in the non-CKD group. In conclusion, insulin resistance was positively associated CKD with in Korean adults with or without T2DM. Beta cell function was positively associated CKD with in Korean adults without T2DM but not in Korean adults with T2DM.