Only limited information is available on the inter-relationships between genetic and non-genetic factors such as diet and sunlight exposure with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the independent and interactive associations of season, dietary vitamin D intake, and SNPs of 11 vitamin D-related candidate genes with serum 25(OH)D concentration among 2,721 adults aged ≥40 years at baseline from the Yangpyeong cohort, a part of the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES). The interactions between season or dietary vitamin D and 556 SNPs were evaluated using 2-degree of freedom joint tests. Season was strongly (pdifference = 1.00 × 10–12) and dietary vitamin D intake was slightly but significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration (pdifference = 0.0119). Among five SNPs (rs11723621-GC, rs7041-GC, rs10500804-CYP2R1, rs7129781-CYP2R1, and rs2852853-DHCR7) identified in the screening steps, only one, rs10500804-CYP2R1, significantly interacted with season (pinteraction = 8.01 × 10–5). The inverse association between number of minor alleles of rs10500804-CYP2R1 and concentration of 25(OH)D was significant only in summer/fall. Conversely, dietary vitamin D intake was positively associated only in winter/spring. In conclusion, season, dietary vitamin D intake, and four SNPs in GC, CYP2R1, and DHCR7 are independently and rs10500804-CYP2R1 is interactively associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration. Serum 25(OH)D is influenced by genotype of rs10500804-CYP2R1 in summer/fall when sunlight exposure is high, while dietary vitamin D intake is an important determinant of serum 25(OH)D during the seasons with low cutaneous vitamin D synthesis.
This review evaluated the risk of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (Dpp-4i). The MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, the Cochrane Library databases and web of science were used to search the effects of Dpp-4i on rheumatoid arthritis in patients with type 2 diabetes from inception to 7 September, 2020. We included studies that met the following criteria:(i) A randomized controlled trial (RCT), prospective or retrospective cohort study examining the relationship between Dpp-4i and rheumatoid arthritis. Exclusion criteria included the following: Reviews and researches related to other diseases or subjects; and studies without data on the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis were excluded. Risk of Bias table contained in Review Manager 5.3 and Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) were used for quality assessment of included RCT and observational studies separately. Meta-analysis was used to estimate the risk of disease. We conducted a subgroup analysis of duration of follow-up, adjusted (adjusted RR or unadjusted RR), sample size and study design. A total of 10 independent studies assessing 1,420,414 patients were included in this analysis. In this meta-analysis, we found that there was nonsignificant increase of rheumatoid arthritis with Dpp-4 inhibitor exposure (RR 0.96, 95%CI (0.69–1.32)). Our results revealed that Dpp-4 inhibitors do not seem to increase the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Long-term follow-up monitoring is necessary.
The increasing incidence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has attracted many researchers to investigate the mechanism underlying PTC progression. This study explored the growth and apoptosis of PTC cells based on an lncRNA regulatory mechanism. The expression of nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase antisense RNA 1 (NNT-AS1) in PTC cell lines and PTC tissues was analyzed by qRT-PCR. The mutual binding site between NNT-AS1 and miR-199a-5p was predicted by starBase and confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. The correlation between NNT-AS1 and miR-199a-5p was shown by Pearson correlation test. The viability, clone formation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of TPC-1 and IHH-4 cells were examined by CCK-8, colony formation, wound-healing, transwell, and flow cytometry assays, respectively. The expressions of Bax, cleaved Caspase-3, Bcl-2, E-Cadherin, N-Cadherin and SNAIL in TPC-1 and IHH-4 cells were determined by Western blot or qRT-PCR. NNT-AS1 expression was upregulated in PTC cells and tissues. In TPC-1 cells, silencing NNT-AS1 inhibited viability, clone formation, migration, and invasion as well as the expressions of N-Cadherin, SNAIL and Bcl-2, but promoted the expressions of E-Cadherin, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3. The effects of NNT-AS1 overexpression on IHH-4 cells were opposite to those of silencing NNT-AS1. In PTC tissues, miR-199a-5p was low-expressed and targeted by NNT-AS1, and it was negatively correlated with NNT-AS1. MiR-199a-5p inhibitor promoted TPC-1 cell progression, but miR-199a-5p mimic inhibited IHH-4 cell progression. NNT-AS1 and miR-199a-5p exerted opposite effects on PTC cells. Silencing NNT-AS1 inhibited PTC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, but promoted apoptosis via upregulation of miR-199a-5p.
Iodine transportation is an important step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Uptake of iodine into the thyroid follicle is mediated mainly by the basolateral sodium–iodide symporter (NIS or solute carrier family 5 member 5: SLC5A5), and iodine efflux across the apical membrane into the follicular lumen is mediated by pendrin (SLC26A4). In addition to these transporters, SLC26A7, which has recently been identified as a causative gene for congenital hypothyroidism, was found to encode a novel apical iodine transporter in the thyroid. Although SLC5A5 and SLC26A4 have been well-characterized, little is known about SLC26A7, including its regulation by TSH, the central hormone regulator of thyroid function. Using rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells, we showed that the mRNA levels of Slc26a7 and Slc26a4, two apical iodine transporters responsible for iodine efflux, were suppressed by TSH, whereas the mRNA level of Slc5a5 was induced. Forskolin and dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) had the same effect as that of TSH on the mRNA levels of these transporters. TSH, forskolin and dbcAMP also had suppressive effects on SLC26A7 promoter activity, as assessed by luciferase reporter gene assays, and protein levels, as determined by Western blot analysis. TSH, forskolin and dbcAMP also induced strong localization of Slc26a7 to the cell membrane according to immunofluorescence staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Together, these results suggest that TSH suppresses the expression level of Slc26a7 but induces its accumulation at the cell membrane, where it functions as an iodine transporter.
Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a highly heterogeneous condition, and its underlying causes remain to be clarified in a large fraction of patients. Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are multisystem diseases caused by mutations of a number of genes involved in N-glycosylation or O-glycosylation, and the most frequent form is PMM2-CDG (alias, CDG-Ia) resulting from biallelic mutations in PMM2 encoding phosphomannomutase-2 involved in N-glycosylation. Here, we examined a 46,XX Japanese female with syndromic POI accompanied by an undetectable level of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). Whole exome sequencing identified biallelic pathogenic mutations of PMM2 (a novel c.34G>C:p.(Asp12His) of maternal origin and a recurrent c.310C>G:p.(Leu104Val) of paternal origin) (NM_000303.3), and N-glycosylation studies detected asialotransferrin and disialotransferrin characteristic of PMM2-CDG, in addition to normally glycosylated tetrasialotransferrin. Clinical assessment showed cerebellar hypotrophy, which is a fairly characteristic and highly prevalent feature in PMM2-CDG, together with multiple non-specific features reported in PMM2-CDG such as characteristic face, intellectual disability, skeletal abnormalities, and low blood antithrombin III value. These results including the undetectable level of serum AMH, in conjunction with previously reported findings suggestive of the critical role of glycosylation in oocyte development and function, imply that PMM2-CDG almost invariably leads to POI primarily because of the defective oogenesis and/or oocyte-dependent early folliculogenesis rather than the compromised bioactivity of FSH/LH with defective glycosylation. Thus, it is recommended to examine PMM2 in patients with syndromic POI, especially in those with cerebellar ataxia/hypotrophy.
This study investigated the effects and mechanisms of miR-132 related to the permeability and mobility of human retinal pigment epithelium ARPE-19 cells in high-glucose (HG) condition. ARPE-19 cells were cultured in normal and HG condition and identified by immunofluorescence staining. Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay, cell permeability was assessed by the FITC-dextran assay and cell mobility was assessed by the wound healing assay. Different miRNA and mRNA expression levels were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The expression of tight junction-related proteins was determined by Western blot assay and immunofluorescence. The interaction between occludin and miR-132 was confirmed by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. We revealed that HG-treated ARPE-19 cells exhibited significantly increased miR-132 expression, decreased expression of the tight-junction markers including occludin and E-cadherin, and increased cell mobility and permeability. Occludin is a direct target of miR-132, which could regulate cell viability, mobility and permeability under HG condition through the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway. These are the first data to suggest that miR-132 may contribute to the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and that targeting the effect of miR-132 on occudin and the JAK/STAT3 pathway could represent a novel effective DR-treatment strategy.
Graves’ disease (GD) may coexist with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). The main purpose of this study was to evaluate whether treatment with radioactive iodine (RAI) may cause acute exacerbation of PTMC concurrent with GD or not. From the medical records of 10,257 GD patients who underwent RAI therapy between 2000–2017, 12 subjects with concurrent PTMC were retrieved. Further, 49 patients with concurrent GD and PTMC who underwent no RAI administration throughout their clinical course were enrolled as controls. Size of the PTMC nodules was evaluated based on maximal diameter and tumor volume-doubling rate (TV-DR). Among the 12 subjects who underwent RAI therapy (median dose, 13 mCi), 2 showed tumors >10 mm in maximal diameter with slow growth for more than 10 years, while the other 10 showed tumors with maximal diameter ≤10 mm. No subject showed any clinical findings of nodal or distant metastasis during the follow-up periods (0.4–11.5 years) before surgery or during active surveillance. No significant differences were observed in the TV-DR values (median, 0.044/year; range, –0.81–1.40) between the study subjects and controls (median, 0.025/year; range, –0.70–1.29; p = 0.69). When comparing the TV-DR before and after RAI administration in 3 individuals in particular, in whom PTMC were cytologically confirmed before RAI administration and whose prospective follow-up data were available, tumor progression was observed to be stable or decreased after RAI administration. There were no acute exacerbations or unfavorable outcomes of concurrent PTMC and GD after low-dose RAI administration.
Gender differences in risks for macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been well established. However, the impact of gender differences on diabetic retinopathy (DR) has not been fully elucidated. We therefore retrospectively explored gender-specific determinants for DR in patients with T2DM in a small sized Japanese cohort in Okinawa. There were 214 patients who were diagnosed as no DR (n = 142) and non-proliferative DR (n = 72) in 2009. During the follow-up of median 7 years, 41/142 of incidence, 26/72 of progression, and 67/214 of incidence and progression were observed, respectively. DR was assessed using the modified international clinical DR severity scales. The risks for incidence, progression as well as incidence and progression of DR were comparable between men and women, respectively. Cox proportional hazard models in multivariate analyses demonstrated that the only common determinant in both men and women for DR was the duration of T2DM. Regarding gender-specific determinants, lower level of serum albumin in men as well as higher HbA1c, lower level of estimated glomerular filtration rate, and lower level of serum uric acid in women were extracted, respectively. Although precise mechanisms for such gender-specific determinants of DR still remain unsolved, the present study would highlight a couple of factors associated with gender-specific determinants for DR in a limited numbers of Japanese cohort. Prospective observational studies on gender-specific determinants of DR in a large scale cohort are warranted to further clarify underlying mechanisms.
ACTH-cortisol dissociation is recognized in patients with critical illnesses. Cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 induce hypercortisolemia by enhancing the ACTH-independent synthesis and secretion of cortisol and by reducing cortisol breakdown. Subsequently, hypercortisolemia suppresses ACTH secretion by negative feedback inhibition. ACTH-cortisol dissociation in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases has not been reported. Here, we examined whether ACTH-cortisol dissociation is recognized in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) associated with hypercytokinemia, as well as the possible cytokine involvement in ACTH-cortisol dissociation, retrospectively. The levels of serum cortisol, plasma ACTH, and cytokine-induced proteins, i.e., plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin, and urinary β2-microglobulin (U-β2MG), in 232 patients with KD were measured at diagnosis. Quartile groups based on cytokine-induced protein levels were formed (Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4). We found a low median plasma ACTH [median (range): 8.9 (<2.0–332.0) pg/mL] but a high median serum cortisol level [median (range): 25.8 (1.4–99.8) μg/dL] in the entire study population. The median serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in the CRP-Q4, ferritin-Q4, and U-β2MG-Q4 groups than in the CRP-Q1, ferritin-Q2, and U-β2MG-Q1 groups, respectively (p < 0.01; p < 0.01; p < 0.001). The median plasma ACTH levels were significantly lower in the CRP-Q4 and ferritin-Q4 groups than in the CRP-Q1 and ferritin-Q1 groups, respectively (p < 0.001; p < 0.001). ACTH-cortisol dissociation was identified in patients with KD. Our findings suggest that inflammatory cytokines are involved in ACTH-independent hypercortisolemia in patients with KD. ACTH-cortisol dissociation in other systemic inflammatory diseases needs further investigation.
The aim of this post-hoc subgroup analysis, which was based on data from the treat-to-target, 26-week, onset 7 trial, was to confirm the efficacy and safety of fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) versus insulin aspart (IAsp), both in combination with basal insulin degludec, in children and adolescents from Japan with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Of the onset 7 trial population (1 to <18 years; N = 777), 66 participants from Japan (65 Asian and one non-Asian) were randomized to mealtime faster aspart (n = 24), post-meal faster aspart (n = 19), or IAsp (n = 23). Data for the subgroup from Japan were analysed descriptively. Change from baseline in hemoglobin A1c 26 weeks after randomization was 0.23%, 0.74%, and 0.39%, for mealtime faster aspart, post-meal faster aspart, and IAsp respectively. Change from baseline in 1-h post-prandial glucose increment (based on 8-point self-measured blood glucose profiles) showed numerical differences in favor of mealtime faster aspart versus IAsp at breakfast (–30.70 vs. –2.88 mg/dL) and over all meals (–18.21 vs. –5.55 mg/dL). There were no clinically relevant numerical differences between treatment arms in the overall rate of severe or blood glucose-confirmed hypoglycemia. At week 26, mean total insulin dose was 1.119 U/kg/day for mealtime faster aspart, 1.049 U/kg/day for post-meal faster aspart, and 1.037 U/kg/day for IAsp. In conclusion, in children and adolescents with T1D from Japan, mealtime and post-meal faster aspart with insulin degludec was efficacious in controlling glycemia without additional safety concerns versus IAsp.
Cytotoxic chemotherapy, including cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine (CVD) therapy, is widely used to treat metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Because these diseases are rare, studies are needed to establish treatment strategies. This was a single-center and retrospective study to analyze the efficacy of chemotherapy for patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma diagnosed in 1983–2020. Clinical characteristics, tumor volume response, biochemical response based on catecholamine level, overall survival, and progression-free survival were evaluated. Patients with a complete response or partial response in tumor volume or catecholamine level were classified as responders. Sixteen patients were administered chemotherapy for a median of 16.5 cycles (interquartile range, 10–42). The tumor volume response was classified as follows: partial response (N = 4), stable disease (N = 9), and progressive disease (N = 3) (disease control rate = 81%). The biochemical responses were as follows: complete response (N = 2), partial response (N = 5), no change (N = 3), and progressive disease (N = 1) (disease control rate = 91%). The 5-year survival rate was 50% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21–74%) and median overall survival was 4.4 years (95% CI, 2.4 years–not reached). Overall survival and progression-free survival between responders and nonresponders were not statistically different. One patient developed myelodysplastic syndrome during CVD therapy. In conclusion, chemotherapy achieved disease control among more than half of patients, although survival did not differ between responders and nonresponders. Further fundamental research and prospective trials are needed to analyze the efficacy of CVD therapy.
Pituitary tumors are discovered either incidentally by imaging studies (incidentalomas) or via evaluation of certain clinical symptoms (symptomatic tumors). In this study, we first surveyed patients with incidentalomas who underwent surgery. Cases included 62.3% non-functioning adenomas (NFPAs), 14.5% functioning adenomas, and 13.8% Rathke’s cleft cysts. Next, we compared the clinical features and surgical outcomes of 145 patients whose preoperative diagnosis was NFPA (incidentalomas [n = 79] vs. symptomatic tumors [n = 66]). The patients with incidentalomas were older (59.9 vs. 55.3 years, p < 0.05) and had smaller tumors compared with the patients with symptomatic tumors (mean maximum diameter: 23.1 vs. 27.5 mm, p < 0.01). The main reason for undergoing imaging studies was headache (n = 25) in the incidentaloma group and visual disturbance (n = 46) in the symptomatic tumor group. The incidence of preoperative pituitary hormone deficiencies was lower in the incidentaloma than symptomatic tumor group (growth hormone deficiency: 37.7% vs. 66.7%, p < 0.01; gonadotropin deficiency: 19.0% vs. 39.4%, p < 0.01; adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency: 3.8% vs. 18.2%, p < 0.01; thyroid stimulating hormone deficiency: 6.3% vs. 12.1%, p = 0.25). Postoperative pituitary function was better preserved in the incidentaloma than symptomatic tumor group (no deficiency: 58.2% vs. 28.8%, p < 0.01). The difference in postoperative complications between groups was not statistically significant (incidentalomas vs. symptomatic tumors: 21.5% vs. 19.7%, p = 0.84). In conclusion, incidentalomas were detected while smaller size and lower incidence of hormone deficiency than symptomatic tumors, and the pituitary hormones were also preserved after surgery. It is important to observe incidentalomas carefully and to judge whether to operate appropriately before they become symptomatic tumors.
Lenvatinib is a standard therapy for radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RR-DTC). However, because of the high incidence of adverse events resulting from this treatment, it is not easy to maintain the dose intensity of lenvatinib, especially in Japanese patients. Although the prognostic impact of lenvatinib dose interruption has been reported, the target dose intensity of lenvatinib to optimize survival benefits remains unknown. We therefore propose a target dose intensity of lenvatinib during the first 8 weeks of treatment. We retrospectively analyzed 42 RR-DTC patients who were treated with lenvatinib for more than 8 weeks. We performed receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to determine the cut-off value of 8 weeks’ relative dose intensity (8w-RDI) to predict treatment response, and identified that the optimal cut-off value of 8w-RDI was 60% (sensitivity: 81.8%; specificity: 80.6%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) (not reached [NR] vs. 11.0 months; hazard ratio [HR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11–0.72; p < 0.01) and overall survival (NR vs. 27.6 months; HR 0.44; 95% CI 0.11–0.91; p = 0.03) were longer in the higher 8w-RDI (≥60%) patients than in the lower 8w-RDI (<60%) patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that 8w-RDI at ≥60% was an independent prognostic factor for PFS (HR 0.29; 95% CI 0.09–0.96; p = 0.04). Targeting for ≥60% of the relative dose intensity during the first 8 weeks of lenvatinib treatment can be sufficient to achieve significant tumor shrinkage and prolong PFS in RR-DTC patients.
Thyroid nodules (TN) are common in the general population, and the clinical importance of diagnosing thyroid nodules is based on excluding the possibility of thyroid cancer, which occurs in 7–15% of cases. The thyroid gland, owing to its superficial location, is easily accessible via thermography, a noninvasive method of recording body temperature that measures infrared radiation emitted by the body surface. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the temperature differences between benign and malignant TN by using thermography. We conducted a cross-sectional study where 147 TN were divided into two groups: the first group included 120 benign nodules and the other included 27 malignant nodules. All the nodules were subjected to ultrasound, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and thermography. On analyzing the thermography results, the benign nodules had a higher temperature at the beginning of the thermography evaluation, and the malignant nodules showed a higher temperature in the middle and at the end (Ft). Using the relationships, it was observed that the temperature delta (ΔT), ΔT nodule/ΔT healthy, ΔT nodule minus ΔT healthy, and nodule Ft minus Ft of the healthy region were higher in malignant nodules. The ROC curve analysis of ΔT demonstrated a cutoff point of 2.38°C, with a sensitivity of 0.963 and specificity of 0.992. Malignant nodules have higher temperatures than benign nodules on thermographic evaluation. This finding suggests that thermography can be a useful tool in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
Pre-emptive evacuation orders following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) in March 2011 and subsequent regulatory limits regarding contaminated food, milk, and water minimized the external and internal radiation exposure doses of nearby residents. However, with regard to implementation of iodine thyroid blocking (ITB), residents were confused because no information on the matter was released by the central and/or local governments. Based on lessons learned from the FDNPS accident, many countries have revised their guidelines regarding ITB during nuclear disasters. To adequately revise such guidelines and ensure effective ITB implementation during a nuclear disaster, however, residents’ perceptions of ITB must be clarified. In this study, the perception of risks associated with ITB was investigated in mothers residing near the Sendai Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Of the 520 mothers surveyed, 467 (89.8%) expressed anxiety regarding the administration of potassium iodine (KI) to their children. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the mothers’ anxiety regarding the administration of KI to their children was positively correlated with their wish to consult an expert about KI and their hesitation to let their children eat foods produced in Fukushima, and negatively correlated with having confidence about administering KI to their children. Careful communication of potential risks to mothers residing near nuclear power plants is thus critical for implementing effective ITB in children.
CircRNAs have been implicated in the progression of human cancers, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Although circ_0008274 has been demonstrated as a potential oncogenic circRNA in PTC, our understanding of its molecular determinants is limited. The levels of circ_0008274, miR-154-3p and solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11) mRNA were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). SLC7A11 protein level was assessed by western blot. Cell apoptosis, migration, and adhesion capacities were examined by flow cytometry, transwell and cell adhesion assays, respectively. The targeted correlations among circ_0008274, miR-154-3p and SLC7A11 were confirmed by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Animal studies were performed to observe the role of circ_0008274 in tumor growth in vivo. Our data showed that the high levels of circ_0008274 and SLC7A11 were associated with poor prognosis of PTC patients. The knockdown of circ_0008274 or SLC7A11 enhanced PTC cell apoptosis and repressed cell migration and adhesion in vitro. Circ_0008274 knockdown suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, circ_0008274 modulated SLC7A11 expression by acting as a sponge of miR-154-3p. SLC7A11 was a functional mediator of circ_0008274 in regulating PTC cell apoptosis, migration and adhesion in vitro, and miR-154-3p overexpression repressed PTC progression in vitro by targeting SLC7A11. Our findings identified that the knockdown of circ_0008274 repressed PTC malignant progression at least in part through regulating the miR-154-3p/SLC7A11 axis, providing a promising therapeutic opportunity for PTC treatment.
Intermittent fasting, which can effectively reduce obesity and improve the related metabolic syndrome has become an exciting research area in recent years. Adipose tissue is pivotal in regulating the metabolism and determining the occurrence of obesity. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of acute fasting (AF) on fat tissue. Mice were subjected to AF for 36 h, receiving normal chow (low-fat diet [LFD]) or a high-fat diet (HFD), with free ad libitum access to drinking water, and those fed on free-diet counterparts without fasting serveding as controls. We found that AF obviously reshaped the morphology of fat tissue (WAT) and promoted the beiging of white adipose tissue in both LFD- and HFD-fed mice. AF principally improved the lipid metabolism, and increased the M2- polarization of macrophages in WAT white fat tissue of HFD-fed mice. Interestingly, we found that AF dramatically upregulated Sirt5 expression levels and fat tissue succinylation, suggesting that AF-induced beneficial effects on fat might occur via the regulation of Sirt5 levels and altered succinylation in fatty tissues. Our study clearly showed the remodeling function of adipose tissue during AF; in terms of mechanism, the regulation of succinylation levels by AF might provide new insights into the mechanism(s) underlying the improvement in fat metabolism by energy restriction.
Vascular muscle cells (VSMCs) participate in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Resistin-like molecule beta (Relmβ) contributes to atherosclerosis development by activating macrophage. This study aims to investigate whether Relmβ regulates VSMC phenotypic modulation under high glucose environment. Human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells were cultured and treated with Relmβ in the presence or absence of high glucose. VSMC phenotypic modulation was assessed by expression of related markers. The migration of VSMCs was detected by wound healing assay and transwell assay. The proliferation of VSMCs was measured using CCK-8 assay. In this study, we observed that Relmβ modulated VSMC phenotypic modulation by down-regulating expression of smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA), smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC), and calponin while up-regulating expression of osteopontin (OPN). Relmβ increased the expression of inflammatory genes in VSMCs. Relmβ also augmented VSMCs migration as well as proliferation. It is worth noting that all the effects of VSMCs were enhanced upon high glucose stimulation. The phosphorylation levels of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 were increased by co-treatment with Relmβ and high glucose. The p38 MAPK pathway inhibitor RWJ64809 and pERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 significantly inhibited the proliferation of VSMCs induced by Relmβ and high glucose. Our results provide evidence that Relmβ augments phenotypic modulation and migration of human aortic smooth muscle cell induced by high glucose. Relmβ might be a potential target for treatment of atherosclerosis induced by hyperglycemia.
Female, especially for pregnant female, are vulnerable to psychological stress. The morphology and metabolism of the maternal intestine are both obviously changed during pregnancy, thus making intestinal health status more fragile under psychological stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CRH and CRHR1 in the pregnant maternal intestine under psychological stress, thus exploring the mechanism of psychological stress in the pregnant maternal intestine. Bama miniature pigs were divided into the control and restraint stress groups from the first day of pregnancy. After restraint stress treatment for 18 consecutive days (D18), the plasma, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon were collected for study. Pregnant Bama miniature pigs subjected to restraint stress had significantly elevated CRH, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol (COR) levels in plasma. Consistent with the increase in CRH levels, we observed enhanced oxidative stress levels in the intestine, which resulted in intestinal mucosal injury, including impaired intestinal morphology, a reduced number of goblet cells and proliferating cell nuclear antigen‐positive cells, decreased expression of MUC2 and tight junctions, and elevated expression of CRHR1 and caspase-3. Moreover, exogenous CRH could directly promote IPEC-J2 cell apoptosis and influence its cell cycle (S and G2 phase) through CRHR1, and antalarmin could alleviate this phenomenon. Therefore, our results illustrated that the intestinal dysfunction of pregnant Bama miniature pigs was caused by restraint stress, and these changes were associated with the enhanced expression of CRH and CRHR1 in the intestine.
In this study, we compared the efficacy of a dipeptidyl peptidase–4 inhibitor (DPP4i) to improve glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with or without Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT). First, we compared the change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between the hypothyroid condition (before levothyroxine sodium hydrate [LT4] treatment) and euthyroid condition (after LT4 treatment when patients had achieved euthyroidism for at least six months) in patients with T2DM and HT. Next, we compared the change in HbA1c levels before and six months of DPP4i treatment in patients with T2DM with and without HT. In hypothyroid condition the change in HbA1c after six months of DPP4i treatment was 0.13% ± 0.86%. The change in HbA1c levels from when patients first achieved euthyroidism to after six months in the euthyroid condition was 0.26% ± 0.90%. DPP4i efficacy in patients with T2DM and HT was reduced compared to patients with T2DM but without HT (–0.40 ± 0.90 vs. –0.99 ± 0.5, p = 0.0032). These data suggest that hypothyroidism does not impact on DPP4i efficacy. However, the effect of DPP4i in patients with T2DM and HT was reduced compared to that in T2DM patients without HT. An estimation of thyroid function before prescribing DPP4i may be useful tool for predicting the efficacy of DPP4i, allowing the ruling out complications from HT.
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play critical role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the effects and mechanism of plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) remain poorly understood. The expression of PVT1, miR-23b-3p, early growth response factor 1 (EGR1), Fibronectin (FN), Collagen IV (Col IV), alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), E-cadherin, and vimentin, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cell proliferation was assessed by Cell Counting-8 (CCK-8) assay. Western blot assay was conducted to measure the protein levels of FN, Col IV, E-cadherin, α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, and EGR1. The interaction between miR-23b-3p and PVT1 or EGR1 was predicted by starBase or TargetScan and confirmed by the dual luciferase reporter assay. The oxidative stress factors were analyzed by corresponding kits. We found that the expression of PVT1 and EGR1 was increased and miR-23b-3p was decreased in serum samples of DN patients and HG-induced HRMCs. Knockdown of PVT1 significantly inhibited HG-induced proliferation, extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and oxidative stress in HRMCs, while these effects were abated by inhibiting miR-23b-3p. In addition, EGR1 was confirmed as downstream target of miR-23b-3p and miR-23b-3p could specially bind to PVT1. Besides, downregulation of PVT1 inhibited the progression of DN partially via upregulating miR-23b-3p and downregulating EGR1. In conclusion, our results suggested that PVT1 knockdown suppressed DN progression though functioning as ceRNA of miR-23b-3p to regulate EGR1 expression in vitro, providing potential value for the treatment of DN.
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a well-known peptide that maintains the balance of electrolytes in the higher vertebrates. Ang II stimulation in the adrenal gland induces the synthesis of mineralocorticoids, mainly aldosterone, through the up-regulation of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) gene expression. Additionally, it has been reported that Ang II activates multiple signaling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Ca2+ signaling. Although Ang II has various effects on the cellular signaling in the adrenal cells, its biological significance, except for the aldosterone synthesis, is still unclear. In this study, we attempted to search the novel target gene(s) of Ang II in the human adrenal H295R cells using a proteomic approach combined with stable isotopic labeling using amino acid in cell culture (SILAC). Interestingly, we found that Ang II stimulation elevated the expression of phosphofructokinase type platelet (PFKP) in both protein and mRNA levels. Moreover, transactivation of PFKP by Ang II was dependent on extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation. Finally, we observed that Ang II treatment facilitated glucose uptake in the H295R cells. Taken together, we here identified PFKP as a novel target gene of Ang II, indicating that Ang II not only stimulates steroidogenesis but also affects glucose metabolism.
This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of intensive exercise in addition to the administration of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin (DAPA) on body composition, including fat-free mass, in type 2 diabetes. We randomly assigned 146 patients to 24 weeks of treatment with intensive exercise, including resistance training, plus 5 mg (up to 10 mg) of DAPA daily (IT group) or DAPA alone (CT group). The primary endpoint was the difference in the change in fat-free mass from baseline to 24 weeks between the groups. The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI); metabolic profile, including HbA1c; and regional fat mass were also determined. ANCOVA was used for the group comparison, with least squares mean (LSM) differences and 95% confidence interval (CI). There was no significant difference in the change in fat-free mass (LSM difference –0.1 kg (95% CI: –0.5 to 0.4) and SMI (LSM difference –0.1 kg (95% CI: –0.2 to 0.1) between the groups. In contrast, the reduction of trunk fat mass was significantly higher in the IT group than in the CT group ((LSM difference –0.5 kg [95% CI –0.9 to –0.1]). Higher adherence to the resistance training tended to be associated with changes in HbA1c and high-sensitivity CRP levels. Our study suggests that intensive exercise do not prevent the reduction of fat-free mass after administration of SGLT2 inhibitors but can increase the reduction in abdominal fat, presumably leading to further improvements of hyperglycemia and chronic inflammation than DAPA alone in type 2 diabetes patients.
This study aimed to confirm the efficacy and safety of mealtime and post-meal fast-acting insulin aspart versus insulin aspart, both with basal insulin degludec, in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes. This was a subgroup analysis of onset 8, a randomized multicenter, treat-to-target trial of mealtime fast-acting insulin aspart (subgroup n = 73), mealtime insulin aspart (n = 83), or open-label post-meal fast-acting insulin aspart (n = 89), all for 26 weeks. Change from baseline in HbA1c was considered the primary endpoint. After 26 weeks, the estimated treatment difference (ETD, 95% CI) for change from baseline in HbA1c between mealtime fast-acting insulin aspart or post-meal fast-acting insulin aspart vs. insulin aspart was 0.01% (–0.16;0.19) and 0.10% (–0.07;0.27), respectively. Following a standardized meal test, ETD for change from baseline in postprandial glucose (PPG) increment at 1 hour was –16.91 mg/dL (–32.15;–1.68) for mealtime fast-acting insulin aspart and 40.16 mg/dL (25.46;54.87) for post-meal fast-acting insulin aspart, both versus insulin aspart. Mean self-measured blood glucose 1-hour PPG increments also showed a trend towards improved PPG control with mealtime fast-acting insulin aspart versus insulin aspart. Rates of overall hypoglycemia (35.56, 37.72 and 38.75 per patient-year of exposure with mealtime fast-acting insulin aspart, post-meal fast-acting insulin aspart and insulin aspart, respectively) and meal-related hypoglycemia were similar between treatment arms. Consistent with findings of onset 8, this analysis confirmed mealtime and post-meal fast-acting insulin aspart provided effective HbA1c and PPG control versus insulin aspart, with similar safety profiles, in Japanese adults with type 1 diabetes.
We provide the details of the successful management of a patient with active Cushing’s disease complicated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. The patient was a 27-year-old Japanese female healthcare worker who was scheduled to undergo pituitary surgery for Cushing’s disease. She had been in close contact with an undiagnosed patient infected with COVID-19 and then developed COVID-19 pneumonia. Despite a lack of known risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 infection, the patient’s dyspnea worsened and her respiratory condition deteriorated, as indicated by the need for 7 L/min oxygen supply by mask to maintain her oxygen saturation at >90%. Medical treatment was initiated to control hypercortisolism by the ‘block and replace’ regimen using steroidogenesis inhibitors and hydrocortisone. The COVID-19 pneumonia improved with multi-modal treatment including antiviral therapy. One month later, after a negative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) test result and with appropriate protection against virus transmission to medical staff in the operating room and daily medical care nurses, trans-sphenoidal surgery was performed by our highly experienced pituitary surgeon. One month after the surgery, the patient’s basal ACTH and cortisol levels and urinary free cortisol were all under the detection limit. Surgical remission was expected. Since hypercortisolism due to active Cushing’s disease may worsen a COVID-19 infection, multi-disciplinary management that includes appropriate and prompt treatment strategies is mandatory in such cases.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), one of the major complications of diabetes, can cause blindness and reduce quality of life. Dyslipidemia is reported to be associated with DR, whereas arachidonic acid may have a protective effect against DR. We aimed to investigate the association of circulating n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with DR. In this cross-sectional study, 190 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were classified as no diabetic retinopathy (NDR), simple diabetic retinopathy (SDR), or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) including pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Circulating fatty acids (FAs) were measured by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between the levels of FAs and the presence of DR. The average age, body mass index and the duration of diabetes were 62.7 ± 12.1 years, 25.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2, and 9.8 ± 8.7 years, respectively. Twenty-seven patients were diagnosed with DR. Circulating levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) in the NDR (n = 163), SDR (n = 13) and PDR (n = 14) groups were 28.3 ± 11.0 μg/mL, 24.4 ± 9.7 μg/mL, and 21.8 ± 6.2 μg/mL, respectively (p = 0.032). The logarithm of circulating DGLA levels was associated with the presence of DR after adjusting for covariates (OR of 1-unit increment: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.62–1.00, p = 0.049). Circulating DGLA was negatively associated with the presence of DR.
Numerous studies have shown that growth hormone (GH) replacement in adult GH deficiency (AGHD) improves the body composition and metabolic rate; however, data about the relationship between body composition and energy expenditure in these patients is scarce. Our study aimed to investigate the changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) and body composition after GH replacement in patients with AGHD. We enrolled 15 patients diagnosed with AGHD and evaluated the effect of GH replacement administered once daily for 12 months on REE, body composition measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and serological markers. GH replacement therapy significantly increased the serum insulin growth factor-1 levels after 4, 8, and 12 months. The REE and REE/basal energy expenditure (REE/BEE) ratio significantly increased from 1278.0 ± 490.0 kcal/day and 0.87 ± 0.23 at baseline to 1505.5 ± 449.2 kcal/day and 1.11 ± 0.21 at 4 months, 1,918.7 ± 631.2 kcal/day and 1.29 ± 0.27 at 8 months, and 1,511.1 ± 271.2 kcal/day, 1.14 ± 0.29 at 12 months (p < 0.005, p < 0.005; p < 0.01, p < 0.01; p < 0.01, p < 0.005, respectively). There was no change in the body weight, while the lean body mass increased significantly from 45.8 ± 9.5 kg at baseline to 46.9 ± 9.4 kg at 4 months and 47.5 ± 10.1 kg at 8 months (p < 0.005, p < 0.01, respectively). The fat mass also decreased at 12 months. Lipid metabolism improved after 4 and 8 months. GH replacement therapy in patients with AGHD significantly improved the REE and body composition.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is characterized by insulin resistance and relative insulin insufficiency, has become the most common chronic metabolic disease threatening global health. The preferred therapies for T2DM include lifestyle interventions and the use of anti-diabetic drugs. However, considering their adverse reactions, it is important to find a low-toxicity and effective functional food or drug for diabetes prevention and treatment. Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant carotenoid found in marine organisms has been reported to prevent diet-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. To investigate the anti-diabetic effects of astaxanthin, male Wistar rats were fed a high-energy diet for 4 weeks, followed by a low dose streptozotocin (STZ) injection to induce the diabetes model, and the rats were then fed an astaxanthin-containing diet for another 3 weeks. Astaxanthin significantly decreased blood glucose and total cholesterol (TC) levels, and increased blood levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in STZ-induced diabetic rats in a dose dependent manner. These results were associated with increased expression of insulin sensitivity related genes (adiponectin, adipoR1, and adipoR2) in vivo, thereby attenuating STZ-induced diabetes. In addition, we also compared the anti-diabetic effects of astaxanthin and monacolin K, which has been reported to downregulate hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. The results revealed that astaxanthin and monacolin K showed similar anti-diabetic effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, astaxanthin may be developed as an anti-diabetic agent in the future.
Many previous studies including ours have reported that athyreotic patients on levothyroxine (LT4) have relatively low serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels, whereas patients with large goitrous diseases often have high serum FT3 levels. Here we investigated Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) patients on LT4 to study the relationship between thyroid volume (TV) and thyroid hormone status in hypothyroid patients on LT4. We retrospectively studied 408 euthyroid HT patients treated with LT4 for hypothyroidism; divided them as per TV and compared serum levels of free thyroxine (FT4) and FT3 and the FT3/FT4 ratio in each patient group with those in euthyroid matched control group. We also evaluated the association between serum FT3 level and FT3/FT4 ratio and TV among HT patients on LT4. In patients with TV <15 mL, serum FT3 levels were significantly lower than those in controls. In patients with TV 15–80 mL, serum FT3 levels were equivalent to those in controls. In patients with TV ≥80 mL, the serum FT3 levels were significantly higher than those in controls. The serum FT3 level (r = 0.35, p < 0.01) and FT3/FT4 ratio (r = 0.42, p < 0.01) showed a positive correlation with TV. TVs in HT patients on LT4 caused differences in serum thyroid hormone balance, as increasing volume increases the serum FT3 level and FT3/FT4 ratio. Serum thyroid hormone balance in HT patients with smaller thyroids was similar to that in athyreotic patients. Mild thyrotropin suppression with LT4 is needed to achieve normal FT3 levels in such patients.
A 17-year-old woman with a history of childhood leukemia and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), preceded by total body irradiation, developed diabetes, dyslipidemia, fatty liver, and marked insulin resistance. Based on Dunnigan phenotype, HSCT-associated lipodystrophy was suspected. Because of rapid deterioration of diabetes control, metreleptin was introduced at 23 years of age upon receipt of her caregiver’s documented consent. This trial was initially planned as a prospective 18 month-long study, with regular assessments of the patient’s physical activity, food intake, and body composition analysis. However, because an abrupt and transient attenuation of the metreleptin effect occurred 16 months after the treatment initiation, the entire course of 28 months is reported here. Over the period, her HbA1c decreased from 10.9% to 6.7% despite no significant increase of physical activity and with a stable food intake. Decreased levels of triglyceride and non-HDL cholesterol were found. Her liver function improved, indicating the amelioration of fatty liver. In addition, a 25% reduction in the subcutaneous fat area at umbilical level was found, accompanied by a decrease in fat percentage of both total-body and trunk. The formation of neutralizing antibodies to metreleptin may be responsible for the transient loss of efficacy, considering a sudden elevation in her serum leptin level. In conclusion, metreleptin is useful for the management of HSCT-associated lipodystrophy, supporting the concept that adipose tissue dysfunction is responsible for diverse post-HSCT metabolic aberrations.
The present study used intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM) in 10 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 7-day outpatient treatment with the combination of intensive insulin therapy and sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2-I). All participants wore isCGM and were treated with either 50 mg/day ipragliflozin or 5 mg/day dapagliflozin. The primary outcome, percent time with glucose at 70–180 mg/dL (TIR: time in range), improved significantly following the addition of SGLT2-I (p = 0.005). TIR increased from 36.0% before addition of SGLT2-I to 70.7% on day 7. Although none of the patients achieved TIR of 70% or higher before the addition of SGLT2-I, 6 patients met that criteria TIR on day 7. The secondary outcome measures, standard deviation (SD) of glucose, average plasma glucose, percent time with glucose at >180 mg/dL (TAR: time above range), maximum plasma glucose, high blood glucose index (HBGI) and average nocturnal plasma glucose (midnight to 05:59 AM) detected by isCGM, also improved significantly by SGLT2-I. There were no significant differences in percent time with glucose at <70 mg/dL (TBR: time below range), minimum plasma glucose and low blood glucose index (LBGI). Our results using isCGM in an actual clinical setting showed that 7-day use of SGLT2-I with intensive insulin therapy improved plasma glucose fluctuations and mean plasma glucose levels without inducing hypoglycemia in patients with T1DM.
Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is characterized by mild thyrotoxicosis occurring within one year of parturition commonly followed by transient hypothyroidism. Having genetic background of autoimmune thyroid disorders is a risk factor for it because the immune reactivation during postpartum period is a trigger for PPT. Pandemic of COVID-19: caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection is a global health problem, and occurrence of Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis after the viral infection have been reported but occurrence of PPT with COVID-19 has never been reported. A 29-year-old woman developed general fatigue four and a half months after parturition, and was diagnosed as having PPT: one month before, she had COVID-19. Hereafter, we define the date of delivery as Day 0 to make timeline clear. SARS-CoV-2 infection was diagnosed by PCR on Day 103, its disappearance from the upper airway confirmed on Day 124, and the thyroiditis diagnosed on Day 136. She had been euthyroid on Day 0 and 95, but thyrotoxic on Day 136. Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration was normal in the presence of anti-Tg antibody, other thyroid-related autoantibodies were negative, and by ultrasonography, the thyroid gland was normal in size and no evidence of increased vascularity. Thyroid function returned to normal by Day 172 without any specific drug therapy. In conclusion, although a clear causal relationship could not be found, we documented the world’s first case of PPT developed following COVID-19.
In recent times, the role of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been increasingly investigated. However, to our knowledge, no systematic analysis has been conducted yet to evaluate the relationship between FGF21 levels and GDM. Confirmed studies related to circulating FGF21 levels and GDM were searched from the databases of PubMed, ISI Web of Science, MEDLINE and EMBASE. Data were reported as standard mean difference (SMD) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analysis were performed with Review Manager 5.2 and Stata version 11.0. A total of 392 cases and 435 controls in nine articles were included in this meta-analysis. The circulating FGF21 levels in pregnant women with GDM was higher than that in controls (random effects MD [95% CI] = 0.46, [0.07–0.86], p = 0.02). The result of multivariate meta-regression showed that sample size and point of sample collection contributed to heterogeneity (p = 0.033 and p = 0.047, respectively). Additionally, the results showed that there was no publication bias in this meta-analysis (Z = 1.36, p = 0.175; t = 1.24, p = 0.256, respectively). To conclude, this meta-analysis provides evidence that circulating FGF21 levels are higher in GDM subjects than controls, and it is important to clarify the relationship between circulating FGF21 levels and pregnant women with GDM in accurate prediction of GDM.
Testosterone deficiency is associated with poor prognosis among patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Physiological testosterone improves the exercise capacity of patients with HF. In this study, we evaluated whether treatment with physiological testosterone contributes to anti-fibrogenesis by modifying calcium homeostasis in cardiac fibroblasts and we studied the underlying mechanisms. Nitric oxide (NO) analyses, calcium (Ca2+) fluorescence, and Western blotting were performed in primary isolated rat cardiac fibroblasts with or without (control cells) testosterone (10, 100, 1,000 nmol/L) treatment for 48 hours. Physiological testosterone (10 nmol/L) increased NO production and phosphorylation at the inhibitory site of the inositol trisphosphate (IP3) receptor, thereby reducing Ca2+ entry, phosphorylated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) expression, type I and type III pro-collagen production. Non-physiological testosterone-treated fibroblasts exhibited similar NO and collagen production capabilities as compared to control (testosterone deficient) fibroblasts. These effects were blocked by co-treatment with NO inhibitor (L-NG-nitro arginine methyl ester [L-NAME], 100 μmol/L). In the presence of the IP3 receptor inhibitor (2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate [2-APB], 50 μmol/L), testosterone-deficient and physiological testosterone-treated fibroblasts exhibited similar phosphorylated CaMKII expression. When treated with 2-APB or CaMKII inhibitor (KN93, 10 μmol/L), testosterone-deficient and physiological testosterone-treated fibroblasts exhibited similar type I, and type III collagen production. In conclusion, physiological testosterone activates NO production, and attenuates the IP3 receptor/Ca2+ entry/CaMKII signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting the collagen production capability of cardiac fibroblasts.
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of maternal thyroid hormone dysfunction in late pregnancy on birth outcomes in a Chinese population. We retrospectively examined hospitalisation records and laboratory data between April 2016 and March 2017 and obtained results from 11,564 consecutive pregnant women with singleton births in which serum thyroid hormone had been examined together with birth outcomes. We assessed the association between maternal thyroid level and dysfunction with adverse birth outcomes based on regression analysis. Hyperthyroidism was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (PTB, adjusted OR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.83–3.17) and hypothyroidism was associated with an increased risk of small for gestational age (SGA, adjusted OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.10–2.22), while hyperthyroxinaemia was associated with a decreased risk of large for gestational age (LGA, adjusted OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45–0.90). In addition, compared to women with normal FT3 and TSH (≥the 5th and ≤the 95th percentiles), women with high free triiodothyronine (FT3 >the 95th percentile) and low thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH <the 95th percentile) had a 4.02- fold higher risk of PTB (95% CI: 2.05–7.88), and women with low FT3 and high TSH had a 4.22- fold greater risk of SGA (95% CI: 1.59–11.23). Our study supports associations between multiple types of maternal thyroid dysfunction in late pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes.
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension, and a simpler non-invasive method for identification of aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is required to improve the standard of medical treatment for PA patients. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of hypertensive patients with an aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) ≥30 (ng/dL)/(ng/mL/h), and surgical and/or adrenal venous sampling (AVS) results served as the gold standard for APA diagnosis. The study aimed to determine whether positive CCT and SIT results plus a unilateral adrenal nodule found by CT allow unambiguous identification of an APA with high diagnostic specificity. Clinical data from 71 APA and 47 non-APA patients were collected, and logistic regression analysis was performed to construct models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze the efficacy of diagnostic tests. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) were similar between the post-SIT plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and post-CCT PAC (p > 0.05). The optimal post-SIT and post-CCT PAC cutoff values were 17.2 and 21.2 ng/dL, respectively. Positive CT findings combined with a post-SIT PAC >17.2 ng/dL or post-CCT PAC >21.2 ng/dL provided specificities of 97.8% and 95.7% for predicting APA, respectively. Logistic diagnostic models 1 (M1, CT finding + post-SIT PAC) and 2 (M2, CT finding + post-CCT PAC) were built, which showed equivalent diagnostic value (AUC = 0.959 and 0.932, respectively) (p > 0.05). The models combining CT findings with post-SIT PACs or post-CCT PACs represent an easier method to distinguish APA patients from other hypertensive patients with positive upright ARR results, especially in primary care where AVS may be unavailable.
Rathke’s cleft cyst (RCC) is a common incidental tumor in the hypothalamic-pituitary region. Some reports have shown that the clinical symptoms and endocrine functions of symptomatic RCCs are temporarily improved by glucocorticoid administration. However, it is still unknown whether glucocorticoid treatment is effective for symptomatic RCCs according to long-term observations. In this study, we describe the long-term clinical outcomes of two cases of glucocorticoid-treated biopsy-proven secondary hypophysitis caused by RCCs. We summarize the symptoms, imaging findings, and endocrine evaluations of two symptomatic RCC patients with concomitant hypophysitis before and after prednisolone treatment. In both evaluated cases, visual impairments and altered endocrine parameters were present due to chiasm and stalk compression; these outcomes improved after shrinkage of RCCs in response to prednisolone administration, and partial recovery of anterior pituitary hormone secretion was observed. However, in both cases, the deficits in anterior pituitary hormone secretion recurred, possibly due to persistent inflammatory infiltration in the RCCs and pituitary glands. After relapse of hypophysitis, anterior hormone secretion did not fully recover. In our cases of secondary hypophysitis caused by RCCs, prednisolone administration had an early effect of cyst shrinkage, followed by partial improvements in clinical symptoms and pituitary functions. However, long-term observation showed that prednisolone treatment did not contribute to complete improvement in anterior pituitary hormone dysfunction.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is widely considered to be associated with the risk of diverse cancers; however, the association between DM and the risk of leukemia is still controversial. Thus, a detailed meta-analysis of cohort studies was conducted to elucidate this association. Eligible studies were screened through the electronic searches in PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase from their inception to August 11, 2020. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed through the random-effects model. Eighteen articles involving 10,516 leukemia cases among a total of 4,094,235 diabetic patients were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, twenty-five RRs were synthesized for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and yielded a summary RR of 1.33 (95%CI, 1.21–1.47; p < 0.001). For type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), 7 RRs were combined, however, the pooled RR was insignificant (RR, 1.08; 95%CI, 0.87–1.34; p = 0.48). Interestingly, the summary RR for East Asia (RR, 1.83, 95%CI, 1.63–2.06) was significantly higher than that for Europe (RR, 1.11, 95%CI, 1.06–1.15), Western Asia (RR, 1.40, 95%CI, 1.25–1.54), North America (RR, 1.14, 95%CI, 1.08–1.20), and Australia (RR, 1.47, 95%CI, 1.25–1.71). Moreover, we found that patients with a shorter T2DM duration (1–5 years) had a higher risk of leukemia compared to those with a longer duration (5.1–10 years). Overall, this meta-analysis suggests there is a moderately increased risk of leukemia among T2DM patients, but not in T1DM patients. Further investigation is warranted.
Werner syndrome, also called adult progeria, is a heritable autosomal recessive human disorder characterized by the premature onset of numerous age-related diseases including juvenile cataracts, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Werner syndrome is a segmental progeroid syndrome whose presentation resembles accelerated aging. The most common causes of death for WS patients are atherosclerosis and cancer. A 40-year-old female presented with short stature, bird-like facies, canities with alopecia, scleroderma-like skin changes, and non-healing foot ulcers. The patient reported a history of delayed puberty, abortion, hypertriglyceridemia, and juvenile cataracts. A clinical diagnosis of WS was made and subsequently confirmed. We discovered two WRN gene mutations in the patient, Variant 1 was the most common WRN mutation, nonsense mutation (c.1105C>T:p.R369Ter) in exon 9, which caused a premature termination codon (PTC) at position 369. Variant 2 was a frameshift mutation (c.1134delA:p.E379KfsTer5) in exon 9, which caused a PTC at position 383 and has no published reports describing. Patients with WS can show a wide variety of clinical and biological manifestations in endocrine-metabolic systems (DM, thyroid dysfunction, and hyperlipidemia). Doctors must be cognizant of early manifestations of WS and treatment options.
Type 2 diabetes is associated with sarcopenia. Resistance training and appropriate nutritional therapy are reported to be effective for muscle strength and mass. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of resistance training using elastic bands at home combined with a leucine-rich amino acid supplement on muscle strength, physical function, and muscle mass in elderly type 2 diabetes. We conducted a 48-week prospective single-center randomized controlled trial in 60 patients who were randomly allocated to one of three groups: control (C), resistance exercise (R), and resistance exercise plus supplement (RL). R and RL groups performed daily bodyweight resistance training with elastic bands exercises at home, and the RL group also took 6 g of a leucine-rich amino acid supplement daily. Knee extension strength (muscle strength), grip strength, usual gait speed (physical function), muscle mass, and cognitive function were assessed at 0 and 48 weeks. Although the change in knee extension strength from baseline was significantly increased by 6.4 Nm (95% CI 1.0, 11.7) in the RL group (p = 0.036), no significant difference was observed among the three groups (p = 0.090). Physical function, muscle mass, and cognitive function also had no changes during the study period among the three groups. No additive effect of a leucine-rich amino acid supplement on muscle strength or mass was observed. Although a post hoc analysis comparing with or without resistance training (C group vs. R + RL group) found that knee extension strength was significantly increased (p = 0.028), and cognitive decline was less (p = 0.046) than in the C group.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) consists of 5 metabolic components, which are recognized as risk factors for cerebral infarction. The present study was to evaluate the relative influence of individual metabolic component on incident cerebral infarction. Using a data of 209,339 Koreans registered in National Health Information Corporation, we evaluated the risk for incident cerebral infarction according to the number of metabolic component and each metabolic component for 4.37 years’ follow-up. Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for cerebral infarction and their confidence interval (CI). The more metabolic components accompanied the worse metabolic profile, leading increased incidence of cerebral infarction. The risk of cerebral infarction increased proportionally to the number of present metabolic components (number 0: reference, number 1: 1.78 [1.42–2.23], number 2: 2.20 [1.76–2.74], number 3: 2.61 [2.09–3.25] and number 4–5: 3.18 [2.54–3.98]). Compared to subjects without metabolic component, the impact of each component on cerebral infarction was relatively higher in elevated fasting glucose (1.56 [1.14–2.13]) and elevated BP (2.13 [1.66–2.73]), indicating no statistical significance in low HDL-cholesterol (1.53 [0.96–2.44]), high triglyceride (1.24 [0.84–1.84]) and abdominal obesity (1.05 [0.63–1.73]). Proportional relationship was found between the number of metabolic component and risk of cerebral infarction. Out of metabolic components, fasting glucose and BP are more powerful predictor for cerebral infarction.