Patients with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) are diagnosed in Japan by comprehensive or organ-specific diagnostic criteria. To date, organ-specific criteria have been established for several organs, but not for the thyroid. We attempted to establish diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related thyroid disease (IgG4-RTD) based on IgG4-RD research by The Research Program on Intractable Diseases from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. These criteria have been publicly reported to members of both the Japan Endocrine Society and the Japan Thyroid Association. Thyroid diseases associated with IgG4 include Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Graves’ disease and Riedel’s thyroiditis. As a comprehensive definition that includes both systematic and organ-specific forms, we use the broad term ‘IgG4-related thyroid disease’. Diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RTD comprise the following five items: I) enlargement of the thyroid, II) hypoechoic lesions in the thyroid by ultrasonography, III) elevated serum IgG4 levels, IV) histopathological findings in the thyroid lesion (IgG4+ plasma cells >20/HPF and IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cell ratio >30%) and V) involvement of other organs. “Definitive” diagnosis of IgG4-RTD is made when I, II, III and IV are all fulfilled, while “probable” diagnosis of IgG4-RTD is when I, II, and IV or V are fulfilled. Patients who fulfill I, II and III criteria are considered as “possible” IgG4-RTD. We believe that the proposed diagnostic criteria contribute to more accurate diagnosis of IgG4-RTD as well as exclusion of mimicry. Furthermore, they may lead to better understanding of the clinical implications and underlying pathogenesis of IgG4-RTD.
Recent studies have revealed that the administration of oxytocin has beneficial effects on the regulation of body weight, food intake, and metabolic functions, especially in obese individuals. Obesity is common in women after the menopause and drives many components of metabolic syndrome. Weight gain in menopausal women has been frequently reported. Although obesity and associated metabolic disorders are frequently observed in peri- and postmenopausal women, there are few medical interventions for these conditions. In this study, we evaluated the effects of chronic oxytocin administration on appetite, body weight, and fat mass in peri- and postmenopausal female rats. Sixteen naturally premenopausal or menopausal rats were intraperitoneally injected with oxytocin (1,000 μg/day) for 12 days. The daily changes in their body weight and food intake were measured at the same time as the oxytocin and vehicle injections. Intraperitoneally administering oxytocin for 12 days significantly reduced food intake, body weight, and visceral adipocyte size. In addition, oxytocin administration caused reductions in serum triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, while it did not disturb hepatic or renal functions or locomotor activity. This is the first study to show the effects of oxytocin on the metabolic and feeding functions of peri- and postmenopausal female rats. Oxytocin might be a useful treatment for metabolic disorders caused by the menopause or aging.
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in Japanese patients with hyponatremia secondary to syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). This multicenter, open-label, dose-escalation, phase III study enrolled Japanese patients (20–85 years old) with hyponatremia secondary to SIADH who were unresponsive to fluid restriction. Oral tolvaptan was administered for up to 30 days, initially at 7.5 mg/day, but escalated daily as necessary, based on the serum sodium concentration and safety, over the first 10 days until the optimal maintenance dose was determined for each patient (maximum 60 mg/day). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with normalized serum sodium concentration on the day after the final tolvaptan dose. Secondary endpoints included the mean change in serum sodium concentration from baseline on the day after the final dose. Sixteen patients (male, 81.3%; mean ± standard deviation age 71.9 ± 6.1 years) received tolvaptan treatment and 11 patients completed the study with one patient re-administered tolvaptan in the treatment period. Serum sodium concentrations normalized in 13 of 16 (81.3%) patients on the day after the final tolvaptan dose. The mean change in serum sodium concentration from baseline on the day after the final dose was 11.0 ± 4.3 mEq/L. Adverse events considered related to tolvaptan (10 [62.5%] patients) were generally of mild to moderate severity. Oral tolvaptan corrects hyponatremia in Japanese patients with SIADH with a similar efficacy and safety profile as that noted in non-Japanese patients.
Recently, chronic hyponatremia, even mild, has shown to be associated with poor quality of life and high mortality. The mechanism by which hyponatremia contributes to those symptoms, however, remains to be elucidated. Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is a primary cause of hyponatremia. Appropriate animal models are crucial for investigating the pathophysiology of SIADH. A rat model of SIADH has been generally used and mouse models have been rarely used. In this study, we developed a mouse model of chronic SIADH in which stable and sustained hyponatremia occurred after 3-week continuous infusion of the vasopressin V2 receptor agonist 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP) and liquid diet feeding to produce chronic water loading. Weight gain in chronic SIADH mice at week 2 and 3 after starting dDAVP injection was similar to that of control mice, suggesting that the animals adapted to chronic hyponatremia and grew up normally. AQP2 expression in the kidney, which reflects the renal action of vasopressin, was decreased in dDAVP-infused water-loaded mice as compared with control mice that received the same dDAVP infusion but were fed pelleted chow. These results suggest that “vasopressin escape” occurred, which is an important process for limiting potentially fatal severe hyponatremia. Behavioral analyses using the contextual and cued fear conditioning test and T-maze test demonstrated cognitive impairment, especially working memory impairment, in chronic SIADH mice, which was partially restored after correcting hyponatremia. Our results suggest that vasopressin escape occurred in chronic SIADH mice and that chronic hyponatremia contributed to their memory impairment.
Captopril challenge test (CCT) is a simple and safe confirmatory test for primary aldosteronism (PA). We investigated the effectiveness of the indices after captopril administration for prediction of unilateral hyperaldosteronism (UHA) on adrenal vein sampling (AVS). We studied 238 patients with PA who had CCT and successful AVS between July 2007 and December 2019 in Sapporo City General Hospital. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the diagnostic performance for prediction of UHA on AVS in regard to the reduction rate of plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) after captopril administration was inferior to aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) and PAC (area under the ROC curve 0.72 vs. 0.84, 0.72 vs. 0.89, respectively, both p < 0.01). Based on the optimal cut-off values in ARR (897 pg/mL/ng/mL/h, sensitivity 64.6%, specificity 93.0%) and PAC (203 pg/mL, sensitivity 73.9%, specificity 93.0%) after captopril administration, the patients were divided into three groups: (1) both positive, (2) one positive, and (3) both negative. The prevalence of UHA on AVS in the three groups were 90.0%, 52.9%, and 7.3%, respectively. In the first group, 31 of 32 patients with unilateral nodular lesion on CT had an ipsilateral unilateral AVS. In conclusion, the combination of post-captopril ARR and PAC is useful for prediction of laterality diagnosis on AVS. AVS is strongly recommended in patients with both positive or one positive results for the optimal cut-off values of post-captopril ARR and PAC and is weakly recommended in patients with both negative results.
Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the adult body and plays an essential role in maintaining heat production for the entire body. Recently, muscle-derived non-shivering thermogenesis under cold conditions has received much attention. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is an adipokine that was shown to influence energy metabolism in the adipose tissue. We used ZAG knock-out (ZAG KO) and wild-type (WT) mice to investigate the effect of ZAG on the lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle upon exposure to a low temperature (6°C) for one week. The results show that cold stress significantly increases the level of lipolysis, energy metabolism, and fat browning-related proteins in the gastrocnemius muscle of WT mice. In contrast, ZAG KO mice did not show any corresponding changes. Increased expression of β3-adrenoceptor (β3-AR) and protein kinase A (PKA) might be involved in the ZAG pathway in mice exposed cold stress. Furthermore, expression of lipolysis-related proteins (ATGL and p-HSL) and energy metabolism-related protein (PGC1α, UCP2, UCP3 and COX1) was significantly enhanced in ZAG KO mice after injection of ZAG-recombinant plasmids. These results indicate that ZAG promotes lipid-related metabolism in the skeletal muscle when the animals are exposed to low temperatures. This finding provides a promising target for the development of new therapeutic approaches to improve skeletal muscle energy metabolism.
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rarely occurring refractory disease. While recent clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for ATC, evidence is scarce in clinical practice. In this study, we reviewed our initial experiences with TKI treatment in ATC patients with the aim of revealing the efficacy and safety of the same in clinical practice. We retrospectively reviewed our experiences with TKI treatment use in ATC patients diagnosed at our institute from 2014 to 2019. Changes in the patients’ neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) by TKI therapy introduction as well as their clinical factors to indicate the efficacy were examined. Seven patients showed no indication for TKI treatment, while 13 (65%) received treatment. The median duration of TKI treatment was 1.9 months. All patients died, and the overall survival period from diagnosis was 4.7 (95% confidence interval: 2.0–11.5) months. Adverse events ≥Grade 3 were observed commonly (92.3%), and resulted in the termination of TKI treatment in six cases (46.1%). Existence of multiple unfavorable characteristics (higher Prognostic Index) was associated with poor survival. The NLR decreased after the introduction of TKIs and increased again when treatment failed. The response rate to TKI among the ATC patients were approximately 30% in practice. Although the duration of the response was short, several patients demonstrated long survival durations when TKI treatment was provided after successful multidisciplinary treatment to control local disease. Decreases in high NLR values during treatment may suggest the continued effect of TKIs.
Using the data from the trial of Metformin and AcaRbose in Chinese as the initial Hypoglycemic treatment (MARCH), this study was performed to compare the differential effects of acarbose and metformin on glucose metabolism after stratification by gender. Six hundred and forty patients who had finished the whole 48-week follow-up were included. The reduction of haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was comparable between acarbose- and metformin-treated patients among either females or males, and it was also similar between males and females treated with either acarbose or metformin for 24 and 48 weeks. The dropping of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in acarbose-treated females was significantly less than that in metformin-treated females at both 24 and 48 weeks. Furthermore, the decrease of 2-hour postprandial glucose (2hPPG) in acarbose-treated males was significantly greater than that in metformin-treated males at both 24 and 48 weeks. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that drug selection was an independent factor affecting the decrease of FPG in female patients while it independently influenced 2hPPG in males at week 24 and 48. The reductions of FPG and 2hPPG at week 24 and 48 were also significantly different between metformin-treated females and metformin-treated males although gender was not an independent regulating factor. Our study indicates that there might be gender-differential effects on FPG and 2hPPG reduction when the comparisons are made between acarbose and metformin treatments.
Metastatic paraganglioma (MPG) of the spine is a rare condition, with no established management. Herein, we report the longest survival case of a primary neck tumor that caused spinal MPG with a succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) mutation (c.470delT, p.L157X) which could have promoted its malignancy. This male patient initially presented with a left neck PG which was diagnosed by a biopsy when he was 54 years-old. Simultaneously performed additional examinations revealed the spinal metastatic tumors on the T5-7 vertebrae and L3 vertebra-sacrum. These primary neck and metastatic spinal tumors’ growths were once suppressed under the radiation therapy. Nineteen years later, he developed acute progressive paraparesis due to a mass located at the T2-3 level, tightly compressing the spinal cord, and protruding into the left thoracic cavity. We resected the maximum possible area of tumor in the spinal canal, confirmed MPG by histological examination, and then, we administered radiation therapy of 40 Gy in 20 fractions. Eventually, the patient was able to walk unaided with no evidential tumor recurrence for 3 years after treatment. Generally, clinical feature of MPG with SDHB mutation from abdominal lesion is thought to be poor prognosis. However, our case suggests the possibility of long-term control of spinal MPG with the adequate combination of radiation therapy and resection if metastatic lesions from primary-neck lesion with an SDHB mutation are remained to spine.
Quality of life (QoL) typically improves with a parathyroidectomy (PTx) in cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), but the effect of surgery on QoL is not yet fully understood. This study evaluated the impact of PTx on health-related QoL (HRQoL). Patients who underwent PTx for PHPT between January 2016 and December 2019 were asked to complete the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Primary Hyperparathyroidism Quality of Life (PHPQoL) questionnaire before surgery and 1 year later. A 5-point Likert scale was used: negative responses received a lower score and positive responses scored high. Forty-one of 50 patients completed the questionnaires before and 12 months after the surgery. The median patient age was 64 years (min–max: 32–83 years). In the study group, 33 were female, and 8 were male. The SF-36 results indicated that significant improvements had been observed in all 8 domains a year after surgery, particularly in the physical functioning and role, general health, energy, and mental health scales. The PHPQoL scores also improved significantly after PTx (p < 0.05). The improvement in the physical and mental health components was 50% and 76%, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that PTx for PHPT improved QoL.
Japanese Americans living in the United States are genetically identical to Japanese people, but have undergone a rapid and intense westernization of their lifestyle. This study investigated variability in glucagon secretion after glucose loading among Japanese Americans with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) according to obesity status. The 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed for 138 Japanese Americans (aged 40–75 years) living in Los Angeles. Plasma glucagon levels measured using the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were compared according to body mass index (BMI) categories among 119 individuals with NGT. The individuals were classified into three categories according to their BMI values: <22 kg/m2 (n = 37), 22–24.9 kg/m2 (n = 46), and ≥25 kg/m2 (n = 36). Fasting plasma glucagon levels and glucagon-area under the curve levels during the OGTT were the highest in the BMI ≥25 kg/m2 group. Fasting glucagon levels were correlated with BMI (r = 0.399, p < 0.001), fasting insulin levels (r = 0.275, p = 0.003) and the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (r = 0.262, p = 0.004). In conclusion, our findings suggest that fasting hyperglucagonemia is associated with obesity and insulin resistance even during the NGT stage in the Japanese American population.
Acromegaly is characterized by autonomous excessive growth hormone (GH) secretion, generally due to GH-producing pituitary adenoma, and is associated with various systemic comorbidities including diabetes mellitus. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in the kidneys that deteriorate renal function. While possible renal effects of excessive GH exposure have been a current issue in experimental medicine, only five cases of coexisting acromegaly and PKD have been reported previously, and little is known regarding the influence of acromegaly on renal disease. We treated a 50-year-old male with diabetes mellitus who showed a sudden and rapid decline of renal function along with increasing proteinuria, which led to diagnoses of PKD and acromegaly. His urinary protein levels were increased together with excessive GH secretion and worsening glycemic control. An increase of total kidney volume was also noted. Transsphenoidal surgery for the pituitary adenoma was successfully performed. Marked improvement of hyperglycemia and proteinuria were observed after the surgery, but renal function was unchanged. The patient’s clinical course suggested common aspects of excessive GH secretion as an accelerating factor of the progression of diabetic nephropathy and PKD via direct and indirect pathways. Although coexisting acromegaly and PKD is clinically rare, vigilance for early diagnosis of acromegaly is appropriate in patients with diabetes and/or PKD, especially in those showing unexpected exacerbation of renal dysfunction.
SHORT syndrome is a rare developmental disorder frequently associated with growth failure and insulin resistant diabetes mellitus (IRDM). Since GH has a diabetogenic effect, GH therapy has been regarded as a contraindication. We observed a Brazilian girl with SHORT syndrome who received GH therapy from 4 6/12 years of age for SGA short stature. GH dosage was increased from 0.23 to 0.36 mg/kg/week, but statural response to GH therapy remained poor. Her blood HbA1c level, though it remained 5.5–6.0% in childhood, began to elevate with puberty and increased to 9.2% at 10 6/12 years of age, despite the discontinuation of GH therapy at 9 11/12 years of age. Laboratory studies indicated antibody-negative IRDM. She was treated with metformin and canagliflozin (a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor), which ameliorated overt diurnal hyperglycemia and mild nocturnal hypoglycemia and reduced her blood HbA1c around 7%. Whole exome sequencing revealed a de novo heterozygous pathogenic variant (c.1945C>T:p.(Arg649Trp)) in PIK3R1 known as the sole causative gene for SHORT syndrome. Subsequent literature review for patients with molecularly confirmed SHORT syndrome revealed the development of IRDM in 10 of 15 GH-untreated patients aged ≥12 years but in none of three GH-treated and six GH-untreated patients aged ≤10 years. These findings imply a critical role of pubertal development and/or advanced age rather than GH therapy in the development of IRDM, and a usefulness of SGLT2 inhibitor in the treatment of IRDM.
Idiopathic hypothalamitis is a rare condition that can cause anterior pituitary dysfunction and central diabetes insipidus (CDI), occasionally accompanied by a disturbance of autonomic regulation known as hypothalamic syndrome. This condition has been described as a subtype of autoimmune (lymphocytic) hypophysitis; however, some cases of isolated hypothalamic involvement with no inflammatory lesions in either the pituitary gland or infundibulum have been reported. The detailed epidemiology and pathophysiology of isolated hypothalamitis have not been clarified. We herein report a case of a solitary hypothalamic lesion in a young woman who showed spontaneous development of CDI and panhypopituitarism accompanied by hyperphagia. The hypothalamic lesion increased from 11 × 7 to 17 × 7 mm over 16 months based on the sagittal slices of magnetic resonance imaging examinations. The negative results for anti-pituitary antibodies and anti-Rabphilin-3A antibodies suggested that upward extension of lymphocytic adenohypophysitis or infundibulo-neurohypophysitis was unlikely. Infectious disease, granulomatosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, vasculitis, and systemic neoplastic diseases were excluded by the findings of a laboratory investigation, cerebrospinal fluid examination, and imaging studies. To make a definitive diagnosis, we performed a ventriculoscopic biopsy of the hypothalamic lesion. Histology revealed an infiltration of nonspecific lymphoplasmacytes with no evidence of neoplasm, which was consistent with a diagnosis of idiopathic hypothalamitis. Subsequently, the patient was treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by oral prednisolone. The hypothalamic lesion improved and remained undetectable after withdrawal of the prednisolone, suggesting that the glucocorticoid treatment was effective for isolated hypothalamitis while the patient remains dependent on the replacement of multiple hormones.