Lenvatinib is a molecular-targeting agent that was recently approved in Japan for treatment of curatively unresectable, radioactive iodine-refractory, progressive differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Because only a few Japanese patients have received lenvatinib in clinical trials, there are limited domestic data on its safety and efficacy or prognostic factors. Therefore, a prospective observational study has been designed to collect safety and efficacy data in at least 300 patients with curatively unresectable DTC receiving lenvatinib therapy (24 mg/day), in order to find predictors of antitumor activity and survival. Patients with progressive curatively unresectable DTC refractory to radioiodine therapy will be enrolled and the primary endpoint will be overall survival. This study is designed to estimate the 95% confidence intervals of the 1-year and 2-year survival rates with a two-sided width of less than 10%. Secondary endpoints will be the time to treatment failure, time to strategy failure, progression-free survival time with clinical progressive disease, response rate, quality of life, safety, and patient reports. The ultimate goal is to obtain information for developing evidence-based guidelines for treatment of DTC, including recommendations on patient selection, dosages, and duration of treatment. This study has been registered with the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000022243).
This cross-sectional study aimed to examine changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration over age in China and investigate relationship between TSH and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among euthyroid subjects. TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), blood lipid, and glucose were measured. 7,693 individuals were subdivided into different age groups. Associations between TSH and CVD risk factors [age, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG)] were evaluated with Pearson correlation analysis. Results showed that 2.5th percentile for TSH was consistent across age groups, whereas 97.5th percentile increased in subjects older than 40 years with upper limit being 6.83 mIU/L in subjects aged 60–69 years and 8.07 mIU/L in those older than 70 years. The age-speciﬁc upper limits reclassiﬁcation rate was higher in all age bands as compared to the common cut-off value. TSH was positively associated with age, SBP, DBP, TC and LDL-C and negatively with FT3 and FT4. Serum TSH within new reference range had a linear correlation with SBP, TC and LDL-C in subjects aged <60 years. There were no significant differences in BMI, blood pressure, lipid profile or FPG among subjects 60–69 and older than or equal to 70 years. Elevated TSH within new reference range is associated with risk factors for CVD in subjects aged <60 years. Thus, there might be age-related difference in the relationship between CVD risk factors and elevated serum TSH.
Hypouricemia is a high-risk factor of exercise-induced acute kidney injury (EIAKI) probably through a lack of an antioxidant effect of uric acid. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of uric acid from hypoxanthine and xanthine, leading to an increase in superoxide and reactive oxygen species. Activation of XOR has been proposed to promote oxidative stress-related tissue injury. We measured plasma XOR activity by a sensitive and accurate assay using a combination of liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in subjects with relatively low levels of uric acid (≤4.0 mg/dL) who were recruited from 627 subjects (male/female: 292/335) in the Tanno-Sobetsu Study, a population-based cohort. The numbers of subjects with uric acid ≤4.0 mg/dL, ≤3.0 mg/dL and ≤2.0 mg/dL were 72 (11.5%, male/female: 5/67), 13 (2.1%, all females) and 2 (0.3%, both females), respectively. Plasma XOR activities in 5 male subjects were below the median value of the 292 male subjects. In 12 (17.9%) of the 67 female subjects with uric acid ≤4.0 mg/dL, plasma XOR activities were above the upper quartile value of the 335 female subjects. Eleven of the 12 female subjects with high plasma XOR activity and a low uric acid level had liver dysfunction and/or insulin resistance. In conclusion, unexpected high plasma XOR activities were found in some female subjects with relatively low levels of uric acid. Measurement of plasma XOR activity may help to identify hypouricemic patients with a high risk for EIAKI.
Changes in imaging findings and hormone levels before and after pheochromocytoma rupture, as well as detailed histopathology of resected tumors, have rarely been reported. A 52-year-old woman developed hypertension and diabetes mellitus in 2014, but despite treatment with antihypertensive and hypoglycemic drugs, good control was not achieved. On April 2, 2016, the patient started to have headaches and palpitations, and on April 6, she visited our hospital. Plain computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed a 4-cm, isodense mass in the left adrenal gland, and the patient was hospitalized for further examination. Because the patient had hypertension, tachycardia, and hyperglycemia on admission, therapies for those were started. Catecholamine levels were markedly elevated. However, after the patient developed left flank pain on Day 4, antihypertensive and insulin therapies were no longer required. Plain CT then showed heterogeneous high density areas in the left adrenal mass. On Day 7, 3 meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy showed no abnormal uptake. On Day 8, contrast CT showed low density areas within the left adrenal tumor and contrast enhancement of the tumor margins, and catecholamine levels were markedly decreased. Elective left adrenal tumor resection was performed on Day 49. The capsule of the resected tumor was ruptured. Histopathology showed widespread hemorrhagic necrosis and viable cell components in the tumor margins. Positive chromogranin A staining of the tumor cells confirmed a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. This patient displayed remarkable changes in imaging findings and hormone levels before and after pheochromocytoma rupture. Pheochromocytoma rupture and hemorrhagic necrosis were confirmed histopathologically.
The efficacy of thyroxine suppressive therapy in reducing nodular growth and its effect to bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is still debated. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of thyroxine and its influence on BMD. Postmenopausal women with nodular or multinodular goiter during 2013–2015 at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were enrolled and retrospectively traced back to the first date of visit or treatment. Ninety-four eligible patients were enrolled, of whom 45 were thyroxine-treated (LT-4 group) and 49 were treatment-naïve (control group). Data, including volume of nodules, were analyzed retrospectively. BMD was measured in each LT-4 group patient since the year of enrollment. Nodular volumes were reduced in both LT-4 (from 4.89 ± 4.46 to 4.10 ± 4.57 mL, p = 0.033) and control group (3.48 ± 4.36 to 3.09 ± 2.88 mL, p = 0.239) at initial 2-year follow-up. Nodular volume in LT-4 group increased insignificantly (from 4.89 ± 4.46 to 4.91 ± 5.40 mL, p = 0.711) at the end of 7-year follow-up. The best cut-off predictive nodular volume that may have responded to thyroxine is 2.6 mL (AUC, 0.740; sensitivity, 0.750; specificity, 0.733) during first 2 year. Lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck BMD were not significantly changed during 2 year’s thyroxine suppression therapy. In conclusion, thyroxine suppressive therapy in postmenopausal women had significant reduction in nodule volume at initial 2 years of treatment, especially in volume larger than 2.6 mL. Prolonged thyroxine treatment did not benefit nodular size reduction and may affect BMD minimally in postmenopausal women.
Musk is a secreted external hormone or information compound that is stored in musk scent glands of the males of species within the family Moschidae, such as Moschus berezovskii. The secretion of musk changes periodically during the courtship and reproduction periods, with the early stage of secretion occurring from May to July, and the maturation stage occurring from August to April of the following year. In this study, we analyzed the dynamic changes in musk components from June to April of the following year. The result showed that musk morphological character, water content, total ion chromatographic pattern, and composition undergo seasonal change. Luminescence immunoassay and radioimmunoassay analyses were performed to determine corresponding fecal hormone levels. The results showed that testosterone, estrogen, and cortisol levels in feces change on a seasonal basis, and are significantly higher in June than in other months (p < 0.01). Correlation analysis showed that the contents of four examined musk components (muscone, cyclopentadecanone, cholesterol, and cholestenol) from June to August were significantly highly negatively correlated with fecal testosterone and estradiol levels (p < 0.01). In contrast, the correlation coefficients were low or not significant from August to April of the following year. These results indicate that testosterone and estradiol may play a major role in determining musk composition during the early stage of musk secretion but not during the course of musk maturation, which suggests that musk secretion may be promoted by increases in sex hormones in June.
The aim of this study was to investigate for first time the thyroid function in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the potential effect of anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor) therapy. We evaluated 41 patients with IBD (25M/16F, 36.5 ± 11.3 y, 27 with Crohn’s disease and 14 with ulcerative colitis), without any known thyroid disorder. Eighteen patients (9M/9F, 33.6 ± 8.8 y) were on anti-TNF therapy, while 23 patients (16M/7F, 38.7 ± 12.5 y) were treated with Azathioprine and Mesalazine (Aza/Mes) for more than 1 year. Twelve patients from the second group were then treated with anti-TNF and studied 6 months later. We assessed thyroid function by measuring thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) levels. One patient presented with overt and one with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Thyroid auto-antibodies were positive in 12.2%. Patients from the anti-TNF group had lower levels of FT4 (1.09 ± 0.15 vs. 1.38 ± 0.9 ng/dL, p = 0.042), while TSH and T3 were comparable. The percentage of patients with positive thyroid auto-antibodies was lower in the anti-TNF group (5.6% vs. 17.4%). In the subgroup of patients who changed to anti-TNF, we found statistically significant reduction in FT4 after 6 months (1.26 ± 0.24 vs. 1.08 ± 0.15 ng/dL, p = 0.044), without changes in TSH and T3 levels. There was no change regarding thyroid auto-antibodies. In conclusion, patients with IBD showed a quite high percentage of thyroid autoimmunity. After treatment with anti-TNF, FT4 levels were found to be reduced, while no changes in TSH, T3 levels and thyroid auto-antibodies were noted.
GH therapy in pediatric patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) improves body composition, but discontinuation of GH after achieving adult height has been implicated in its deterioration. Although there is evidence for the deleterious effects of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) rather than subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) on the development of obesity-related complications, the effects of GH discontinuation on fat distribution in adults with PWS has not been fully investigated. Therefore, we utilized dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and abdominal computed tomography (CT) to compare the fat distribution between before and 6 months or 12 months after the cessation of GH therapy in 7 adult PWS patients. GH therapy was initiated at a mean age of 4.1 ± 1.4 years and discontinued at a mean age of 18.9 ± 1.8 years. Serum IGF-1 levels were decreased by discontinuation of GH therapy. Fat mass was significantly increased 6 and 12 months after GH cessation, whereas muscle mass and bone mineral density were unchanged during both study periods. Abdominal CT analysis revealed that elevations in fat mass were due to increases in VAT rather than SAT. Circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly elevated 6 months after GH cessation. In conclusion, discontinuation of GH therapy caused rapid increases in visceral adipose tissue and LDL cholesterol levels. These findings indicate that continuation of GH therapy may be a therapeutic option to maintain body composition; however, further studies regarding the long-term benefits and adverse effects of GH therapy in adults with PWS are required.
Glucocorticoid resistance syndrome (GRS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by inactivating mutations of the NR3C1 gene which encodes the glucocorticoid receptor. The phenotypic spectrum is broad but typically include symptoms of adrenal insufficiency, mineralocorticoid excess and hyperandrogenism. We report a new case associated with a novel NR3C1 mutation. A 55-year-old woman with lifelong history of low body weight, hyperandrogenism and anxiety was seen at the endocrine clinic after left adrenalectomy and salpingoophorectomy for lesions suspicious of ovarian cancer and adrenal metastasis. The tumors turned out to be a 3.5 cm benign ovarian serous adenofibroma and a 3.5 cm multinodular adrenal mass. She complained of worsened fatigue and inability to recover weight lost with surgery. Pre-operative serum and urinary cortisol were elevated, but she had no stigma of Cushing’s syndrome. Plasma ACTH was elevated and a 1-mcg cosyntropin stimulation test was normal. Her fatigue persisted over ensuing years and ACTH-dependent hypercortisolemia remained stable. Low dose oral dexamethasone failed to suppress endogenous cortisol. A pituitary MRI was normal but revealed incidental brain aneurysms. Bone densitometry showed profound osteoporosis. On the bases of this contradictory clinical picture, glucocorticoid resistance syndrome (GRS) was suspected. Using next generation sequencing technology, a novel heterozygous pathogenic variant in the NR3C1 gene was detected. We speculate that vascular malformations and profound osteoporosis, findings associated to cortisol excess, reflect in our patient a variable tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In conclusion, in patients with clinically unexpected ACTH-dependent hypercortisolemia, primary glucocorticoid resistance (GRS) should be considered.
Long-term glucose supplementation is required to prevent hypoglycemia after massive insulin overdosing. We fitted the blood insulin concentration-time profile to the model: I = A·exp(–a·t) + B·exp(–b·t), where I (μU/mL) is the serum/plasma insulin concentration, A (μU/mL) and B (μU/mL) are the peak insulin concentrations of each component, a (time–1) and b (time–1) are the time constants of each component, and t (h) is the time elapsed from the peak of blood insulin level. Additional components were considered as needed. Patient 1 had auto-injected 600 U NovoRapid® 30Mix, and Patient 2 had auto-injected 300 U Novolet®R (regular) and 1,800 U NovoLet®N (NPH). We used the disappearance of therapeutic doses of the respective insulin in healthy individuals as controls, and we obtained parameters by Excel solver. In Patient 1, the parameter values were A = 1490.04 and a = 0.15 for insulin aspart and B = 60.66 and b = 0.04 for protaminated aspart. In Patient 2, the values were A = 784.45 and a = 0.38 for regular insulin and B = 395.84 and b = 0.03 for NPH. Compared with controls, the half-lives (t1/2) for insulin aspart and protaminated aspart were 4 and 2 times longer, respectively, in Patient 1. In Patient 2, the t1/2 for regular and NPH insulin were 2 and 7 times longer than those in the controls, respectively. In conclusion, the t1/2 for insulin was elongated 2 to 7 times after massive overdosing, explaining why glucose supplementation is needed for long periods in these cases.