Endocrine Journal
Online ISSN : 1348-4540
Print ISSN : 0918-8959
ISSN-L : 0918-8959
早期公開論文
早期公開論文の63件中1~50を表示しています
  • Mingqun Li, Yuqin Huang, Hongli Xi, Wei Zhang, Ziwu Xiang, Lingyun Wan ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0528
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a health risk for pregnant women and infants. Emerging evidence suggests that the deregulation of circular RNAs (circRNAs) is associated with the progression of this disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of circ_FOXP1 in GDM. Cell models of GDM were established by treating human trophoblast cells with high glucose (HG). The expression of circ_FOXP1, miR-508-3p and SMAD family member 2 (SMAD2) mRNA was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Cell proliferation was assessed by EdU assay and MTT assay, and cell cycle and cell apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry assay. The protein levels of proliferation- and apoptosis-related markers and SMAD2 were measured by western blot. The relationship between miR-508-3p and circ_FOXP1 or SMAD2 was validated by dual-luciferase reporter assay or pull-down assay. The expression of circ_FOXP1 was downregulated in HG-treated HTR-8/SVneo cells. Circ_FOXP1 overexpression promoted HG-inhibited HTR-8/SVneo cell proliferation and suppressed HG-induced HTR-8/SVneo cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Circ_FOXP1 positively regulated the expression of SMAD2 by targeting miR-508-3p. MiR-508-3p was overexpressed in HG-treated HTR-8/SVneo cells, and its overexpression reversed the effects of circ_FOXP1 overexpression. MiR-508-3p inhibition also alleviated HG-induced HTR-8/SVneo cell injuries, while the knockdown of SMAD2 abolished these effects. Collectively, circ_FOXP1 promotes the growth and survival of HG-treated human trophoblast cells through the miR-508-3p/SMAD2 pathway, hinting that circ_FOXP1 was involved in GDM progression.

  • Yu-Ting Sun, Jun-Hong Cai, Shan Bao
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0653
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    HCP5 has been reported to be downregulated in ovarian granulosa cells (OGCs) and to facilitate cell proliferation. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell exosome (hucMSCs-exo) treatment can prevent OGCs apoptosis in vitro. However, the functional mechanism of HCP5 and hucMSCs-exo requires further exploration. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was performed to measure the expression of markers related to hucMSCs. The osteogenic and adipogenic potential of hucMSCs was measured by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Alizarin red and by oil red-O staining, respectively. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT–qPCR) and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, colony formation assay and flow cytometry. The interaction of HCP5/musashi RNA-binding protein 2 (MSI2) and oestrogen receptor alpha 1 (ESR1) mRNA was analysed using RNA pulldown and RIP assays. HucMSCs and exosomes were successfully isolated and identified. HucMSC-derived exosomes promoted the proliferation of OGCs and ESR1 expression and inhibited cell apoptosis. HCP5 overexpression in exosomes further enhanced these effects. MSI2 knockdown led to the opposite results. HCP5 targeted MSI2, and MSI2 knockdown reduced the decreases in HCP5 and ESR1 expression. Mechanistically, HCP5 in HucMSC-derived exosomes promoted ESR1 expression by binding to MSI2, which promoted the proliferation of OGCs.

  • Yasuhiro Ito, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Hiroo Masuoka, Takuya Higashiyama, ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ22-0077
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) into three categories: minimally invasive (mFTC), encapsulated angioinvasive (eaFTC), and widely invasive (wFTC). This study investigated whether this classification is appropriate. We enrolled 523 patients who underwent initial surgery at Kuma Hospital between 1998 and 2015 and were diagnosed with FTC. Capsular invasion (CI) was classified as none, minimal (microscopic), or wide (macroscopic) invasion. Vascular invasion (VI) was divided according to the number of invasive foci into three degrees: VI(–), VI(1+), and VI(2+). For 507 M0 patients, age ≥55 years (p = 0.004), non-oxyphilic histology (p = 0.043), and male sex (p < 0.001) predicted poor distant recurrence-free survival (DR-FS) on univariate analysis; however, tumor size >4 cm and wide CI did not. The DR-FS rates significantly decreased from VI(–) to VI(2+) in a step-by-step fashion, including VI(–) vs. VI(1+) (p = 0.011) and VI(1+) vs. VI(2+) (p = 0.014). Multivariate analysis revealed that older age (p = 0.0004), non-oxyphilic histology (p = 0.041), male sex (p = 0.0052), VI(1+) (p = 0.017), and VI(2+) (p < 0.001) independently predicted distant recurrence. The DR-FS rates did not significantly differ among mFTC, wFTC/VI(–), and eaFTC/VI(1+). The DR-FS rate of eaFTC/VI(2+) was worse than that of eaFTC/VI(1+) (p = 0.042), but did not differ from that of wFTC/VI(1+/2+). Our findings suggest that subclassifying eaFTC according to the degree of VI and restricting wFTC to VI-positive cases would be better in the WHO classification. Revising the definition for wide CI is recommended.

  • Naruhiko Sunada, Hiroyuki Honda, Yasuhiro Nakano, Koichiro Yamamoto, K ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ22-0093
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/28
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Symptoms of long COVID are complex and long-lasting, and endocrine dysfunction might be involved in the underlying mechanisms. In this study, to clarify the hormonal characteristics of long COVID patients, laboratory data for patients who visited the outpatient clinic for long COVID were evaluated. A retrospective analysis was performed for patients who visited Okayama University Hospital during the period from Feb 2021 to Dec 2021 with focus on the interrelationships between major symptoms and endocrine data. Information and laboratory data were obtained from medical records for 186 patients. The patients had various symptoms, and the most frequent symptoms were general malaise, dysosmia/dysgeusia, hair loss, headache, dyspnea, and sleeplessness. Patients who were suffering from fatigue and dysosmia/dysgeusia were younger, while hair loss was more frequent in older and female patients. As for the characteristics of patients suffering from general fatigue, the scores of depression and fatigue were positively correlated with serum levels of cortisol and free thyroxin (FT4), respectively. Also, patients suffering from general fatigue had lower levels of serum growth hormone and higher levels of serum FT4, while patients with dysosmia/dysgeusia had a significantly lower level of serum cortisol. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels were higher and the ratios of FT4/TSH were lower in the initially severe cases, suggesting occult hypothyroidism. In addition, the ratios of plasma adrenocorticotropin to serum cortisol were decreased in patients with relatively high titers of serum SARS-CoV-2 antibody. Thus, hormonal changes seem to be, at least in part, involved in the persistent symptoms of long COVID.

  • Atsushi Yokoyama, Susumu Suzuki, Koji Okamoto, Akira Sugawara
    原稿種別: State-of-the-Art Review in Endocrinology
    論文ID: EJ22-0083
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Glucose is not only the energy fuel for most cells, but also the signaling molecule which affects gene expression via carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), a Mondo family transcription factor. In response to high glucose conditions, ChREBP regulates glycolytic and lipogenic genes by binding to carbohydrate response elements (ChoRE) in the regulatory region of its target genes, thus elucidating the role of ChREBP for converting excessively ingested carbohydrates to fatty acids as an energy storage in lipogenic tissues such as the liver and adipose tissue. While the pathophysiological roles of ChREBP for fatty liver and obesity in these tissues are well known, much of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of ChREBP in other tissues such as the kidney remains unclear despite its high levels of expression in them. This review will thus highlight the roles of ChREBP in the kidney and briefly introduce the latest research results that have been reported so far.

  • Mari Anno, Shoichiro Izawa, Yohei Fujioka, Kazuhiko Matsuzawa, Kohei S ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0611
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/23
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant disease related to germline mutations in VHL. In VHL disease, pheochromocytoma develops in 10%–20% of patients because of germline mutations and loss of heterozygosity of VHL. However, the rate of paraganglioma associated with VHL is low compared with that of pheochromocytoma, and the reason is unknown. In this study, we performed germline and somatic mutation analyses of retroperitoneal paraganglioma that developed in a patient with clinically diagnosed VHL disease and investigated the tumorigenic mechanism of paraganglioma. The patient was a 25-year-old woman who was considered to have VHL disease on the basis of her family history. She was referred to our clinic to investigate a tumor at the bifurcation of the common iliac artery. The tumor was diagnosed as retroperitoneal paraganglioma by clinical evaluations. A left renal cell carcinoma was also suspected. Polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing analysis and polymorphic microsatellite analysis within the VHL locus suggested that loss of heterozygosity of VHL was associated with paraganglioma and renal cell carcinoma. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis showed a loss of the copy number of VHL exons in paraganglioma. These results suggest that VHL disease contributes to the development of paraganglioma. A literature review showed no reported common missense variants involved in the progression of paraganglioma. The loss of heterozygosity of VHL can be a tumorigenic mechanism of retroperitoneal paraganglioma in VHL disease. However, the low rate of paraganglioma compared with pheochromocytoma is not explained by their genetic background alone.

  • Tao Long, Jin-ting Lin, Min-hua Lin, Qian-long Wu, Jian-mei Lai, Sheng ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0692
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/15
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Recent studies have found compared with insulin glargine (IGlar), insulin degludec/aspart (IDeg/Asp) may provide adequate glycemic control and prevent hypoglycemia events in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Consequently, we performed a meta-analysis to appraise and compare the efficiency and safety of IDeg/Asp and IGlar in the treatment of T2DM. We sought the databases including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane library to confirm related articles which inspected the effect of IDeg/Asp versus IGlar for the treatment of T2DM until May 2021. Finally, six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of 1,346 patients were included. The results showed that IDeg/Asp significantly decreased the mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level but was prone to serious adverse events, and IGlar increased the nocturnal confirmed hypoglycemia events. Besides, there were no significant changes in other indicators, including mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level, nine-point self-measured plasma glucose (SMPG) level, and adverse events. What’s more, we found that there was no significant difference in the occurrence of hypoglycemia overall, but our subgroup analysis of confirmed hypoglycemia revealed the population in this subgroup (duration of diabetes ≤11 years) might has its particularity effecting the hypoglycemia outcome. Concerning efficiency, IDeg/Asp may have advantages in controlling the mean HbA1c level. Regarding safety, IGlar might increase the risk of nocturnal confirmed hypoglycemia. Further evidence is needed to compare better the efficiency and safety of IDeg/Asp versus IGlar therapy.

  • Yasuhiro Ito, Akira Miyauchi, Makoto Fujishima, Hiroo Masuoka, Takuya ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ22-0056
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/15
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Older age is recognized as a predictor of poor prognosis in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients. However, young age is associated with disease progression of PTC measuring 1 cm or smaller in patients on active surveillance. In this study, we investigated the relationship between patient age and prognosis of PTC belonging to very low-, low-, and intermediate-risk groups based on the guidelines published by the Japan Association of Endocrine Surgery in 2018. We enrolled 4,870 PTC patients with no high-risk features and assigned each to one of three categories: very low risk (N = 1,161), low risk (N = 1,746), and intermediate risk (N = 1,963). In very low-risk patients, the local recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate of young patients (<55 years) was significantly worse (p = 0.0437) than that of older patients (≥55 years). In low-risk patients, although age did not affect local recurrence, older patients were more likely to show distant recurrence on univariate (p = 0.0005) and multivariate analyses (p = 0.0017). In the intermediate-risk series, the local RFS rate of older patients tended to be poor (p = 0.0538), and older age was significantly associated with distant RFS (univariate, p = 0.0356; multivariate, p = 0.0439) and carcinoma death (univariate, p < 0.0001; multivariate, not done because of no other suitable factors). The prognostic significance of patient age depends on risk classification: younger age significantly predicts local recurrence in very low-risk PTC, while older age predicts worse prognosis in low- and intermediate-risk patients. These findings indicate that young age is related to rapid growth in early-phase PTC.

  • Akinobu Nakamura
    原稿種別: Review
    論文ID: EJ21-0742
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/13
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    I investigated mouse models to elucidate the pathophysiology and to establish a new treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes, with a particular focus on glucokinase. The decrease in pancreatic beta-cell function and mass are important factors in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. My group have shown that glucokinase plays an important role in high-fat diet-induced and high-starch diet-induced beta-cell expansion. The findings indicated that the mechanism of short-term high-fat diet-induced beta-cell proliferation involved a glucokinase-independent pathway, suggesting that there are different pathways and mechanisms in the proliferation of pancreatic beta-cells during short-term versus long-term high-fat diets. Because enhancement of glucose signals via glucokinase is important for beta-cell proliferation, it was thought that beta-cell mass would be increased and insulin secretion would be maintained by glucokinase activators. However, sub-chronic administration of a glucokinase activator in db/db mice produced an unsustained hypoglycemic effect and promoted hepatic fat accumulation without changes in beta-cell function and mass. In contrast, my group have shown that inactivating glucokinase in beta-cells prevented beta-cell failure and led to an improvement in glucose tolerance in db/db mice. Regulation of glucokinase activity has an influence on the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and can be one of the therapeutic targets.

  • Masahiko Kaneko, Kentarou Ohara, Hisaharu Shikata
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0720
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/09
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Myxedema coma is a life-threatening endocrine emergency with a high mortality rate resulting from severe insufficiency of thyroid hormones. Intravenous levothyroxine replacement is considered the standard therapy for myxedema coma in many countries. In Japan, however, although there are diagnostic criteria highly suggestive or diagnostic for myxedema coma, no management strategy has been established, despite the availability of levothyroxine. Here we report a 75-year-old man with a history of Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia who developed somnolence and generalized edema. Except for a pulse rate of 60 bpm, his vital signs and blood oxygen level were stable. Thyroid studies showed an elevated serum thyrotropin level of 219.2 μU/mL and a decreased serum free-thyroxine level of 0.15 ng/dL. On this basis he was diagnosed as having hypothyroidism rather than being highly suggestive for myxedema coma. Daily oral levothyroxine 25 μg was initiated and increased to 50 μg 3 days later. Seven days after being started on levothyroxine, the patient suddenly developed impaired consciousness, hypoxemia, hypotension, hypothermia, and hyponatremia. Electrocardiography revealed junctional bradycardia with Osborne J-wave. Myxedema coma was therefore diagnosed. He went into cardiac arrest in the emergency room but was resuscitated. Despite subsequent intravenous administration of hydrocortisone and levothyroxine, as well as intensive supportive care, he eventually died 12 hours after hospital admission. This case illustrates some of the challenges associated with the management of patients with signs highly suggestive/diagnostic of myxedema coma, including the optimal loading dosage and intervention timing of thyroid hormone replacement.

  • Sandra Pekic, Marko Stojanovic, Emilija Manojlovic Gacic, Darko Antic, ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0790
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Hematological neoplastic mass lesions of the sellar region are rare. We identified five cases of hematological malignancy with first presentation in the sellar region from our departmental database of 1,405 patients (0.36%) with sellar lesions diagnosed over the 17-year period (2005–2021). All patients were females (mean age 55.2 ± 3.4 years). One patient had multiple myeloma (MM), one patient had acute myeloid leukemia (AML), while three other patients had lymphoma (intravascular lymphoma (IVL, n = 1) or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL, n = 2). Most patients presented with ophthalmoplegia, and one patient with diabetes insipidus (DI), with short duration of symptoms (median 30 days). All patients had an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and altered blood count, while patients with lymphoma had elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Sellar mass was demonstrated in three patients while the patient with IVL had an empty sella and in the AML patient posterior lobe T1W hyperintensity was lost. Two patients (IVL and NHL) presented with multiple anterior pituitary deficiencies and one patient (AML) had DI. All patients were treated with chemotherapy. Two patients responded well to treatment (one had reversed hypopituitarism), while three patients died. Differential diagnosis of sellar-parasellar pathology should include suspicion of hematological malignancy, particularly in patients with short duration of nonspecific symptoms, neurological signs (ophthalmoplegia), blood count alterations and LDH elevation, pituitary dysfunction and imaging features atypical for pituitary adenoma. Early diagnosis is crucial for timely initiation of hematological treatment aimed at inducing disease remission and partial or full recovery of pituitary function.

  • Shingo Fujita, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Yohei Miyashita, Tasuku Imada, Takas ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ22-0024
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    電子付録

    Hypertriglyceridemia is caused not only by environmental factors but also by genetic factors. Severe hypertriglyceridemia is prone to complications of acute pancreatitis. Here, we report a whole-exome sequencing (WES) analysis for a young hypertriglyceridemic patient with recurrent acute pancreatitis and the patient’s mother. A 28-year-old hypertriglyceridemic female was admitted to our hospital. At 23 years old, a health checkup clarified her hypertriglyceridemia. At the age of 26 and 27, she had repeated acute pancreatitis with severe hypertriglyceridemia (serum triglyceride level were 3,888 mg/dL and 12,080 mg/dL, respectively). The patient’s BMI was 29.0 kg/m2, and blood samples under fibrate medication showed triglyceride 451 mg/dL and HbA1c 7.2%. Type V dyslipidemia became more apparent at postprandial state. The WES analysis showed that the patients had two heterozygous variants in Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene (p.G185C and p.V153M), a heterozygous variant in Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene (p.R176C), three heterozygous variants in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene (p.T1220I, p.R1453W and p.V470M). On the other hand, her mother, who had moderate hypertriglyceridemia without acute pancreatitis, had a heterozygous variant in APOA5 gene (p.G185C) and two heterozygous variants in CFTR gene (p.T1220I and p.V470M). These results suggest that the more severe pathology of the patient than her mother might be due to the possible compound heterozygous APOA5 variants, the heterozygous APOE variant, and the possible compound heterozygous CFTR variants. In this case, WES analyses were useful to evaluate not only the causative genes of hypertriglyceridemia (APOA5 and APOE) but also the genes involved in the development of acute pancreatitis (CFTR) simultaneously.

  • Ai Yoshihara, Jaeduk Yoshimura Noh, Kosuke Inoue, Junichi Taguchi, Kei ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0741
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/05
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Although untreated Graves’ disease (GD) is associated with a higher risk of cardiac complications and mortality, there is no well-established way to predict the onset of thyrotoxicosis in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to identify important variables that will make it possible to predict GD and thyrotoxicosis (GD + painless thyroiditis (PT)) by using a machine-learning-based model based on complete blood count and standard biochemistry profile data. We identified 19,335 newly diagnosed GD patients, 3,267 PT patients, and 4,159 subjects without any thyroid disease. We built a GD prediction model based on information obtained from subjects regarding sex, age, a complete blood count, and a standard biochemistry profile. We built the model in the training set and evaluated the performance of the model in the test set by using the artificial intelligence software Prediction One. Our machine learning-based model showed high discriminative ability to predict GD in the test set (area under the curve [AUC] 0.99). The main contributing factors to predict GD included age and serum creatinine, total cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, and total protein levels. We still found high discriminative ability even when we restricted the variables to these five most contributory factors in our prediction model (AUC 0.97) built by using artificial intelligence software showed high GD prediction ability based on information regarding only five factors.

  • Yuji Hattori, Hiroya Yamada, Eiji Munetsuna, Yoshitaka Ando, Genki Miz ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0584
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    電子付録

    The increasing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global health problem. In recent years, the inhibitory effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on diabetes mellitus and fatty liver has been clarified. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between serum BDNF and NAFLD which caused by abnormal metabolism of glucose and lipids. This cross-sectional study involved 429 participants (mean age, 63.5 years: men, 38.5%) with low alcohol intake. Of the participants, those who had an increase in echogenicity of the liver parenchyma and hepato-renal contrast on ultrasonography were classified as the NAFLD group (n = 88), and the others were classified as the normal (n = 341) group. The NAFLD group was further classified into a mild group (n = 60) and a severe group (n = 28) based on the intensity of echogenicity and visualization of the hepatic vessels and diaphragm. Median BDNF levels were higher in the NAFLD group than the normal group (35.5 vs. 42.3 ng/mL, p < 0.01). Furthermore, BDNF levels tended to be associated with the severity of NAFLD (p < 0.01). In addition to the univariate analysis, in the sex- and age-adjusted model, there was a significant association between the BDNF levels and NAFLD severity (p < 0.01). The fully adjusted regression analysis also showed a positive association between the serum BDNF level and NAFLD (p < 0.01). These results suggest that NAFLD patients have a compensatory increase in circulating BDNF levels.

  • Masako Aoki, Shuichiro Uehara, Haruna Nishimaki, Ryoji Aoki, Kazunori ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0261
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/24
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is infrequently associated with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) or non-hormone-producing adrenal cytomegaly, but we recently, encountered a single case of adrenal cytomegaly in a patient with BWS, which was difficult to distinguish from androgen-producing adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Here, we describe the case of a 4-month-old female who presented with clitoromegaly, hemihypertrophy, and an adrenal mass identified during the prenatal period. The mass was located in detected at the left suprarenal region and detected at 20 weeks of gestational age. At birth, she also presented with clitoromegaly and elevated serum levels of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and testosterone at birth and experienced hyper-insulinemic hypoglycemia, which improved following diazoxide therapy. We initially suspected androgen-producing ACC with metastasis and the left adrenal mass was resected accordingly when the patient reached 4 months of age. However, histological examination revealed adrenal cytomegaly. Genetic analysis revealed paternal uniparental disomy, and the patient was finally diagnosed as having BWS. Resection of the left adrenal gland restored the serum androgen levels to normal physiological levels without any recurrence. While it is reasonably well known that BWS is sometimes accompanied by virilization due to androgen-producing ACC, our findings are among the first to suggest that adrenal cytomegaly can also increase androgen hormone production. Thus, we propose that adrenal cytomegaly should be considered one of the differential diagnoses when accompanied with hyperandrogenism in BWS patients.

  • Ken Okamura, Kaori Sato, Megumi Fujikawa, Sachiko Bandai, Hiroshi Iken ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0436
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/24
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The effectiveness of potassium iodide (KI) (100 mg/day) was evaluated in 504 untreated patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism (GD). Initial response to KI within 180 days, the effect of additional methylmercaptoimidazole (MMI) or radioactive iodine (RI) in resistant or escaped patients, and long-term prognosis were evaluated. Serum fT4 levels became low or normal in 422 patients (83.7%, KI-sensitive group) without serious side effects. Among these patients, serum TSH levels became high (n = 92, hypothyroid) or normal (n = 78) in 170 patients (33.7%) (KI-sensitive with a recovered TSH response, Group A), but remained suppressed in 252 patients (50.0%) (KI-sensitive with TSH suppression, Group B). Serum fT4 levels decreased but remained high in 82 patients (16.3%) (KI-resistant, Group C). Older patients, or those with small goiter and mild GD were more KI-sensitive with a recovered TSH response than others. Escape from KI effect occurred in 0%, 36% and 82% in Group A, B and C, respectively. Patients in Group B and C were successfully treated with additional low-dosage MMI or RI. After 2–23 years’ treatment (n = 429), remission (including possible remission) and spontaneous hypothyroidism were significantly more frequent in Group A (74.3% and 11.1%, respectively,) than in Groups B (46.3% and 2.8%, respectively) or C (53.6% and 1.5%, respectively) (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, a high KI sensitivity with a recovered TSH response was observed in about a third of the patients in GD associated with a better prognosis. Additional MMI or RI therapy was effective in escaped or KI-resistant patients with suppressed TSH level.

  • Zepeng Xu, Songtao Li, Kunmeng Li, Xiaoyu Wang, Xiaojie Li, Meixia An, ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0490
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/24
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a progressive microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and is characterised by excessive inflammation and oxidative stress. Urolithin A (UA), a major metabolite of ellagic acid, exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions in various human diseases. This study, for the first time, uncovered the role of UA in DR pathogenesis. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used to determine the effects of UA on blood glucose levels, retinal structures, inflammation, and oxidative stress. High glucose (HG)-induced human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) were used to elucidate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms of UA in DR in vitro. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that UA injection reduced blood glucose levels, decreased albumin and vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations, and ameliorated the injured retinal structures caused by DR. UA administration also inhibited inflammation and oxidative damage in the retinal tissues of diabetic rats. Similar anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of UA were observed in HRECs induced by HG. Furthermore, we found that UA elevated the levels of nuclear Nrf2 and HO-1 both in vivo and in vitro. Nrf2 silencing reversed the inhibitory effects of UA on inflammation and oxidative stress during DR progression. Together, our findings indicate that UA can ameliorate DR by repressing inflammation and oxidative stress via the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, which suggests that UA could be an effective drug for clinical DR treatment.

  • Weijie Cao, Yiting Xu, Yun Shen, Yufei Wang, Xiaojing Ma, Yuqian Bao
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0559
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/24
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was proposed by an international expert consensus to replace non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in 2020. Previous studies have shown that sex hormones are strongly linked to NAFLD development. This study aims to explore whether sex hormones are associated with MAFLD and liver fat content (LFC) in a middle-aged and elderly community. The study included 732 subjects aged 50–80 years enrolled from communities. MAFLD was diagnosed using the 2020 International Expert Consensus. LFC was calculated using parameters from abdominal ultrasound images. Serum estradiol (E2), total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), FSH, and LH were measured by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. MAFLD was diagnosed in 107/304 (35.2%) men and 154/428 (35.2%) women. After adjustments for confounding factors, logistic regression analysis showed that SHBG was negatively correlated with MAFLD in men (OR, 0.95 [0.93–0.97], p < 0.001). In women, SHBG and FSH were negatively correlated with MAFLD (OR, 0.95 [0.94–0.97], p < 0.001; OR, 0.97 [0.96–0.98], p < 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that SHBG was a negative factor for LFC in both men (standardized β = –0.188, p < 0.001) and women (standardized β = –0.184, p < 0.001). FSH was a negative factor for LFC in women (standardized β = –0.082, p = 0.046). SHBG was negatively correlated with MAFLD in middle-aged and elderly men and women. Moreover, FSH was negatively correlated, and bioactive testosterone was positively correlated with MAFLD in women. These findings suggest a relationship between sex hormones and MAFLD.

  • Kyoko Kamoshita, Natsumi Tajima-Shirasaki, Kiyo-aki Ishii, Takayoshi S ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0392
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/23
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Selenoprotein P is upregulated in type 2 diabetes, causing insulin and exercise resistance. We have previously reported that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) negatively regulates Selenop expression by suppressing Srebf1 in H4IIEC3 hepatocytes. However, EPA downregulated Srebf1 long before downregulating Selenop. Here, we report additional novel mechanisms for the Selenop gene regulation by EPA. EPA upregulated Foxo1 mRNA expression, which was canceled with the ERK1/2 inhibitor, but not with the PKA inhibitor. Foxo1 knockdown by siRNA initiated early suppression of Selenop, but not Srebf1, by EPA. However, EPA did not affect the nuclear translocation of the FoxO1 protein. Neither ERK1/2 nor PKA inhibitor affected FoxO1 nuclear translocation. In summary, FoxO1 knockdown accelerates the EPA-mediated Selenop downregulation independent of SREBP-1c in hepatocytes. EPA upregulates Foxo1 mRNA via the ERK1/2 pathway without altering its protein and nuclear translocation. These findings suggest redundant and conflicting transcriptional networks in the lipid-induced redox regulation.

  • Siyong Chen, Xianpei Tan, Xia Li, Tongfeng Zhao
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0690
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/23
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    電子付録

    This retrospective case-control study was designed to explore the association between the duration of diabetes and gram-negative bacterial infection in diabetic foot infections (DFIs). All DFI patients hospitalized in the Department of Endocrinology in the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between 2013 and 2019 with positive microbial culture results were included. Cases were defined as DFI patients whose microbial cultures grew gram-negative bacteria (including polymicrobial flora). Controls were defined as DFI patients whose positive microbial cultures did not grow gram-negative bacteria. Clinical data were extracted from the hospital information system. Stabilized inverse probability weighting was used to balance between-group differences at baseline. Confounders were selected using a directed acyclic graph. Missing data were imputed with the multiple imputation of chained equations method. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and Ptrend for associations between the duration of diabetes and gram-negative bacterial infection were obtained using binomial logistic regression models. The weighted OR of gram-negative bacterial infection for DFI patients with a moderate duration of diabetes (8~19 years) compared with those with a short duration (0~7 years) was 3.87 (95% CI: 1.15 to 13.07), and the OR for those with a longer duration (20~30 + years) was 7.70 (95% CI: 1.45 to 41.00), and there was a dose-response trend with increasing duration of diabetes (weighted Ptrend = 0.007). The results demonstrated that a long duration of diabetes might be associated with an increased risk of gram-negative bacterial infection in type 2 diabetes patients with DFI.

  • Rongjie Bai, Tao Zhang, Yan Gao, Tingting Shu, Yuncai Zhou, Fuqiang Wa ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0594
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mediates diverse signal transduction following ligand stimulation and plays an important role in diabetes complications and aging associated disease. We have previously verified that advanced glycation end products (AGE) bind to RAGE to cause pancreatic β-cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. However, the direct interacting protein(s) of RAGE in β cells has never been appreciated. In the present study, we utilized GST pull-down assay combined with mass spectrometry to identify the interacting proteins of the RAGE intracellular domain (C-terminal 43 amino acid of RAGE). Overall four RAGE interacting proteins, including Rab31, were identified with scores over 160. Rab31 was detected in three β-cell lines and confirmed to have interacted with RAGE via co-immunoprecipitation and immunostaining assays. This interaction was further enhanced by glycation-serum (GS) stimulation due to membrane distribution of Rab31 following treatment with GS. We further confirmed that Rab31 promoted RAGE endocytosis and inhibited GS-induced β-cell apoptosis through the pAKT/BCL2 pathway. These findings reveal a new RAGE interaction protein Rab31 that prevents AGE/RAGE-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. Rab31 is therefore a promising therapeutic target for preserving functional β cells under diabetes conditions.

  • Yao Wang, Xian Shao, Zewen Liu
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0616
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    電子付録

    This meta-analysis was performed to compare the influence of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) on the efficacy and safety of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes with the young ones. PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, EMbase, and Cochrane Library were searched for literature published before March 2020 to identify studies comparing efficacy and safety of SGLT2i in elderly diabetes patients (≥65 years) and young controls (<65 years). A fixed or random-effect model was used to calculate the summary standard means difference and odds ratios. A total of 13 articles with data for 86,433 participants were included. Old patients receiving SGLT2i had a smaller reduction in hemoglobin A1c (SMD = –0.07, 95% CI –0.14 to –0.00, p = 0.044) than young ones. They had higher incidence of serious adverse events (SAEs) (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.25–2.55, p = 0.001), AE leading to discontinuation (OR 2.34, 95%CI 1.53–3.59, p = 0.000), volume depletion (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.82–4.32, p = 0.000) , and urinary tract infections (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.18–1.60, p = 0.000), and renal function impairment (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.78–3.81, p = 0.000) than young patients, and there was a opposite result in genital mycotic infections (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55–0.87, p = 0.002). No significant differences were recorded in the reduction of fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, body weight, and in incidence of overall AEs and fracture. In summary, relatively satisfying efficacy was observed in the elderly patients receiving SGLT2i. Although some AEs were more prevalent among older patients, the majority of them were generally mild.

  • Rie Hagiwara, Kazunori Kageyama, Yasumasa Iwasaki, Kanako Niioka, Mako ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0778
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/15
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Cushing’s disease is an endocrine disorder characterized by hypercortisolism, mainly caused by autonomous production of ACTH from pituitary adenomas. Autonomous ACTH secretion results in excess cortisol production from the adrenal glands, and corticotroph adenoma cells disrupt the normal cortisol feedback mechanism. Pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors inhibit cell proliferation and ACTH production in AtT-20 corticotroph tumor cells. A selective HDAC6 inhibitor has been known to exert antitumor effects and reduce adverse effects related to the inhibition of other HDACs. The current study demonstrated that the potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitor tubastatin A has inhibitory effects on proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) and pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (Pttg1) mRNA expression, involved in cell proliferation. The phosphorylated Akt/Akt protein levels were increased after treatment with tubastatin A. Therefore, the proliferation of corticotroph cells may be regulated through the Akt-Pttg1 pathway. Dexamethasone treatment also decreased the Pomc mRNA level. Combined tubastatin A and dexamethasone treatment showed additive effects on the Pomc mRNA level. Thus, tubastatin A may have applications in the treatment of Cushing’s disease.

  • Miyako Kishimoto, Takuya Ishikawa, Masato Odawara
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0629
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/10
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Subacute thyroiditis is a transient inflammatory thyroid disease characterized by neck pain, fever, and typical symptoms associated with thyrotoxicosis. The incidence of subacute thyroiditis is higher in female than in male, and susceptibility is prominent in the 30–50-year age range. The variety of case reports on subacute thyroiditis associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appears to be increasing, and subacute thyroiditis following COVID-19 vaccination has recently been reported. Herein, we report two cases of subacute thyroiditis that developed after receiving the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, one of which exhibited remarkable liver dysfunction. The mechanism underlying the development of post-vaccination subacute thyroiditis remains unknown; however, one theory suggests that adjuvants contained in vaccines may play a role in triggering diverse autoimmune and inflammatory responses. Another possibility is the potential cross-reactivity between the coronavirus spike protein target produced by the mRNA vaccine and thyroid cell antigens. Common side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine include pain at the injection site, fever, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, chills, and nausea. These symptoms are usually resolved within a few days. Subacute thyroiditis may present symptoms similar to those of short-term vaccination side effects or exhibit non-specific symptoms, potentially leading to misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of the possible development of subacute thyroiditis after COVID-19 vaccination.

  • Teruo Jojima, Toshimitsu Shinzawa, Eriko Ohira, Shintaro Sakurai, Taku ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0656
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/04
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    We describe a case of a 38-year-old woman who, after radioactive iodine therapy for Graves’ disease, developed severe hypothyroidism despite receiving a high dose of levothyroxine (L-T4) tablet as replacement therapy. Her thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) remained to be high despite the dose of L-T4 tablets to 400 μg/day after treatment for hypothyroidism, and the patient complained of general malaise and edema of the legs. Reduced intestinal absorption of L-T4 is the most common cause of failure to achieve the therapeutic target in hypothyroid patients receiving replacement therapy. She was admitted to our hospital for severe hypothyroidism due to resistance to treatment with L-T4 tablet. Our patient was found to have lactose intolerance (LI) by a detailed examination during hospitalization. Therefore, we assumed that LI was impairing intestinal absorption of L-T4 tablet in our patient, leading to severe hypothyroidism. The patient was switched to the powder formulation of L-T4 at the same daily dose, and serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid hormones normalized. This is the case in which hypothyroidism due to reduced absorption of L-T4 tablet in a patient with LI was resolved by switching to L-T4 powder formulation.

  • Tsuyoshi Isojima, Tomonobu Hasegawa, Susumu Yokoya, Toshiaki Tanaka
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0520
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/03
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in children is a heterogeneous condition that includes several entities of various severities. GH treatment has been affected by various factors. Because comprehensive analyses for Japanese children with GHD over time are scarce, we investigated the baseline characteristics of patients with GHD at the start of GH treatment between 1996 and 2015 using data from the Foundation for Growth Science in Japan. During the registration period, 19,717 subjects were determined to be eligible for GH treatment as GHD. Overall analyses revealed that there were twice the number of male patients as female patients, and the etiology was idiopathic in 91.1%, central nervous system (CNS) tumor at the hypothalamus–pituitary area in 1.7%, CNS tumor distant from the hypothalamus–pituitary area in 0.68%, other tumors in 0.91%, congenital CNS malformations in 0.83%, and other diseases in 1.1% with their specific characteristics. The latest average age, height standard deviation score (SDS), insulin-like growth factor–1 SDS, and proportion of severe GHD at GH treatment initiation were 8.8 years, –2.76, –1.42, and 19.5%, respectively. The proportions of breech delivery and asphyxia gradually decreased, whereas that of caesarean section gradually increased during the registration period with the latest values of 2.2%, 4.9%, and 14.0%, respectively (all analyses: p < 0.0001). In contrast, the proportion of idiopathic GHD with breech delivery seemed to reach the lowest level among those with a birth year before 2000. This study identified the characteristics and changes of patients with GHD over 20 years.

  • Naoko Nishikawa-Nakamura, Tomoyuki Kawamura, Tatsuya Nakamichi, Yoshih ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0533
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/01/12
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Menarche is delayed in patients with type 1 diabetic mellitus (T1DM) compared to non-diabetics. The purpose of this survey study was to define the age of onset of menarche in Japanese patients with T1DM, as well the secular trends in menarcheal age across the period of 1976–2020 and determine the effects of T1DM and disease management on that age. The study subjects (n = 155) were recruited from among Japanese T1DM patients who visited the outpatient clinic of the Department of Pediatrics, Osaka City University Hospital. The study subjects experienced menarche during 1976–2020. They were divided into the menarche-post-T1DM group (n = 117) and the menarche-pre-T1DM group (n = 38), in whom menarche occurred after or before the diagnosis of T1DM, respectively. The time of birth was also stratified into five decade/time bins extending from 1960s to 2000s. The subjects filled a questionnaire on menarche. Other clinical information was obtained from the medical records. The median age at menarche was 12.5 years (11.3–13.4) (25th–75th percentile) for the menarche-post-T1DM group and 11.8 years (10.9–13.0) for the menarche-pre-T1DM group (p = 0.024). Menarche occurred at a significantly younger age in recent years in the menarche-post-T1DM group (r = –0.209, p = 0.023), but no such trend was found in the control group. Analysis of data of subjects born after 1990 still showed significant delay associated with T1DM [post-T1DM group: 12.3 years (11.3–13.2), pre-T1DM group: 11.8 years (11.0–12.2), p = 0.045]. The results suggest that recent advances in insulin therapy seem to improve metabolism under T1DM but might have not enough impact on menarche in Japanese girls.

  • Chiho Sugisawa, Matsuo Taniyama, Takeshi Sato, Yasuyoshi Takahashi, To ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0779
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/02
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a rare disorder that causes gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency and sexual immaturity. CHH may accompany an abnormal sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome, KS) or no such manifestation (normosmic-CHH). This unusual combination of manifestations is explained by the fact that GnRH neurons originate in the olfactory placode and migrate to the forebrain during embryogenesis. We describe the case of a 31-year-old man with normosmic-CHH, who also had obesity, type 2 diabetes and intellectual disability. He was noticed to have sexual immaturity (small testes with no pubic hair) at age 20 years, when diabetic ketoacidosis developed. Basal and GnRH-stimulated levels of LH (1.0→12.0 IU/L) and FSH (1.9→6.1 IU/L) were detectable but low. The results of the T&T olfactometer and the Alinamin test were definitely normal, with an anatomically normal olfactory system on MRI. Sequencing of 22 CHH-related genes was performed, and compound heterozygous PROKR2 variants were identified: one was a previously known loss-of-function variant (p.Trp178Ser) and the other was a nonsense variant (p.Trp212*). Through a literature review, we found 22 patients (including our patient) with CHH due to biallelic PROKR2 variants, which led us to recognize that most of the patients (86%) were diagnosed with KS. Clinical observations in this study indicate that, even though they have CHH, biallelic PROKR2 variant carriers may have a normal olfactory system as well as presumably normal migration of GnRH neurons. This suggests that the PROK2-PROKR2 pathway affects the function of GnRH neurons after their migration.

  • Bo Xu, Wenjie Dai, Ling Liu, Hang Han, Jingjing Zhang, Xing Du, Xiuyin ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0480
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    電子付録

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common gynecological disease accompanied by a variety of clinical features, including anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and ovarian abnormalities, resulting in infertility. PCOS affects approximately 6%–15% of all reproductive-age women worldwide. Metformin, a popular drug used to treat PCOS in patients, has beneficial effects in reducing hyperandrogenism and inducing ovulation; however, the mechanisms by which metformin ameliorates PCOS are not clear. Hence, we aimed to explore the mechanisms of metformin in treating PCOS. In the present study, we first treated a letrozole-induced PCOS rat model with metformin, detected the pathological recovery of PCOS, and then assessed the effects of metformin on H2O2-induced autophagy in ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) by detecting the level of oxidative stress and the expression of autophagy-associated proteins and key proteins in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. We demonstrated that metformin ameliorated PCOS in a rat model by downregulating autophagy in GCs, and metformin decreased the levels of oxidative stress and autophagy in H2O2-induced GCs and affected the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Taken together, our results indicate that metformin ameliorates PCOS in a rat model by decreasing excessive autophagy in GCs via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, and this study provides evidence for targeted reduction of excessive autophagy of ovarian granulosa cells and improvement of PCOS.

  • Ye Zhou, Wanling Wu, Youqing Zou, Wentao Huang, Shanshan Lin, Jinsong ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0589
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/22
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Exercise has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome (MS). However, the exercise prescriptions that best support plasma glucose and lipid control remain unknown. We evaluated the effects of different combinations of aerobic and resistance training programs on plasma glucose and lipid metabolism and sleep quality in elderly MS patients. Eighty-five elderly MS patients were randomly assigned to five groups: aerobic training (AT), resistance training (RT), high aerobic with low resistance training (HALRT), high resistance with low aerobic training (HRLAT), or control. The exercise groups performed supervised moderate-intensity exercise during three 50-min sessions per week for 12 weeks. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), handgrip strength (HGS), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (2hPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and sleep quality were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks. All intervention groups showed significant improvements in SBP, HGS, FPG, 2hPG, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores compared to baseline (all p < 0.05), while DBP, TC, TG, and LDL-C levels were significantly improved only in the HRLAT and HALRT groups (p < 0.05). The HALRT group showed the largest improvements in WC, SBP, DBP, HGS, FPG, 2hPG, and PSQI score (p < 0.001). The largest improvements in BMI, TC, and LDL-C were observed in the HRLAT group (p < 0.001). The combined exercise prescriptions were more effective than aerobic or resistance training alone at improving plasma glucose and lipid metabolism and sleep quality in elderly MS patients.

  • Darya Kazakova, Mika Shimamura, Tomomi Kurashige, Koichiro Hamada, Yuj ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ22-0017
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/22
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Numerous studies have examined the role of autophagy in thyroid cancer treatment; however there are discrepancies among the reported data, with some showing the pro-survival and others the anti-survival effects of autophagy. These discrepant results appear to be at least in part due to insufficient analyses or data misinterpretation as well as improper assessments of autophagic activity. Therefore, the present study re-evaluated the regulation of autophagic activity by various anticancer modalities and examined the role of autophagy in thyroid cancer treatment in three thyroid cancer cell lines (TPC1, ACT1 and KTC1). The immunofluorescence and DalGreen findings demonstrated that cisplatin, irradiation and sorafenib were all autophagy inducers as previously reported, but, unlike previous studies using thyroid cancer cells, doxorubicin acted as an inhibitor. KTC1 cells are unique because they only responded to cisplatin. The efficacy of anticancer therapeutics was significantly higher in chloroquine or 3-methyladenine-treated autophagy-defective cells than in autophagy-competent cells, thereby indicating the pro-survival effect of autophagy induced by anticancer therapeutics, which is partly due to inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, the present findings relating to several anticancer therapeutics and three thyroid cancer cell lines demonstrate the pro-survival effect of autophagy in thyroid cancer treatment. Although the present study only involved cell lines, it provides evidence for the beneficial combination of the anticancer therapeutic modalities with autophagy inhibitors, and proposes that autophagy inhibitors may serve as a possible adjunctive therapy for thyroid cancer.

  • Jielin Zhou, Xinyi Wang, Kaiyong Liu, Keyang Chen
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0591
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/18
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Evidence about the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is inconsistent and contradictory. This study attempted to investigate this association in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population and analyze the joint effects of Hp infection and some risk factors on T2DM. Following a cross-sectional design, participants were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University in Hefei City, China. Hp status was measured using a 14C urea breath test. A total of 1,288 participants, including 90 diabetic patients and 1,198 nondiabetic subjects, were recruited in the current study. The participants with T2DM had a greater prevalence of Hp infection than participants without T2DM (26.67% versus 18.11%, p = 0.045). Furthermore, we found that Hp infection was closely associated with an incremental risk of T2DM [odds ratio (OR) = 1.77, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.04–3.00] after adjustment for potential confounders. In addition, we observed that the participants who were Hp-positive and ≥60 years old (OR = 9.16, 95% CI: 3.29–25.52), Hp-positive and obese (OR = 3.35, 95% CI: 1.57–7.14) or Hp-positive and hypertensive (OR = 6.10, 95% CI: 3.10–12.01) had a significantly higher risk for T2DM than those who were Hp-negative and ≤50 years old, Hp-negative and nonobese or Hp-negative and nonhypertensive. These findings imply that Hp infection is associated with an increased risk of T2DM in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. The association could be further elevated by the combination of Hp infection and some traditional risk factors.

  • Chang Liu, Lin Ding, Haiyan Yang, Zimiao Chen
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0761
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/16
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Recent compelling evidence has shown that neck circumference (NC), as a reliable and convenient anthropometric index, has better predictive values of hyperuricemia and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with traditional anthropometric measurements. Since both PCOS and metabolic syndrome (MetS) share similar characteristics and affect long-term health of women, we conducted this cross-sectional study to explore the correlation of NC with MetS and metabolic risk factors. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, glycemic and lipid profile of 633 PCOS and 2,172 non-PCOS women from January 2018 to June 2021 were analyzed. The results showed that the prevalence of MetS was 28.0% and 9.4% in PCOS and non-PCOS women, respectively. The prevalence of MetS, hypertention, obesity, central obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidaemia was also significantly higher in both PCOS and non-PCOS women with larger NC. Additionally, logistic regression analysis showed that PCOS women in the highest quartile of NC had the highest prevalence of MetS (RR = 9.94, 95%CI: 2.41–40.99) after adjusting for confounding factors, while the association between NC and MetS was much attenuated after adjusting for confounding factors in non-PCOS women. Furthermore, we also identified that the optimal NC cutoff value was 33 cm in PCOS women for the prediction of MetS. The potential mechanism could be attributed to the increased release of adipokines and excessive free fatty acids release from subcutaneous adipose tissue, which consequently precipitate the development of MetS. In conclusion, NC was found to be positively and independently correlated with the prevalence of MetS.

  • Yanyan Liu, Xue Zhao, Zequn Yang, Shurui Wang, Cong Han, Huijuan Zhang
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0492
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/11
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Our study aimed to investigate the C-peptide-releasing effect associated with the risk of elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the cross-sectional study, 345 patients with T2DM hospitalized at the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University were consecutively enrolled, and their baseline data were collected. The study design used two parameters for C-peptide releasing effects: the multiplication effect of 1 h postprandial C-peptide to fasting C-peptide ratio (1hCp/FCp) and 2hCp/FCp; the incremental effect of 1hCp minus FCp (1hΔCp) and 2hΔCp. The patients with T2DM in the upper quartiles of SUA had higher FCp, 1hCp, 1hΔCp, 2hCp, and 2hΔCp. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that after adjusting all the confounding factors, the serum C-peptide including 1hCp (β = 5.14, p = 0.036), 1hΔCp (β = 7.80, p = 0.010), 2hCp (β = 4.27, p = 0.009) and 2hΔCp (β = 5.20, p = 0.005) were still positively correlated with SUA levels in patients with T2DM. In female patients, only the 2hCp (β = 4.78, p = 0.017) and 2hΔCp (β = 5.28, p = 0.019) were associated with SUA level; however, in male patients, no C-peptide parameter was associated with SUA levels in T2DM (all p > 0.05). Within a certain range, the elevated SUA levels might be associated with the better C-peptide incremental effect of islet β cell function in T2DM, especially in female patients.

  • Junjie Gao, Jianxia Hu, Peng Li, Kui Che, Fei Wang, Shengli Yan
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ20-0695
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/10
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) on experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) and the underlying mechanisms by utilizing a porcine thyroglobulin-induced EAT rat model. The rats received four tail vein injections of vehicle or hUCMSCs at an interval of 7 days and were sacrificed on day 28 after the first injection. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to assess the therapeutic effects of hUCMSCs on EAT. Splenic lymphocytes were isolated from rats, and the proportions of CD4+ T cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Splenic CD4+ T cells from EAT rats were cocultured with hUCMSCs. A loss-of-function assay for protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) was performed to explore the involvement of PTPN2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling on the therapeutic benefit of hUCMSCs in EAT. hUCMSC treatment significantly alleviated inflammation, reduced serum thyroid antibody levels, and decreased the ratios of IL-17α+/CD25+FOXP3+ cells and serum IFN-γ/IL-4 in EAT rats. Furthermore, hUCMSC treatment upregulated PTPN2 protein expression in splenic lymphocytes of EAT rats as well as enhanced the PTPN2 protein level and attenuated phosphorylation of STAT3 in CD4+ T cells in vitro. Importantly, knockdown of Ptpn2 significantly reversed hUCMSC-mediated suppression of cell proliferation and hUCMSC-induced alterations in the expression of inflammatory cytokines in CD4+ T cells. Thus, hUCMSC treatment alleviates thyroid inflammation and the CD4+ T cell imbalance in EAT via PTPN2/STAT3 signaling, serving as a promising therapeutic approach for autoimmune thyroiditis.

  • Hani Marzouki, Sara Alrowaizen, Mariam Ageel, Mohammed Nujoom, Rawan A ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0577
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/05
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    This study evaluated scar satisfaction in Arabic patients who underwent thyroidectomy surgery using validated assessment tools. We aimed to assess the relationship between scar length and scar satisfaction, and validate Arabic versions of the universally used scar satisfaction questionnaires. In this retrospective cohort study, 60 patients who underwent thyroidectomy at King Abdulaziz University Hospital were enrolled. Scars were evaluated in two stages: firstly, by a clinician, and secondly, by a naïve observer. Ratings of disfigurement were measured using the validated Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) that was translated into Arabic. Results: The Arabic version of the POSAS showed good or excellent reliability. Average POSAS scores were 12.88, 18.02, and 7.53, respectively, indicating that most patients were satisfied. Incision size and POSAS scores (but not Patient and Naïve Observer scores) were positively correlated, and larger incisions resulted in greater dissatisfaction. Fitzpatrick Skin Type score and Observer scores were positively correlated, but there were no significant correlations between Patient and Naïve Observer scores with skin type. In conclusion, this study validated the Arabic version of universally used questionnaires for scar satisfaction. Most patients were satisfied with their neck scars regardless of scar length. Our findings pave the way for further research into patient postoperative scar satisfaction in Arabic-speaking populations.

  • Jing Chen, Shiori Minabe, Arisa Munetomo, Fumie Magata, Marimo Sato, S ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0620
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/05
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Prenatal and postnatal biphasic increases in plasma testosterone levels derived from perinatal testes are considered critical for defeminizing/masculinizing the brain mechanism that regulates sexual behavior in male rats. Hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons are indispensable for stimulating GnRH and downstream gonadotropin, as well as the consequent testicular testosterone production/release in adult male rats. However, it is unclear whether kisspeptin is responsible for the increase in plasma testosterone levels in perinatal male rats. The present study aimed to investigate the role of Kiss1/kisspeptin in generating perinatal plasma LH and the consequent testosterone increase in male rats by comparing the plasma testosterone and LH profiles of wild-type (Kiss1+/+) and Kiss1 knockout (Kiss1–/–) male rats. A biphasic pattern of plasma testosterone levels, with peaks in the prenatal and postnatal periods, was found in both Kiss1+/+ and Kiss1–/– male rats. Postnatal plasma testosterone and LH levels were significantly lower in Kiss1–/– male rats than in Kiss1+/+ male rats, whereas the levels in the prenatal embryonic period were comparable between the genotypes. Exogenous kisspeptin challenge significantly increased plasma testosterone and LH levels and the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive GnRH neurons in neonatal Kiss1–/– and Kiss1+/+ male rats. Kiss1 and Gpr54 (kisspeptin receptor gene) were found in the testes of neonatal rats, but kisspeptin treatment failed to stimulate testosterone release in the cultured testes of both genotypes. These findings suggest that postnatal, but not prenatal, testosterone increase in male rats is mainly induced by central kisspeptin-dependent stimulation of GnRH and consequent LH release.

  • So Young Yang, Hui-Jeong Hwang
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0693
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/05
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates are considered to be high in patients with diabetes despite negative stress test results; however, little data are available to support this supposition. We compared the long-term cardiovascular events between patients with diabetes and those without diabetes with negative treadmill stress echocardiography and evaluated the predictors for cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes. A total of 1,243 consecutive patients (mean age, 56 ± 10 years; non-diabetics: diabetics, 975:268; mean follow-up of 5 years) with negative treadmill stress echocardiography were evaluated. Clinical data were examined, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs, a composite of coronary revascularization, acute myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death) were compared between the non-diabetic and diabetic groups. In the population matched by clinical characteristics, the diabetic and non-diabetic groups had similar occurrence of MACEs (non-diabetics vs. diabetics = 5% versus 7%; p = 0.329) and event-free survival. MACEs in the diabetic group were associated with elevated early diastolic velocity of the mitral inflow/mitral annulus (E/e') ratio, indicative of diastolic dysfunction. The absence of statin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor use and use of sulfonylureas were also predictors of more MACEs. In conclusion, long-term cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes and negative stress echocardiography were comparable to those in patients without diabetes. However, appropriate monitoring of diastolic dysfunction, statin use, and individualized antidiabetic drug selection are required to reduce the cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes.

  • Daisuke Aibara, Kohei Matsuo, Kimihiko Matsusue
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0465
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/01/27
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) is a transcription factor abundantly expressed in the liver and white adipose tissue (WAT). In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which C/EBPα regulates the lipase family member N (Lipn) gene in the mouse liver. Mouse Lipn consists of non-coding exon 1 and the translation start site located in exon 2. Lipn expression in the fatty liver of ob/ob mice was significantly higher than that in OB/OB mice and was significantly repressed by liver-specific C/EBPα deficiency. Lipn expression in ob/ob mice was detected in the liver, epididymal WAT (eWAT), subcutaneous WAT (sWAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle, but not in the kidney, brain, and heart. Lipn expression in the liver, eWAT, and sWAT of wild-type mice was undetectable, although C/EBPα was highly expressed in these tissues. The database analysis revealed four putative C/EBP-responsive elements (CEBPREs), highly homologous with the typical CEBPRE consensus sequence at positions –2,686/–2,678, –1,364/–1,356, –106/–98, and –45/–37 from the transcription start site (+1) of Lipn. Reporter assays using reporter constructs with serial or internal deletions of the 5'-flanking regions of Lipn showed that two functional CEBPREs (–106/–98 and –45/–37) in the Lipn promoter region are essential for enhancing Lipn transcriptional activity by C/EBPα. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that C/EBPα/β binds to CEBPRE (–106/–98). These results suggest that C/EBPα and type 2 diabetic environment may be required for hepatic Lipn expression.

  • Yukako Yamamoto, Yuki Ozamoto, Masaki Kobayashi, Yuji Tezuka, Choka Az ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0615
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/01/27
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    電子付録

    A new meal tolerance test (MTT) using a 75 g glucose- and high fat-containing meal was applied to classify glucose intolerance in morbidly obese patients. According to the MTT data, the concordance rate of diagnosis was 82.5% compared to the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 40). In the NGT patients, the insulinogenic index (r = 0.833), Matsuda index (r = 0.752), and disposition index (r = 0.845) calculated from the MTT data were each significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with those derived from the OGTT data. However, in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 23) or diabetes mellitus (DM, n = 17), the postprandial glucose levels post-MTT were significantly lower than those post-OGTT, without increases in the postprandial insulin levels post-MTT. Thus, the severity of glucose intolerance measured by the MTT was milder than that indicated by the OGTT. Plasma levels of both glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were increased at the postprandial state, but only the GIP levels post-MTT were significantly higher than those post-OGTT. The enhancement of glucose disposal rates in patients with NGT or IGT after the MTT was associated with increased GIP levels. The postprandial hypertriglyceridemia induced by the MTT was associated with insulin resistance, but it was not associated with the impaired insulinogenic index or the disposition index. These results indicate that the new MTT is clinically useful to evaluate both abnormal glucose and triglyceride excursions caused by abnormal insulin sensitivity and secretions of insulin and gut hormones in morbidly obese patients.

  • Masahiro Iwamoto, Shuhei Nakanishi, Hideyuki Iwamoto, Hideaki Kaneto, ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0647
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/01/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    This study aimed to retrospectively compare the clinical efficacy of different types of long-acting insulin therapies—glargine U100, glargine U300, degludec, and insulin degludec/insulin aspart—among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes after insulin use was initiated in an outpatient setting. The study consisted of 822 insulin-naïve patients in Japan who started using long-acting insulin for treatment of type 2 diabetes and continued for over 12 months. In addition, the impact of insulin type on insulin withdrawal was investigated by dividing the participants into two groups: those who achieved insulin withdrawal and those who did not, during the 12-month observation period based on a Cox proportional hazards model. As a result, HbA1c was decreased, and BMI was increased in all participants regardless of the insulin type used. A total of 185 participants succeeded in insulin withdrawal. After adjustment was made for several confounders, the positive determinant factors for withdrawal were short duration of diabetes and the choice of IDegAsp when compared with Gla100; the negative determinant factor was use of insulin secretagogues at the start of the study. In conclusion, all long-acting insulins were a powerful tool for treatment of type 2 diabetes, and patients with short duration of diabetes and/or no usage of insulin secretagogues resulted in favorable outcomes in terms of insulin withdrawal within a year in an outpatient setting. In addition, insulin degludec/insulin aspart was found to possibly be a better choice for treatment when it was compared with glargine U100 among the four types of insulin.

  • Yasuhiro Ito, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Toshitetsu Hayashi, Minoru Kihara, ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0723
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/01/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Thyroid tumors arising from follicular cells can generally be divided into malignant and benign tumors. However, some cases are difficult to clearly diagnose whether they are benign or malignant. Therefore, in the most recent version of World Health Organization (WHO) classification, some borderline lesions such as follicular tumor of uncertain malignant potential (FT-UMP), well-differentiated tumor of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP), and noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) were proposed. In this study, we investigated the clinical aspects, including the prognosis, of FT-UMP patients. We investigated the clinical features of 339 patients with FT-UMP. On ultrasound, 68% of the tumors were diagnosed as intermediate, and only 5% of those tumors were diagnosed as malignant. On cytology, 40% of the tumors were diagnosed as follicular neoplasm, and only 1% of these were suspected to be or diagnosed as malignancy. The diagnosis was based on questionable capsular invasion for 332 patients, questionable vascular invasion for 2 patients, and both for 5 patients. Eighty-six percent of the tumors showed low cell proliferation activity. To date, five patients (1%) have shown distant recurrence during postoperative follow-up and underwent various treatments such as radioactive iodine therapy, orthopedic surgery, and denosumab injection. None of these patients have died due to thyroid carcinoma. Our findings suggest that FT-UMP is generally an indolent disease, but some patients show distant recurrence. Physicians should carefully follow patients, although it remains unknown how long they should be observed after surgery.

  • Satoru Bando, Raishi Ichikawa, Tomomi Taguchi, Kazumi Fujimoto, Tetsuy ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0696
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/01/22
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The insufficient activity of insulin and the hyperactivity of glucagon are responsible for glucose intolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Whereas sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, their effects on the secretion profiles of glucagon and incretins remain unclear. Therefore, to investigate the effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor luseogliflozin on metabolic and endocrine profiles, 19 outpatients with type 2 diabetes were administered luseogliflozin for 12 weeks. It is of note that all subjects were treated only with diet and exercise therapy, and we were able to investigate the effects of luseogliflozin separately from the effects of other antidiabetic agents. Body weight, body fat mass, fat-free mass, and muscle mass were significantly reduced after 12 weeks of luseogliflozin administration. Glycosylated hemoglobin significantly decreased from the baseline of 8.2% ± 0.8% to 7.3% ± 0.7% (p < 0.0001). The meal tolerance test demonstrated that luseogliflozin significantly recovered glucose tolerance, accompanied by improved insulin resistance and β-cell function, whereas glucagon secretion was unaffected. Furthermore, GLP-1 secretion was significantly increased after luseogliflozin administration. Thus, luseogliflozin improved metabolic and endocrine profiles accompanied by increased GLP-1 secretion in type 2 diabetic patients without any antidiabetic medication, but did not affect glucagon secretion.

  • Masahiro Nezu, Yosuke Hirotsu, Kenji Amemiya, Miho Katsumata, Tomomi W ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0475
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/01/19
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    In 2008, a familial noradrenergic pheochromocytoma (PCC) with a KIF1B germline mutation in exon 41 was reported in a 24-year-old female proband and her family. However, in 2020, the same research group reported that the cause of PCC in this family was a MAX germline mutation and was not due to the KIF1B mutation. In this study, we investigated the pathogenicity of a KIF1B germline mutation detected in a 26-year-old woman with juvenile-onset noradrenergic PCC. She was surgically treated and did not have a family history of PCC. We performed whole-exome sequencing, Sanger sequencing, and immunohistochemical and gene expression analyses of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes. Three tumors with associated somatic mutations were used as the control group. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a p.V1529M KIF1B germline mutation in exon 41 in our patient, and no other associated germline and somatic mutations, including MAX, were detected. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of both mutant and wild-type alleles in the tumor. Among the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes, the expression of phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase was suppressed. An in silico analysis of the p.V1529M mutation showed a score suggestive of pathogenicity. After evaluation with the international guideline for sequence variants, p.V1529M mutation was still classified as a variant with uncertain significance; however, our data, including the in silico analysis data, provided certain evidences that met the criteria supporting its pathogenicity. Therefore, this study can support future studies in proving the pathogenicity of the KIF1B p.V1529M mutation.

  • Jinfeng Xiao, Chonggui Zhu, Xinxin Zhang, Longhao Sun, Chang Gao, Xiao ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0536
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/01/14
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common hepatic metabolic disorder. Thyroid function is associated with NAFLD in different populations; however, little attention has been paid in patients with hypopituitarism. To analyze the association between thyroid function and NAFLD, we included 134 patients with hypopituitarism admitted to the Tianjin Medical University General Hospital between June 2013 and May 2019. Participants were divided into the NAFLD(–) and NAFLD(+) groups based on abdominal ultrasonography findings. We evaluated 68 male and 66 female patients with hypopituitarism. The prevalence of NAFLD was 52.24%. The NAFLD(+) group had a significantly higher free triiodothyronine/free thyroxine (FT3/FT4) ratio than the NAFLD(–) group (p = 0.003). The NAFLD(+) group showed significantly lower levels of FT4 and the growth hormone (GH) than the NAFLD(–) group (p = 0.003 and 0.016, respectively). We observed an association of the FT4 level and FT3/FT4 ratio with NAFLD in the univariate model, which was non-significant after adjustment for metabolic parameters (BMI, HDL-C, triglycerides, serum uric acid, blood pressure, fasting glucose). To better understand the role of each metabolic parameters, we performed additional models for each of those predictors individually after adjustment for age and gender, the association between FT4 level and FT3/FT4 ratio lost significance after adjustment for HDL-C and TG, but not for other predictors. Our findings suggest that thyroid dysfunction may be crucially involved in NAFLD by regulating whole-body metabolism, especially lipid utilization. Therefore, sufficient thyroid hormone replacement therapy for patients with hypopituitarism is recommended from the early stage.

  • Emre Urhan, Zuleyha Karaca, Gamze Kalin Unuvar, Kursat Gundogan, Kursa ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0531
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/01/06
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mainly involves the lungs, it also affects many systems. The hypothalamic/pituitary axis is vulnerable to hypoxia, hypercoagulation, endothelial dysfunction and autoimmune changes induced by COVID-19 infection. Given that there is no extensive investigation on this issue, we investigated the pituitary functions three to seven months after acute COVID-19 infection. Forty-three patients after diagnosis of COVID-19 infection and 11 healthy volunteers were included in the study. In addition to the basal pituitary hormone levels, growth hormone (GH) and hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axes were evaluated by glucagon stimulation test (GST) and low-dose adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test, respectively. The peak cortisol responses to low-dose ACTH test were insufficient in seven (16.2%) patients. Twenty (46.5%) and four (9.3%) patients had inadequate GH and cortisol responses to GST, respectively. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) values were also lower than age and sex-matched references in four (9.3%) patients. The peak GH responses to GST were lower in the patient group when compared to the control group. Other abnormalities were mild thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation in four (9.3%) patients, mild prolactin elevation in two (4.6%) patients and central hypogonadism in four (9.3%) patients. Mean total testosterone values were lower in male patients when compared to male controls; however, the difference was not significant. These findings suggest that COVID-19 infection may affect pituitary functions, particularly the HPA and GH axes. These insufficiencies should be kept in mind in post-COVID follow-up. Long-term data are needed to determine whether these deficiencies are permanent or not.

  • Chia-An Yang, Jiun-Lu Lin, Shuen-Han Dai, Shih-Ping Cheng
    原稿種別: Note
    論文ID: EJ21-0590
    発行日: 2022年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/01/06
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Water-clear cell parathyroid adenoma is an uncommon cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Herein, we report an interesting case of a 56-year-old man who presented with weight loss, bone pain, fatigue, and a palpable right neck mass. Laboratory tests indicated hypercalcemia, elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, and normal thyroid function. Further examinations detected osteoporosis and kidney stones. The ultrasound of neck revealed bilateral extrathyroidal tumors, which were sestamibi-avid. The patient underwent resection of the large right inferior and left inferior parathyroid tumors. Histopathology revealed a double water-clear cell parathyroid adenoma. His serum calcium and PTH levels normalized after surgery. The literature review identified 37 cases of water-clear cell parathyroid adenoma between 1985 and 2021. The median age at diagnosis was 56 years. Classic complications were common, including nephrolithiasis in nine and skeletal presentations in 10 patients. Before surgery, the median calcium and PTH levels were 12.0 mg/dL and 290 pg/mL, respectively. Overall, 89% were localized on ultrasonography, and 60% were positive on scintigraphy. Four patients had double adenomas. The median maximum diameter was 3.8 cm, and the median weight of the resected adenoma was 5.27 g. In summary, water-clear cell parathyroid adenoma has certain unique features. These include larger tumor size, relatively indolent biochemical profile, high prevalence of complications and nonspecific symptoms, an isoechoic appearance on ultrasonography, and reduced scintigraphic sensitivity.

  • Takuya Noda, Akira Miyauchi, Yasuhiro Ito, Takumi Kudo, Tsutomu Sano, ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0557
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Active surveillance for papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs) initiated in Japan is becoming adopted worldwide as a management option. However, it remains unclear how to manage newly appearing PTMCs in the remnant thyroid after hemithyroidectomy. We investigated the outcomes of similar observational management (OM) for PTMCs appearing in the remnant thyroid after hemithyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and benign thyroid nodules. Eighty-three patients were newly diagnosed with PTMC in the remnant thyroid between January 1998 and March 2017. Of these, 42 patients underwent OM with >3 times ultrasound examinations. Their initial diagnoses were PTC (initially malignant group) in 37 patients and benign nodule (initially benign group) in 5 patients. We calculated the tumor volume doubling rate (TV-DR) during OM for each PTMC. The TV-DR (/year) was <–0.1, –0.1–0.1, 0.1–0.5, and >0.5 in 12, 19, 5, and 6 patients, respectively. The TV-DRs in both groups did not statistically differ, but six patients (16%) in the initially malignant group showed moderate growth (TV-DR >0.5/year). They underwent conversion surgery and none of them had further recurrence. The remaining 36 patients retained OM without disease progression. The TV-DR in the initially malignant group was not significantly associated with patients’ backgrounds or their initial clinicopathological features. None of the patients in this study showed distant metastases/recurrences or died of thyroid carcinoma. Although a portion of PTMCs appearing after hemithyroidectomy for thyroid malignancy are moderately progressive, OM may be acceptable as a management option for PTMCs appearing in the remnant thyroid after hemithyroidectomy.

  • Dingwen Jiang, Chang liu, Ye Chen, Xuejiao Xing, Danmeng Zheng
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0343
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) can improve skeletal muscle function in aging mice, but whether the effect on young and aging skeletal muscle is consistent has not been studied. We selected C57BL/6J mouse models, which were divided into young control group (YC), young vibration group (YV), aging control group (AC) and aging vibration group (AV). After 12 weeks of WBV, we found that compared with the YC group, the pathways of linoleic acid metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid metabolism, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism improved significantly in the YV group. Compared with the AC group, the pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, pentose and glucuronate interconversions and pentose phosphate pathway improved significantly in the AV group. Furthermore, we found that WBV decreased triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in aging mice, improved mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased the expression of phosphorylated activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1B (CPT1B) in the skeletal muscle of young and aging mice. Our study revealed that WBV mainly improved lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism pathways of skeletal muscle in young mice and mainly improved lipid metabolism and glucose metabolism pathways of skeletal muscle in aging mice. WBV can activate the AMPK/CPT1 signaling pathway and improve mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle in both young and aging mice.

  • Sachiko Nakamura, Nozomi Kido, Miki Watanabe, Yuka Ohmachi, Yuko Inaya ...
    原稿種別: Original
    論文ID: EJ21-0609
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Thyroid dysfunction that is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming increasingly recognized. However, only a few reports in Japan have addressed this issue to date. In this study, we sought to clarify whether infection with SARS-CoV-2 affected thyroid hormone levels and whether these hormones could be better predictors of prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Accordingly, we retrospectively examined 147 cases wherein thyroid hormones were measured at the time of admission among 848 Japanese patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Hyogo Prefectural Kakogawa Medical Center. All patients underwent thyroid function testing upon hospital admission. More than half (59.1%) of the patients were euthyroid. Twenty-four percent of patients had serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels lower than the reference range with normal serum free thyroxine (fT4) levels, and 3.4% of the patients had low TSH with high fT4 levels. Over 70% of the patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 had low serum free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels. Serum TSH and fT3 levels were inversely correlated with disease severity. The mortality rate in patients with low serum fT3 levels was significantly higher than that in those with normal serum fT3 levels.

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