Circadian variations impact thyrotropin (TSH) secretion; in Cushing’s syndrome (CS) patients, the nocturnal serum TSH surge is abolished. The aim of this prospective study is to examine whether serum TSH surge may be a useful diagnostic method for CS. This prospective study recruited 136 inpatients for differential diagnosis of CS or subclinical CS (SCS), and 21 inpatients with depression at Osaka University Hospital. Serum TSH surge was assessed by the midnight-to-morning serum TSH ratio (2300–2400 h to 0800–0900 h). The diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) between TSH ratio and ordinary screening tests [low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST), late-night serum cortisol and urine free cortisol (UFC)] were compared. Twenty-two patients were diagnosed as CS (12 overt CS and 10 SCS) and the remaining 120 patients were excluded for CS. The diagnostic accuracy of TSH ratio (cutoff value 1.0) yielded sensitivity 90.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 70.8–98.9], specificity 95.0% (95% CI 89.4–98.1), and a high positive and low negative likelihood ratio [18.2 (95% CI 8.2–40.1) and 0.096 (95% CI 0.026–0.359), respectively]. The specificity of TSH ratio was significantly higher than LDDST and midnight serum cortisol test. The sensitivity of TSH ratio was significantly higher than UFC. TSH ratio showed more than 1.0 in all patients with depression and CYP3A4 inducer users. TSH ratio is a novel supportive diagnostic method with higher specificity than the current diagnostic methods for CS.
Several articles have shown the inverse association between total testosterone (TT) or sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) and hepatic steatosis. No articles report associations of TT, SHBG, free testosterone (FT), and bioavailable testosterone (BioT) with aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratios. Therefore, we investigated the associations of TT, FT, BioT and SHBG with hepatic steatosis and AST/ALT ratios. A total of 218 men were enrolled. We diagnosed hepatic steatosis by ultrasound. TT and SHBG showed a reduced risk for hepatic steatosis when analyzed with or without adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity. Compared with the lowest quartile, the ORs for hepatic steatosis in the third and fourth quartiles (0.32 [95% CI: 0.14–0.75] and 0.27 [95% CI: 0.10–0.73], respectively) of SHBG were significantly lower after adjustments. The OR for hepatic steatosis in the fourth quartile of TT (0.41 [95% CI: 0.17–0.95]) was significantly lower than in the lowest quartile after adjustments. The mean AST/ALT ratios in men with hepatic steatosis were lower than those without hepatic steatosis (0.83 and 1.04, respectively), due to the elevated ALT levels in hepatic steatosis groups. Furthermore, TT and SHBG were positively associated with AST/ALT ratios with and without adjustments. In conclusion, higher TT and SHBG levels in men are associated with the reduced risk of hepatic steatosis and elevated AST/ALT ratios, independent of age, smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity.
Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is an endocrine disorder characterized by insufficient production of growth hormone (GH). Non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is one of common causes of GHD. Although most patients with NFPA have transsphenoidal surgery, the time-dependent changes in GH after operation have yet to be investigated. In this study, we analyzed patients with NFPAs that underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Postoperatively, GH secretion was evaluated in response to GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP2) infusion. We also investigated how several factors affected GH dynamics. Of 119 patients analyzed, 94 (79.0%) had peak GH levels less than 9.0 ng/mL and were diagnosed with severe GHD (sGHD) immediately after surgery. Of those patients, 27 (28.7%) recovered from sGHD within 1–2 years after surgery. Univariate analyses confirmed that sGHD recovery improved significantly in patients that were younger, had only undergone a single primary surgery, had not had anterior hormone deficiency except GH, and had cystic adenoma or normal insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) standard deviation score (SD-S) levels immediately after surgery. Multivariate analyses confirmed that younger age and absence of hormone replacement therapy significantly predicted sGHD recovery within 1–2 years after surgery. Taken together, our results indicated that postoperative sGHD should be assessed by GHRP2 infusion, regardless of IGF1 SD-S levels. Furthermore, recovery from sGHD occurs more frequently at 1–2 years after surgery especially in younger patients and/or those with GH deficiency alone. These patients, therefore, should be reassessed for GHD by appropriate tests including GHRP2 test at 1–2 years after surgery.
Although curcumin was widely applied as a functional food for different diseases, it was found to reduce serum testosterone level and fertility in male animals by unknown molecular mechanisms. Here in our study, we investigated the possible mechanisms of curcumin-suppressed testosterone production in Leydig cells. Our enzyme immunoassay results showed that curcumin cell-autonomously suppressed ovine luteinizing hormone-stimulated testosterone production in primary Leydig cells and 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-br-cAMP)-induced progesterone production in MA-10 cells. Furthermore, our real-time PCR, Western blot, and 22R-OHC/pregnenolone supplementing experiment data demonstrated that curcumin suppressed 8-br-cAMP-induced steroidogenesis in Leydig cells by inhibiting the expression of StAR and Cyp11a1. Interestingly, our Western blot data showed that although curcumin suppressed PKA activity, it did not alter the 8-br-cAMP-induced phosphorylation of CREB. On the contrary, the real-time PCR results showed that curcumin suppressed 8-br-cAMP-induced expression of Nr5a1 and Fos, which are crucial for cAMP-stimulated StAR and Cyp11a1 expression in Leydig cells. Collectively, our data demonstrated that curcumin may suppress cAMP-induced steroidogenesis in mouse Leydig cells by down-regulating Nr5a1/Fos-controlled StAR and Cyp11a1 expression independently of the PKA-CREB signaling pathway.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is considered a T helper-type 1 (Th1) cytokine-dominant autoimmune thyroid disease. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a part of the thyroxisome multiprotein complex, is localized at the apical pole of thyrocytes and is indispensable for synthesis of thyroid hormones and modulation of oxidative stress in order to avoid cell damage and apoptosis. Reduced autophagy induces thyroid follicular cells (TFC) apoptosis by activating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HT patients. Nevertheless, whether Cav-1 has roles in the regulation of autophagy remains largely unclear. In this study, we examined Th1 cytokines and Cav-1 expression in HT thyroid tissues, determined the effects of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) on Cav-1 and autophagy activity in TFC, and investigated the association between Cav-1 and autophagy activity in vitro. Our results indicate that higher levels of IL-1β and IFN-γ and lower levels of Cav-1 were expressed in thyroid tissues of HT patients than in those of normal controls. Cav-1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in TFC exposed to IL-1β and IFN-γ, accompanied by decreased expression of autophagy-related protein LC3B-II. Interestingly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated Cav-1 knockdown in TFC reduced LC3B-II protein expression. Taken together, these results suggest that lack of Cav-1 expression inhibited autophagy activity in TFC exposed to Th1 cytokines (IL-1β and IFN-γ), which might be a novel pathogenetic mechanism of HT.
Due to the fact that overweight or obesity is accompanied by hormonally active adrenal tumors: Cushing Syndrome—(CS) and Subclinical Cushing Syndrome (SCS), it is of high interest the correlation between different adipokines and cytokines secreted by adipose tissue, with metabolic disorders and hormonal activity in this group. Even in non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas (NFAI) elevated risk for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome was demonstrated. The aim of the study was to investigate plasma adiponectin, leptin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) levels in patients with NFAIs and healthy subjects. The study included 18 NFAI patients and 18 healthy subjects. The groups were homogeneous in terms of age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Patients with NFAI showed significantly higher circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to healthy controls (MCP 1: p < 0.001; TNFα p = 0.021; IL6 p = 0.012). On the other hand, adiponectin concentration was significantly lower in the NFAI group (p = 0.034). The serum leptin and resistin concentrations did not differ significantly between the two groups. Acquired results were not dependent on glucocorticoid and catecholamine secretion in NFAI patients. Also, there were no clear correlations between BMI and cytokine levels. It is possible that increased risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases reported in NFAI patients is at least partially dependent on adipose tissue activity.
The prognosis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is difficult to predict. Th2 cells suppress the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells, which are associated with the prognosis of AITD. However, there are few reports as to whether Th2 chemotaxis-related genes, such as CRTH2 (chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells), IL-25, TARC/CCL17 (Thymus and activation regulated chemokine/chemokine ligand 17) or STAT6 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6), affect the pathology of and/or susceptibility to AITD. Therefore, in this study, we genotyped functional SNPs in these genes to clarify the association of the genetic differences of genes related to Th2 differentiation and chemotaxis with the development and the prognosis of AITDs. The frequencies of the AA genotype of the CRTH2 rs545659 SNP and the CC genotype and the C allele of the CRTH2 rs634681 SNP were higher in patients with severe HD than in patients with mild HD. The frequency of the CC genotype in the TARC rs223828 SNP was higher in patients with intractable GD than in patients with GD in remission. In conclusion, the CRTH2 rs545659 and rs634681 SNPs were associated with the severity of HD, and the TARC/CCL17 rs223828 SNP was associated with the intractability of GD.
To examine differential improvements among cardiovascular risk factors in response to treatment with ipragliflozin in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, we conducted a pooled analysis of six randomized, double-blind trials of Japanese T2DM patients who received ipragliflozin 50 mg/day or placebo and had patient-level data for cardiometabolic risk parameters. Risk factors included glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body weight, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance and beta-cell function (HOMA-R and HOMA-beta, respectively), systolic blood pressure, fasting serum insulin concentrations, and the concentration of uric acid, lipids, and liver enzymes from baseline to end of treatment (EOT; 12–24 weeks). The primary endpoint of each trial was the change in HbA1c from baseline to EOT. Changes in risk factors from baseline to EOT were compared between ipragliflozin-treated and placebo groups, and between two subgroups (high- and low-risk groups for each parameter). All parameters, except low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non HDL-C), improved significantly in the ipragliflozin group. Subgroup analysis revealed a significantly greater improvement in the high-risk group versus low-risk group in HbA1c, HOMA-R, HOMA-beta, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase, but not in any of the lipid parameters or blood pressure. Liver function improvement in the ipragliflozin group was significantly correlated with changes in body weight, HbA1c, HOMA-beta, and HOMA-R. This analysis demonstrated that, in Japanese T2DM patients, ipragliflozin 50 mg/day was associated with improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors, except for LDL-C and non HDL-C.
Sodium–glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors are newly established anti-diabetic agents with a unique glucose-lowering mechanism. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of the sodium–glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor ipragliflozin (Ipra) for metabolic markers and cardiovascular parameters in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was an investigator-initiated, open-label, single-arm, multicenter prospective study. Patients with T2DM were treated with 50 mg Ipra for 24 and 52 weeks. The primary outcome investigated was the reduction of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level. The secondary outcome was the change in other metabolic and cardiovascular parameters by 24 weeks. Before and after 52 weeks of treatment, carotid intima-media thickening (IMT) was measured by echography. A total of 134 patients were recruited in the study. A 24-week treatment with 50 mg Ipra daily significantly reduced HbA1c level (–0.6%, p < 0.01). Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and serum C-peptide were reduced significantly (p < 0.05), while serum glucagon level was unchanged. Interestingly, the serum adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were significantly increased by Ipra. However, 52 weeks of Ipra treatment did not change carotid IMT. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the only significant contributing factor for HbA1c reduction by Ipra was baseline HbA1c level. These data suggest that Ipra decreased not only glucose level but also BMI, blood pressure and serum C-peptide, and the contributing factor for HbA1c reduction by Ipra was baseline HbA1c level. Further, Ipra improved serum adiponectin and HDL cholesterol levels.
Encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (EAATD), also known as Hashimoto’s encephalopathy, is a rare neurological condition that may occur in patients with clinical or sub-clinical autoimmune thyroid disease. The pathogenesis of EAATD has been not clearly elucidated yet. The diagnostic criteria include neurological or psychiatric symptoms, high levels of anti-thyroid antibodies, and exclusion of other possible causes of encephalopathy. In the large majority of cases, EAATD patients respond to immunosuppressant therapies, in particular to corticosteroids. We report the case of a patient with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and recurrent manifestations of encephalopathy over the previous few years responding to corticosteroid treatment. The patient presented with language and cognitive impairment, ataxia, and neurovegetative/autonomic symptoms. She was euthyroid with mildly raised anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies. An extensive diagnostic work-up, including electroencephalogram, brain magnetic resonance, hormonal assessment, and an exhaustive panel of antibodies possibly associated with autoimmune encephalopathy, was carried out and excluded other possible etiologies of encephalopathy. The diagnosis of EAATD possibly affecting the hypothalamus and/or the neurovegetative regulatory centers was made and treatment with prednisolone was timely commenced with a dramatic and rapid improvement with progressive normalization of the symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of neurovegetative/autonomic alterations in the setting of EAATD.
Mutations in TBL1X, a component of the nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) and silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor co-repressor complexes, have recently been implicated in isolated central hypothyroidism (CeH). However, the mechanisms by which TBL1X mutations affect negative feedback regulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis remain unclear. N-CoR was previously reported to paradoxically enhance the ligand-independent stimulation of TRH and TSHβ gene promoters by thyroid hormone receptors (TR) in cell culture systems. We herein investigated whether TBL1X affects the unliganded TR-mediated stimulation of the promoter activities of genes negatively regulated by T3 in cooperation with N-CoR. In a hypothalamic neuronal cell line, the unliganded TR-mediated stimulation of the TRH gene promoter was significantly enhanced by co-transfected TBL1X, and the co-transfection of TBL1X with N-CoR further enhanced promoter activity. In contrast, the knockdown of endogenous Tbl1x using short interfering RNA significantly attenuated the N-CoR-mediated enhancement of promoter activity in the presence of unliganded TR. The co-transfection of N365Y or Y458C, TBL1X mutants identified in CeH patients, showed impaired co-activation with N-CoR for the ligand-independent stimulation of the TRH promoter by TR. In the absence of T3, similar or impaired enhancement of the TSHβ gene promoter by the wild type or TBL1X mutants, respectively, was observed in the presence of co-transfected TR and N-CoR in CV-1 cells. These results suggest that TBL1X is needed for the full activation of TRH and TSHβ gene promoters by unliganded TR. Mutations in TBL1X may cause CeH due to the impaired up-regulation of TRH and/or TSHβ gene transcription despite low T3 levels.
Fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (FT1DM) is a subtype of type 1 diabetes mellitus characterized by a remarkably abrupt onset. In Japan, FT1DM accounts for approximately 20% of acute-onset adult type 1 diabetes mellitus cases; however, reports of pediatric-onset FT1DM are rare. We aimed to determine the frequency and clinical characteristics of FT1DM in Japanese children and adolescents by conducting a 2-phase questionnaire survey among the members of the Japanese Study Group of Insulin Therapy for Childhood and Adolescent Diabetes (JSGIT) regarding their clinical experience with FT1DM. Responses were obtained from 54 of the 79 participating hospitals (68.4%). Of these, 8 hospitals managed a total of 15 pediatric patients with FT1DM (4 patients in each of 2 hospitals, 2 patients in 1 hospital, and 1 patient in each of 5 hospitals). The distribution of patient age was biphasic, with peaks in children younger than 5 years and older than 8 years of age. The clinical characteristics of FT1DM in this population (such as the duration from onset of symptoms to diagnosis, severity of symptoms, preceding flu-like episodes, and abnormal laboratory data) did not differ from those of patients with adult-onset FT1DM. The frequency of pediatric-onset FT1DM is low compared with that of adult-onset FT1DM. The genetic background and susceptibility patterns of pediatric patients with FT1DM may differ from those typical of adults with FT1DM, but both age groups share similar clinical characteristics.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 300 million people will suffer from diabetes mellitus by 2025. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is much more prevalent. T2DM comprises approximately 90% of diabetes mellitus cases, and it is caused by a combination of insulin resistance and inadequate compensatory insulin secretory response. In this study, we aimed to compare the plasma vitronectin (VN) levels between patients with T2DM and insulin resistance (IR) and healthy controls. Seventy patients with IR and 70 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The insulin, Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR), C-peptide (CP) and VN levels of all participants were examined. The homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistence index (HOMA-IR (CP)) formula was used to calculate insulin resistance. The levels of BMI, fasting plasma gluose (FPG), 2-hour postprandial glucose (2hPG), glycated hemoglobins (HbA1c), and HOMA-IR (CP) were significantly elevated in case group compared with controls. VN was found to be significantly decreased in case group. (VN Mean (Std): 8.55 (2.92) versus 12.88 (1.26) ng/mL p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed. This model explained 43.42% of the total variability of VN. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that HOMA-IR (CP) and age independently predicted VN levels. The VN may be a candidate target for the appraisal of hepatic insulin resistance in patients with T2DM.
In ectopic ACTH-secreting pheochromocytoma, combined ACTH-driven hypercortisolemia and hypercatecholaminemia are serious conditions, which can be fatal if not diagnosed and managed appropriately, especially when glucocorticoid-driven positive feedback is suggested with a high ACTH/cortisol ratio. A 46-year-old man presented with headache, rapid weight loss, hyperhidrosis, severe hypertension and hyperglycemia without typical Cushingoid appearance. Endocrinological examinations demonstrated elevated plasma and urine catecholamines, serum cortisol and plasma ACTH. Moreover, his ACTH/cortisol ratio and catecholamine levels were extremely high, suggesting catecholamine-dominant ACTH-secreting pheochromocytoma. Computed tomography revealed a large right adrenal tumor. 18F-FDG positron emission tomography showed uptake in the area of the adrenal tumor, while 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy showed no accumulation. His plasma ACTH level paradoxically became elevated after a dexamethasone suppression test. After metyrapone administration, not only serum cortisol but also plasma ACTH levels were exponentially decreased almost in parallel, suggesting a glucocorticoid-driven positive-feedback regulation in this rapidly exacerbated ectopic ACTH-producing pheochromocytoma. Interestingly enough, plasma catecholamine levels were also decreased by metyrapone, although they remained extremely high. He became severely dehydrated due to hypoadrenalism requiring hydrocortisone supplementation. His clinical signs and symptoms were improved, and right adrenalectomy was performed uneventfully, resulting in complete remission of pheochromocytoma and Cushing’s syndrome. A glucocorticoid-driven positive-feedback regulation in this ectopic ACTH-secreting pheochromocytoma created a vicious cycle with rapid exacerbation of both hypercortisolemia and hypercatecholaminemia with extremely elevated plasma ACTH level. Metyrapone was clinically effective to stop this vicious cycle; nonetheless, great care must be taken to avoid hypoadrenalism especially when hypercatecholaminemia remained.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) has brought great harm to maternal and fetus. Up to now, only a few plasma biomarkers for its early diagnosis have been reported; nevertheless, there is no report about identification of urinary biomarkers for prediction of GDM. Thus, it is necessary to correct this deficiency. In our study, urine samples were collected from 889 healthy young gravidae at the early second trimester (15 to 20 weeks), 69 of whom were subsequently diagnosed with GDM at 24 to 28 weeks. iTRAQ (the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) quantitative proteomics was conducted on sixteen GDM (trial group) and an equal number of matched healthy young gravidae (control group). Validation was performed in 40 cases of each group by ELISA. A total of 1,901 proteins were identified in this study, including 119 significantly differential proteins (fold change ≧1.2 or ≦0.83 and p < 0.05). Compared with control group, 83 differential proteins were increased and 36 proteins were decreased in GDM group. The validation for expression of CD59 and IL1RA showed significant difference and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.729 and 0.899, respectively (p < 0.05). The two candidate protein biomarkers (CD59 and IL1RA) in urine could be an early, noninvasive diagnostic predictors of young pravidae with GDM, and IL1RA is stronger diagnostic power than CD59.
This study aims to investigate the role and regulatory mechanism of the Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in amelioration of rat myocardial fibrosis induced by thyroxine through interfering the autophagy via regulating the activity of PI3K/AKT1 signaling pathway and the expression of relative miRNA. 40 adult male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10): the control group, the thyroxine model group (TH group), the model group with H2S intervention (TH + H2S group) and the normal group with H2S intervention (H2S group). Pathological changes were observed via H&E staining and Masson staining, Expressions of MMPs/TIMPs, PI3K/AKT, autophagy-related proteins in myocardial tissues were detected via Western blotting, and the expressions of miR-21, miR-34a, miR-214 and miR-221 were detected via RT-qPCR. Compared with the control group, in the TH group, myocardial fibrosis was more significant, the expressions of proteins in PI3K/AKT and autophagy-related proteins were significantly decreased, as well as the expression of miR-221; while the expressions of miR-21, miR-34a and miR-214 were significantly elevated. By contrast, all above-mentioned changes were obviously reversed with H2S treatment, which demonstrated the positive function of H2S in amelioration of rat myocardial fibrosis induced by thyroxine. The mechanism of such amelioration may be correlated with autophagy activated by the upregulation of expression of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and downregulation of expressions of miR-21, miR-34a and miR-214.
Lung infection is one of the most common infections in diabetes mellitus and is characterized by increased pulmonary microvascular endothelial permeability. Local Angiotensin II (AngII) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of lung diseases. However, whether AngII can aggravate diabetic infectious lung injury is not clear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of AngII on the permeability of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVECs) challenged by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in high glucose states in vitro. HPMVECs were divided into five groups: a control group (CON), a high glucose group (HG), an LPS + high glucose group (LH), an LPS + high glucose + AngII group (LHA), and an LPS + high glucose + Losartan group (LHL). The HPMVECs permeability as well as the F-actin levels, cytoskeleton, apoptosis and TNF-α concentrations were evaluated. Compared to the CON group, the HG, LH and LHA groups had significantly higher cellular permeability, cellular apoptosis and TNF-α levels, with more extensive cytoskeletal damage and lower F-actin levels. Additionally, cells in the LHA group exhibited significantly elevated permeability, apoptosis and TNF-α concentrations, lower F-actin levels and more extensive cytoskeletal damage than either the LH or HG group. However, compared to the HG or LH group, the LHL group showed significantly lower cellular permeability, cell apoptosis, cytoskeletal damage and TNF-α concentrations and higher F-actin levels. This study suggests that in a diabetic infectious lung injury cellular model, AngII could aggravate the permeability of HPMVEC via F-actin dynamics and cell apoptosis. Furthermore, blocking the Angiotension II Type 1 Receptor could significantly alleviate the hyperpermeability of HPMVECs.
A 29-year-old man was referred to our department due to adrenal insufficiency with the inappropriate secretion of TSH (SITSH). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a pituitary tumor. A weak TSH response in the TRH test, elevated sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels, and the absence of a family medical history of SITSH or TRβ gene mutations supported the diagnosis of TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma). However, complete TSH suppression and a blunted cholesterol response in the T3 suppression test as well as normal glycoprotein α-subunit (α-GSU) levels were not compatible with TSHoma. Since TSH, FT3, and FT4 spontaneously returned to normal ranges after admission, he was discharged. One month after his discharge, thyrotoxicosis with elevated serum TSH levels relapsed. After admission, his serum TSH levels returned to within the normal range. After his discharge from the second admission, his serum TSH levels fluctuated in accordance with serum FT3 and FT4 levels and symptoms, such as palpitations. Ten months after his discharge, he was admitted to our department again due to adrenal insufficiency and thyrotoxicosis with elevated serum TSH levels, suggesting cyclic SITSH. Although resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) was not completely excluded, the pituitary tumor was removed by transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). A pathological diagnosis confirmed TSHoma. We herein report a case of TSHoma in which serum TSH, FT3, and FT4 levels fluctuated periodically. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of “cyclic TSHoma”, which needs to be considered when making a differential diagnosis of SITSH.
The tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system is most commonly adopted to evaluate the prognosis of patients with thyroid carcinoma. The 8th edition of the TNM staging system, an extensively revised version of the 7th edition, was recently released. We aimed to investigate whether and how well the 8th edition reflects the cause-specific survival (CSS) of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma by analyzing the cases in 5,892 patients who underwent initial surgery at Kuma Hospital between 1987 and 2005. The median postoperative follow-up duration was 178 months (range: 6–357 months). One patient with T4b disease was excluded from the analysis. Overall, 116 (2.0%) patients died of thyroid carcinoma. The proportion of variance explained (PVE) for CSS in the 7th and 8th editions was 10.69 and 10.97, respectively. Using the 7th edition, CSS of patients with stage IVA and stage III disease was similar (p = 0.32). In contrast, using the 8th edition, CSS was poorer in stage II than in stage I (p < 0.001), in stage III than in stage II (p < 0.001), and in stage IVB than in stage III (p < 0.001). Similar results were observed for disease-free survival. Although we could not establish any objective evidence that the 8th edition is superior to the 7th edition, the 8th edition is simpler and more convenient, as it includes fewer stages and addresses the issue of the 7th edition where stage IVA and III patients had similar prognoses.
Adropin has been identified as potent regulatory hormone implicated in insulin sensitivity and the maintenance of energy homeostasis. The aim of current study was to investigate serum adropin concentrations of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in the fasting status, especially those overweight/obese and evaluate the relationships between adropin levels and metabolic parameters. A total of 116 T2DM patients and 60 controls with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were recruited to the study. Adropin concentration was determined using commercial ELISA kits. Anthropometric characteristics were collected and biochemistry, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting insulin (FIns) were detected by clinical laboratory. Insulin resistance was estimated by homeostasis model 2 assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). Serum adropin levels in Chinese T2DM patients were decreased compared with the controls [3.8 (3.0–5.5) vs. 5.5 (3.7–7.9) ng/mL, p < 0.01]. Meanwhile, overweight/obese patients had more considerably reduced levels of adropin. Adropin level was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), high-sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP), triglycerides (TG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), FIns, HOMA2-IR and HbA1c, while positively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in study participants (p < 0.01). The correlations of adropin with glucolipid variables (TG, HDL-C, FPG, FIns, HOMA2-IR, HbA1c) still existed after adjusting the effect of BMI. Besides, HOMA2-IR and HbA1c were independent factors associated with serum adropin levels. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that adropin was significantly associated with T2DM after removing confounding factors (p < 0.01). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve demonstrated adropin concentration of 5.8 ng/mL could be used as a possible optimal cut-off value to identify T2DM from non-T2DM with sensitivity of 81.9% and specificity of 46.7%. Serum adropin concentrations are decreased in Chinese T2DM patients, especially those overweight/obese. Adropin, associated with glucolipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, may implicate in the pathogenesis of T2DM.
Body mass index (BMI) is the most commonly used quantitative measure of adiposity. It is a kind of complex genetic diseases which are caused by multiple susceptibility genes. The first intron of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) has been widely discovered to be associated with BMI. Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-interacting protein-1 like (RPGRIP1L) is located in the upstream region of FTO and has been proved to be linked with obesity through functional tests. We carried out a genetic association analysis to figure out the role of the FTO gene and the RPGRIP1L gene in BMI. A quantitative traits study with 6,102 Chinese female samples, adjusted for age, was performed during our project. Among the twelve SNPs, rs1421085, rs1558902, rs17817449, rs8050136, rs9939609, rs7202296, rs56137030, rs9930506 and rs12149832 in the FTO gene were significantly associated with BMI after Bonferroni correction. Meanwhile, rs9934800 in the RPGRIP1L gene showed significance with BMI before Bonferroni correction, but this association was eliminated after Bonferroni correction. Our results suggested that genetic variants in the FTO gene were strongly associated with BMI in Chinese women, which may serve as targets of pharmaceutical research and development concerning BMI. Meanwhile, we didn’t found the significant association between RPGRIP1L and BMI in Chinese women.
Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy. CA19-9 is a well-known marker for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, but the serum CA19-9 level is reported to be elevated in patients with poorly controlled diabetes. This study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, and cut-off value of serum CA19-9 for detection of pancreatic cancer in patients with diabetes. A case-control study of 236 patients was performed. The case group was selected from diabetic patients with pancreatic cancer, while one control was selected for each case from among diabetic patients without pancreatic cancer during the same period. The case group (n = 118) and the control group (n = 118) were matched for age, sex, and pancreatic cancer risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to determine the serum CA19-9 level that predicted pancreatic cancer. Then the sensitivity and specificity of CA19-9 were calculated for the threshold value. There were no significant differences of age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol intake, and HbA1c between the case and control groups. According to ROC analysis, a serum CA19-9 level of 75 U/mL had the maximum sensitivity and specificity for separating diabetic patients with or without pancreatic cancer. Using this cut-off value, the sensitivity and specificity of CA19-9 for pancreatic cancer was 69.5% and 98.2%, respectively, while the area under the ROC curve was 0.875 [95%CI: 0.826–0.924]. We propose that a serum CA19-9 level of 75 U/mL should be used as the cut-off value when screening patients with diabetes for pancreatic cancer.
Early diagnosis and optimal management for steroid 5α-reductase type 2 deficiency (5α-RD2) patients are major challenges for clinicians and mutation analysis for the 5α-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) gene is the golden standard for the diagnosis of the disease. In silico analysis of this enzyme has not been reported due to the lack of appropriate model. Moreover, the histological and pathological changes of the gonads are largely unknown. In the present study, a 5α-RD2 patient born with abnormal external genitalia was studied and mutation analysis for SRD5A2 gene was conducted. Moreover, we constructed the homology modeling of 5α-reductase using SWISS-MODEL, followed by the molecular docking study. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of Ki67 for the testes tissue was conducted to investigate the potential pathological characteristics. The patient had male (46, XY) chromosomes but presented female characteristics, and the mutation analysis identified a heterozygotes mutation (p.Q6X, p.R246Q) in SRD5A2 gene. In silico analysis elucidated the potential effect of the mutation on enzyme activity. Immunohistochemical staining for the excised testes showed that 30%–50% of the germ cells were Ki67 positive, which indicated the early neoplastic potential. In conclusion, we analyzed the genotype-phenotype correlations of 5α-RD2 caused by a heterozygotes mutation (p.Q6X, p.R246Q). Importantly, we conducted the homology modeling and molecular docking for the first time, which provided a homology model for further investigations. Immunohistochemical results suggested gonadectomy or testis descent should be performed early for 5α-RD2 patient, as delayed treatment would have maintained the testes in a tumorigenic condition.
Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individual is known to be defended from the metabolic complications of obesity. Leukoaraiosis, which is commonly detected on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is now recognized as a risk of stroke, dementia and death. However, the association between MHO and the prevalence of leukoaraiosis is unclear. In this cross-sectional study of 796 participants who received a medical examination program, we investigated the association between MHO and the prevalence of leukoaraiosis. We used common clinical markers for definition of metabolic healthy status: blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Obesity was defined by body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m2. We diagnosed leukoaraiosis by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery without hypointensity on T1-weighted images or the presence of a hyperintensity on T2-weighted images. The crude prevalence proportion of leukoaraiosis was 44.5% (case/n = 171/384) in metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO) individual, 46.3% (44/95) in MHO individual, 62.3% (114/183) in metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUNO) individual or 56.6% (77/136) in MUO individual. The odds ratios of prevalence of leukoaraiosis were 1.19 (95% CI 0.74–1.90, p = 0.471) for MHO, 1.79 (1.22–2.62, p = 0.003) for MUNO and 1.56 (1.03–2.37, p = 0.037) for MUO individuals after adjusting for sex, age, smoking statues, habit of exercise and alcohol, compared with MHNO individual. We revealed that MHO individuals were not related with the higher risk of leukoaraiosis, whereas MUNO and MUO individuals were.
Treatment-related quality of life (QOL) is an important aspect of diabetes management. However, no studies have compared the influence of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors versus alpha-glucosidase inhibitors on treatment-related QOL. This prespecified sub-analysis of the Linagliptin Study of Effects on Postprandial blood glucose (L-STEP) compared the effects of linagliptin (5 mg once daily) and voglibose (0.2 mg/meal thrice daily) on treatment-related QOL in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) inadequately controlled with diet and exercise therapy. Among 366 subjects in the original study, 182 in the linagliptin group and 173 in the voglibose group were included in this analysis. The outcome of this study was change in QOL as assessed by the Diabetes Therapy-Related Quality of Life 17 (DTR-QOL17) questionnaire from baseline to week 12. Compared with baseline data, total DTR-QOL17 scores were significantly higher after 12 weeks of linagliptin and voglibose treatment. The change in the total DTR-QOL17 score and the score of one domain, burden on social activities and daily activities, was significantly greater in the linagliptin group than in the voglibose group. In addition, only linagliptin treatment was identified as a factor associated with an increased total DTR-QOL17 score. Linagliptin is superior to voglibose in terms of improving treatment-related QOL in Japanese patients with T2DM.
Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), a form of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, is the second most common malignancy arising from thyroid follicular cells. Recently, the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification for differentiated thyroid carcinoma was revised from the 7th to the 8th edition. The diagnostic criteria for poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC) were also updated in the latest World Health Organization (WHO) classification. In this study, we investigated whether these changes are appropriate for accurately predicting prognosis. Three hundred and twenty-nine patients diagnosed with postoperative pathologically confirmed FTC, who underwent initial surgery at our hospital between 1984 and 2004, were enrolled. For this study, patients were re-evaluated and diagnosed with FTC (N = 285) or PDC (N = 44) without typical nuclear findings of papillary thyroid carcinoma. For FTC, the 8th TNM classification was a more accurate predictor of prognosis than the 7th TNM classification. In the 8th TNM classification, cause-specific survival became significantly poorer from Stage I to IVB. The cause-specific survival of PDC based on the latest WHO classification was worse than, but did not significantly differ from, that of PDC based only on the former WHO classification. For PDC, neither of the TNM classifications could accurately predict prognosis. Taken together, we conclude that (1) the 8th TNM classification more accurately reflects the prognosis of FTC than the 7th TNM classification; (2) PDC based on the former WHO classification should be retained, at least in Japan; and (3) the TNM classification may not be suitable for predicting the prognosis of PDC.
Most patients with Turner syndrome (TS) exhibit amenorrhea due to premature ovarian failure. Therefore, estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is required; however, even after undergoing ERT, it is not rare for bone mass acquisition to be insufficient. This study was conducted in two stages, involving a cross-sectional and a prospective interventional study. We recruited 52 TS patients undergoing ERT due to amenorrhea (categorized into low (LB group; n = 23), and normal (NB group; n = 29) bone mass groups) and 7 TS patients who maintained ovarian function (spontaneous menstrual cycle group (MC group)) as controls. We compared bone associated markers between the three groups (LB, NB, and MC). Furthermore, the LB group had concomitant treatment with eldecalcitol (ELD) and ERT for 12 months. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumber spine (L2-4) and the bone metabolism markers were then compared before and after the treatment. The bone metabolism markers were significantly higher in the LB group than the NB and MC groups. Furthermore, with the concomitant use of ELD and ERT in the LB group, BMD increased significantly (pre-treatment 0.710 ± 0.056 g/cm2vs. 0.736 ± 0.062 g/cm2 after 12 months; p < 0.001). TS patients with insufficient bone mass acquisition even after ERT were characterized by a higher turnover in bone metabolism. Therefore, the concomitant use of ELD was considered an effective adjuvant therapy for increasing bone mass.
Previous studies suggested that reduced muscular strength was one of the potential predictor of prevalence of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between toe flexor strength (TFS) and handgrip strength (HGS) and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from 1,390 Japanese males (35–59 years). TFS and HGS were measured and medical examinations undertaken. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was defined as fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dL, glycated hemoglobin ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol), and/or current use of anti-diabetes mellitus drugs. A total of 114 participants had diabetes mellitus. TFS in participants with diabetes mellitus was significantly lower than that in persons not suffering from diabetes mellitus but HGS was not. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) per 1-standard deviation–increase in muscular strength measurements for the prevalence of diabetes mellitus were obtained using a multiple logistic regression model. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus was inversely related to TFS (OR 0.769, 95% CI 0.614–0.963), TFS/body mass (BM) (0.696, 0.545–0.889) and TFS/body mass index (BMI) (0.690, 0.539–0.882) after adjustment of covariates. Such associations were not observed in HGS (OR 0.976, 95% CI 0.773–1.232), HGS/BM (0.868, 0.666–1.133) or HGS/BMI (0.826, 0.642–1.062). These results suggested that poor TFS was associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus independent of visceral fat accumulation, but HGS was not, in middle-aged males. TFS may be a better marker for the prevalence of diabetes mellitus than HGS.
Type 2 diabetes is a serious threat to human health all over the world. It is particularly important to look for the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Researchers have found that obesity was associated with a broad chronic inflammatory response and type 2 diabetes. And tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is one of the most important cytokines related with obesity. To explore the functional role of TNF-α in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, TNF-α receptor 1 and TNF-α receptor 2 double knockout (TNFR1/R2 DKO) mouse model were used in our study. After high fat diet (HFD) feeding, we detected that the insulin resistance was dramatically improved and circulated TNF-α was upregulated in TNFR1/R2 DKO mice. Surprisingly, glucose homeostasis was worsened, when we down regulate the levels of plasma TNF-α in TNFR1/R2 DKO mice by administering Adeno associated virus-shRNA-TNF-α (AAV-shTNF-α). Subsequently, in ob/ob mice, we confirmed that the glucose homeostasis could be improved when we up regulate the levels of plasma TNF-α by administering Adeno associated virus-TNF-α (AAV-TNF-α). Our findings suggested that TNFR1 and TNFR2 may not be the only receptors for TNF-α and TNF-α probably plays a positive role in reducing insulin resistance via a TNFRs-independent way in diabetic mice.
There is concern that vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among children in Japan as well as worldwide. We conducted a nationwide epidemiologic survey of symptomatic vitamin D deficiency to observe its incidence rate among Japanese children. A questionnaire inquiring the number of new patients with vitamin D deficiency rickets and/or hypocalcemia for 3 years was sent to 855 randomly selected hospitals with a pediatrics department in Japan. In this survey, we found that 250 children were diagnosed with symptomatic vitamin D deficiency. The estimated number of patients with symptomatic vitamin D deficiency per year was 183 (95% confidence interval (CI): 145–222). The overall annual incidence rate among children under 15 years of age was 1.1 per 100,000 population (95% CI: 0.9–1.4). The second survey has provided detailed information on 89 patients with symptomatic vitamin D deficiency under 5 years of age in hospitals in the current research group. The nationwide and second surveys estimated the overall annual incidence rate of symptomatic vitamin D deficiency in children under 5 years of age to be 3.5 (2.7–4.2) per 100,000 population. The second survey revealed 83% had bowed legs, 88% had exclusive breastfeeding, 49% had a restricted and/or unbalanced diet and 31% had insufficient sun exposure among the 89 patients. This is the first nationwide survey on definitive clinical vitamin D deficiency in children in Japan. Elucidating the frequency and characteristics of symptomatic vitamin D deficiency among children is useful to develop preventative public health strategies.