Poly (β-cyclodextrin)-stabilized zirconia/silver (PβCyD-ZrO2/Ag) nanoparticles were prepared from colloidal dispersions of PβCyD-ZrO2 nanoparticles. Particles of PβCyD-ZrO2 /Ag(molar ratio of ZrO2 /Ag = 0.8/0.2) nanoparticles have an average diameter of 4.5 nm. The nanoparticles were dispersed in 4’-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl to construct liquid crystal displays. The response time of this display in the presence of PβCyD-ZrO2 /Ag nanoparticles was faster than that in the absence of nanoparticles.
We present a rapid rendering procedure to reproduce the appearance of an object that includes translucent material. The convention- al method of rendering the translucence of an object is difficult to implement in real time, since the translucency is accompanied by complicated light behavior such as scattering and absorption. To simplify this rendering process, we focus on the contrast-reversing stimulant property in vision science. This property is based on the perception that we can recognize a luminance histogram compati- ble between scattering and absorption. According to this property, we propose a simple rendering method to reverse the light path between reflection and transmission. Our method adopts an additional function for selecting a front or back scattering process in the calculation of each pixel value. Because this improvement makes only slight alterations in the conventional reflection model, it can reproduce a translucent appearance in real time while inheriting the advantages of various reflection models.
The content of gold and silver atoms in the particles formed by gold deposition development on silver halide grains was investigated. An increase in the amounts of gold and silver with development time was observed using atomic absorption spectroscopy, transmis- sion electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. While silver atoms formed by photolysis already existed before development, only the amount of gold increased and that of silver did not. The gold deposition development was intensified by the addition of ascorbic acid (AA) to the developer, and in this case, the amount of silver increased slightly with development time. The amount of gold increased more, but the size of the particles was smaller than the case without AA. It was suggested that the reduc- tion of silver halide by AA proceeded, but it was still unclear that this reduction affected the acceleration of development rates or not.