Annals of Ethics
Online ISSN : 2434-4699
Volume 66
Showing 1-8 articles out of 8 articles from the selected issue
  • With reference to Sen’s critique of Rawls
    Yousuke Mitsuke
    2017 Volume 66 Pages 85-
    Published: 2017
    Released: April 16, 2019
    This paper investigates Rawls’s program of socializing Kant’s ethics developed in his theory of justice and ascertains the limitations of its will-oriented approach to freedom by focusing on the difference between Rawls’s and Sen’s interpretation of freedom. In addition, this paper thereby evaluates the significance of Sen’s critique of Rawls’s theory of justice.
      Rawls socializes Kant’s ethics by transforming Kant’s concept of the categorical imperative into intersubjective procedures in the original position. However, he inherits Kant’s concept of transcendental freedom without making any changes to it; in other words, the “inner freedom” that solely determines a rational being’s will and has no commitment to the physical process to achieve the will. Sen criticizes this interpretation of freedom as being based on a fetishism of goods, introducing the idea of capability to compensate for this lacuna in Rawls’s theory of justice. One feature of Sen’s interpretation of freedom is found in the theoretical accent that he places on the practical aspect of freedom; in other words, the freedom to achieve, which varies according to the diversity of people’s “utilization functions” converting goods into effective functions.
      Despite this criticism of the Kantian concept of freedom, Sen’s idea can also be seen as being based on Kant’s philosophy. In his Critique of Judgement, Kant attempts to bridge the gulf between freedom and nature(the physical world)derived from his own transcendental conception. We direct our attention particularly to Kant’s argument about rational being’s aptitude(Tauglichkeit)to have a purpose and achieve it because the argument shows a possible correspondence between Kant’s concept of culture and Sen’s concept of development concerning the practical aspect of freedom.
      On the basis of these arguments, we can understand the limitations of the will-oriented approach to freedom indicated in Rawls’s theory of justice and the significance of Sen’s critique, which not only clarifies such limitations but also proposes another possible way to inherit Kant’s philosophy of freedom.
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  • L’éthique de transformation sociale dans Système des contradictions économiques de Proudhon
    Munechika Itaba
    2017 Volume 66 Pages 99-
    Published: 2017
    Released: April 16, 2019
        Pierre-Joseph Proudhon(1809─1865)a présenté une théorie qui s’appelle l’« antithéisme » dans Système des contradictions économiques. Accusant l’athéisme humanitaire d’outre-Rhin de faire Dieu de l’humanité, il a proposé de chasser l’idée de Dieu d’esprit et conscience de l’homme. Le but de cet article est de préciser trois éthiques qui sont révélées relatif à l’« antithéisme » et transformation sociale.
        Dans la première section, nous envisageons le but de l’ « hypothèse de Dieu » qui a été mis par Proudhon dans le Prologue de ce livre. Cette hypothèse est un « instrument dialectique nécessaire », mais la réception de la nécessité par l’homme collectif est faite toujours avec la faculté de réflexion. Nous l’appelons la « première éthique » de transformation sociale.
        Ensuite, dans la deuxième section, après avoir précisé la logique de nécessité de la série des antinomies, nous remarquons qu’il y a une autre route pour socialiser virtuellement dans des antinomies. Le travail étant organisé, il apparaîtra une « autre nécessité ». On peut voir que l’homme collectif est capable de se mettre aussi dans cette nécessité. Nous appelons cette faculté la « deuxième éthique ».
        Finalement, dans la troisième section, nous envisageons la théorie de l’«antithéisme ». Dans cette théorie, la nature humaine se trouve contre Divinité. C’est pour cela que la « troisième éthique » consiste à chasser l’idée de Dieu. Nous précisons que cette logique soutient l’éthique d’une « autre nécessité ».
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  • Takashi Suzuki
    2017 Volume 66 Pages 113-
    Published: 2017
    Released: April 16, 2019
      Edmund Husserl(1859─1938)conceived a theory of communication in Logical Investigations(1900/01). According to his conception, to initiate communication, one must express his/her wish to communicate, and another must receive this expression. Husserl calls such a function to express mental acts ‘indication(Kundgabe)’. Therefore, the main topics of his theory of communication should be ‘indication’ and ‘reception of indication(Kundnahme)’. Because of his interest in logic, however, this theory was scarcely dealt with in Logical Investigations. However, Husserl began to re-examine it when he planned his new systematic and comprehensive book in 1921. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explain how Husserl’s theory of communication was developed since 1921. Because his plan for the new book was only partially realized, we use mainly manuscripts which were included in Phenomenology of Intersubjectivity II and III.
      We will clarify the process of this development as follows. First, we will explore Husserl’s manuscripts from 1921 and show that he regarded the ‘body’ and the ‘open world’ as the conditions of possibility to experience others. Second, we will examine further his manuscripts from 1924 and present his view that the experience of others can be classified into ‘empathy’ and ‘communication’. In empathy, the mental acts of another are indicated without his/her intention, while they are indicated intentionally in communication. Husserl tried to characterize communication by intentional indication and the reception thereof. Finally, we will deal with the theory of community in Cartesian Meditations(1931)and manuscripts written in the 1930s. According to this theory, the community of empathy can proceed to the community of communication if members thereof indicate their wish to communicate intentionally and receive it from each other. Then, they satisfy the conditions of possibility to experience others in a higher order; they regard other bodies as bodies for intentional indication and live in the cultural and social world, which is open to the community of communication. We can therefore present this theory of community from the 1930s as a developed form of the theory of communication of Logical Investigations.
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  • The Significance of Conflict with His Interlocutor
    Saori Makino
    2017 Volume 66 Pages 129-
    Published: 2017
    Released: April 16, 2019
        Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations(hereafter PI)is known for its dialectic style. Wittgenstein, as a therapist, makes his interlocutor reflect on his own wording. Several studies have been conducted regarding Wittgenstein’s interactive style. However, little attention has been given to a conflict between Wittgenstein and his interlocutor. They often talk past each other. Wittgenstein gets irritated at his interlocutor’s reaction. The interlocutor complains that Wittgenstein’s advice is irrelevant. The question why Wittgenstein describes the conflict in a positive way remains unanswered.
        The key to solving the problem is to consider the interlocutor’s perspec tive. I will answer the question through an examination of the interlocutor’s reaction towards Wittgenstein’s advice. First, I will examine in detail the therapy of PI §§191─195. In these sections, Wittgenstein not only points out that the interlocutor’s expressions lack a concrete example and context in which we could use them, but also offers objects of comparison in which Wittgenstein makes his interlocutor reflect on his own wording. However, the interlocutor does not receive Wittgenstein’s offering in a straightforward manner. Second, I will investigate the interlocutor’s reaction in PI §195. I suggest that the interlocutor seems to realize the analogies between objects of comparison and his own expressions but refuses to admit such analogies are tenable. If my explanation is true, the question why Wittgenstein describes the conflict in a positive way can be answered.
        Finally, I will reconsider the reason why Wittgenstein positively describes the conflict by focusing on the readers’ point of view. I assert that Wittgenstein encourages us to scrutinize our foundations of thought.
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  • Heidegger’s insight into our moral responsibility
    Hiroshi Takai
    2017 Volume 66 Pages 143-
    Published: 2017
    Released: April 16, 2019
        This study elucidates the argument which Martin Heidegger developed in his Being and TimeSein und Zeit)about responsibility. His interest is focused on how far we have to take responsibility for our actions. To forecast this problem, one might think that, rationality or rational deliberation defines its scope. But Heidegger didn’t think that “rationality” provides us a final solution to the problem about responsibility. Heidegger’s evaluation is concerned with the famous distinction between authenticity and inauthenticity, so this study interprets Heidegger’s argument about this distinction as one about responsibility.
        Heidegger identifies inauthenticity with “the They”(das Man)as our everyday mode of being and analyses our concept of responsibility and our judgments about our actions in terms of this concept. Heidegger introduces the concept of “the They” as “the-one”, who nobody is but everyone is. And according to Heidegger, “the They” defines what we have to do and what we must not do. So we can say that this concept represents the rationality in a society. Actually, we can blame someone, saying “one ordinarily doesn’t do so” or “rational agent should do this.” In doing so, we resort to “the They” or anonymous ratio nality. But following this way of thinking, one cannot blame the other’s action which even unintentionally hurt someone heavily, if only he/she deliberates rationally as a mature agent would do. Heidegger considers this conclusion odd.
        In contrast to an inauthentic person, authentic person is an agent who is very responsible, Heidegger says. To be become authentic, one must become aware of one’s own weaknesses. These weaknesses which he refers to as our “lacking” concern our omissions. We can never do something unless at the same time we forgo something else. Heidegger’s responsible agent is aware of his/her own weakness, and doing so, he/she is prepared for regretting own actions and for thinking that he/she should have taken the other action he/she never knew. Most importantly, this regret should go beyond the scope of rational deliberation. Responsible agent is prepared to take responsibility which “the They” rationally doesn’t require. This is Heidegger’s conclusion.
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  • Das Denken bei Hannah Arendt
    Taiki Hashizume
    2017 Volume 66 Pages 159-
    Published: 2017
    Released: April 16, 2019
      Hannah Arendts letztes Buch, »Vom Leben des Geistes«, behandelt das Problem der »reinsten Tätigkeit, die dem Menschen fähig ist«: die Fähigkeit des Denkens. »Was tun wir, wenn wir nichts anderes tun als denken?«, fragte Arendt dort. Unser Aufsatz versucht, diese Frage zu beantworten. Zuerst trennen wir die drei Momenten des Denkens voneinander:(1)dessen Tätigkeit an sich, (2)dessen Gegenstand(den Sinn), und(3)dessen nachfolgenden Effekt(Hindernis des Bösen). Unter den drei Momenten beachtet man vor allem den zweiten und den dritten(z.B. bei Richard Bernstein), der erste Moment aber ist bis heute außer Acht geblieben. Um jedoch den Gegenstand und den Effekt des Denkens zu verstehen, ist es nötig, den Mechanismus der Tätigkeit des Denkens im Detail zu verstehen.
      Dieser Aufsatz handelt im ersten Abschnitt vom »Rückzug« des denkenden Ichs aus der Erscheinungswelt. Dieser Rückzug aus der Welt ist nicht der in so etwas wie eine »geistige Welt«, sondern der Vorbehalt von Beziehungen mit weltlichen Dingen oder anderen Menschen. Dies ist aber eine negative Seite des Denkens und es ist uns wichtig, dessen positiven Gehalt zu zeigen. Wie der zweite Abschnitt zeigt, charakterisiert Arendt das Denken nicht abstrakt, sondern konkret als »Dialog mit sich selbst« von »Zwei-in-einem«. Das denkende Ich wird kraft dieses Dialogs »einsam«, enthoben aus der Welt. Es ist dann un sere letzte Aufgabe im dritten Abschnitt zu verdeutlichen, was diesen Dialog ermöglicht. Arendts Antwort lautet: Zeit. Das Menschsein kann sich, ohne räumlich zu handeln, rein in der Zeit bewegen: das heißt, sich in der Zeit spalten in »Fragenden und Antwortenden«, aber die Einheit des Ichs erhalten kraft der Sprache. Durch diese drei Paragraphen legen wir Struktur und Entstehungsmechanismus des Denkens dar.
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  • Nakamura Nobutaka
    2017 Volume 66 Pages 173-
    Published: 2017
    Released: April 16, 2019
    The purpose of this paper is to consider the moral responsibility for actions from ignorance. For example, a man may behave violently toward women because he mistakenly believes that men are morally superior to women and are, therefore, permitted to treat women as instruments of man’s will. If we assume that such a man acts from a kind of ignorance, how can we hold him responsible for his action?
     To consider this problem, I look at the Strawsonian theory of moral responsibility and the concept of insult as an object of resentment. According to Peter Frederick Strawson’s famous lecture “Freedom and Resentment,” responsibility can be understood in the context of “reactive attitudes,” such as resentment. Focusing on insult as an object of resentment, Jeffrie Murphy and Jean Hampton argue that we resent injuries done to us because such injuries involve insulting messages about our dignity or moral status. The wrongdoer is saying, “I can use you for my purposes and you are not worth better treatment”; in these circumstances, resentment is the defensive reactive emotion against an action involving such an insult.
     Based on these ideas, we propose the following hypothesis: a person, who injures someone but mistakenly believes that his action is permitted and acts from ignorance, can be held responsible for his action if the victim appropriately feels resentment toward his action, as it involved an insulting message about the victim’s moral status. To validate this hypothesis, I will begin by critically reviewing previous studies on the moral responsibility for actions from ignorance. Following this discussion, I will explain the distinctive character of the insulting action from ignorance about someone’s moral status. Finally, I will demonstrate that an insulting action from ignorance about the victim’s moral status inevitably causes resentment by attacking the victim’s self-respect, and that ignorance never excuses the wrongdoer from their responsibility.
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  • The semantics of thick terms
    Yoshiyuki Yokoro
    2017 Volume 66 Pages 189-
    Published: 2017
    Released: April 16, 2019
      In his essay “Non-Cognitivism and Rule-Following”, John McDowell argues that the extensions and applications of such thick terms and concepts as courageous or selfish cannot be determined without the understanding of a particular perspective based on such noncognitive states as evaluative attitudes or emotions. This distinctive feature of thick terms─it is called ‘shapelessness’─is often thought as a challenge to moral noncognitivism, according to which moral values or judgments can be explained by noncognitive states of mind with regard to their corresponding natural properties. The reason is that it seems follow from the shapelessness of thick terms that the two components of their concepts, i.e. descriptive and evaluative components, are ‘entangling’, but noncognitivists, including Simon Blackburn as their representative, try to disentangle them.   My aim in this essay is twofold. First, I organize and reconstruct McDowell’s ‘anti-disentangling argument’ and Blackburn’s response to it for simplicity’s sake. I then argue that McDowell fails in refuting noncognitivism in general because his argument restricts it unduly, while Blackburn’s pragmatic or semantics- free explanation of the shapelessness is also insufficient because it cannot ensure the default evaluative component of thick terms. Second, I argue that the feature of shapelessness can be explained as a semantic phenomenon in term of the nonindexical context-sensitivity of thick terms, in virtue of which such evaluative terms have the same content in any contexts, while their extensions are sensitive with regard to moral standards from ethical sensibilities of the context. By the use of this interpretation of shapelessness, noncognitivists can successfully disentangle the components of thick concepts into two entirely separate ones fulfilling different semantic roles. Thus the nonindexical contextualism I advocate not only makes clear the nature of thick terms and concepts but also offers a new and different semantic ground for noncognitivism from the traditional model.
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