Recently, a forced-air-ventilated micro-isolation system (FVMIS) has been recognized to accurately maintain microenvironmental conditions inside cages, but the details of the relationship between the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) and the air change rate inside the cages have never been reported. In this study, the proper intra-cage air change rate was examined based on the CO2 concentration and O2 concentration inside the cages measured by changing the ventilation volume inside the closed cages of the FVMIS while housing animals. In the experiments, three 8-week-old Wistar strain male rats weighing 303 g on average were housed in each FVMIS cage (capacity: 0.0223 m3), and the temperature, relative humidity, CO2 concentration and O2 concentration were measured when the air change rate inside the cages was varied from 10 air changes per hour (ACH) to 120 ACH. It proved that the CO2 concentration in the FVMIS cages decreased uniformly with the increase in the air change rate. As a result, 60 ACH was required to maintain the CO2 concentration level inside the FVMIS cages equivalent to or less than that in the conventional housing. Otherwise, when based on the O2 concentration, 50 ACH was required. In consideration of these results and others based on ventilation, airflow, temperature and the ammonia concentration reported previously, we concluded that the proper air change rate inside the FVMIS cages should be approximately 60 ACH.
We performed immunohistochemical examinations on type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice, focusing attention on the changes in distribution of plasma proteins and extracellular matrix materials (ECM) and in expression of adhesion molecules. The limb joints of male DBA/1J mice immunized with bovine type II collagen were obtained at 6 to 20 weeks after the first immunization. In the early stage of CIA, deposition of fibrin, IgG, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and fibronectin was detected on the surface of the synovial lining layer and articular cartilage and in the articular cavity. In the stage of pannus formation, prominent proliferation of ICAM-1-positive capillaries and marked infiltration of LFA-1-positive neutrophils were observed in the pannus. The superficial portion of the pannus and basement membranes of proliferated capillaries were strongly positive for type IV collagen and laminin. In the late stage, the pannus invaded and destroyed articular cartilage and subchondral bone, and strongly positive immunostainabilities for both lysozyme and fibronectin were observed on the surface of the pannus and at the junctional portion between the pannus and the cartilage. The present immunohistochemical findings on the distribution of plasma proteins and ECM materials and the expression of adhesion molecules in CIA mice were similar to those in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in many aspects. This suggests that CIA is a useful model for the investigetion of RA.
The angles related to the coxal joints were comparatively studied in four-limbed walking animals and two-limbed ones including man and birds. Between animals with both types of walking, no significant difference was observed in the neck-shaft angles (NSA), which was equivalent to the acetabulum angles (ACA) at the connection of the femoral head with the acetabulum. The anteversion angles (AVA) were equivalent to the horizontal ACA. Canine species showed two different forms of the femoral neck with or without modification by the femoral AVA, probably being breed-specific and nutrition-dependent. In the narrow-striped wallaby as well as avian species, the femoral head showed a postversion with a minus-version angle for lifting the body axis in the frontal and upward direction to hold the whole body weight on the hind-limbs, in particular at the anterior part of the acetabulum. In man, the connection between the femur and acetabulum greatly varied among individuals, possibly according to differences in the life style.
BN rats are well-known for their high capacity for IgE production and hyperresponsiveness to exposure to allergens or other chemicals. We examined the histological changes in the nasal cavity, trachea and lungs of BN and F344 rats after the inhalation of aerosol formaldehyde (HCHO), which exerts direct toxic effects on the respiratory system. The incidence of clinical signs such as sneezing and abnormal respiration in HCHO-treated F344 rats was higher than that in HCHO-treated BN rats. The mean body weight of HCHO-treated F344 rats apparently decreased in comparison with control F344 rats, but that of HCHO-treated BN rats was not significantly different from that of control BN rats. Changes such as squamous metaplasia, stratification, degeneration and desquamation were observed by light microscopy in nasal, tracheal and bronchial mucosa in the lungs of the HCHO-treated F344 rats. In the HCHO-treated BN rats, similar but milder lesions were restricted to the nasal mucosa. Scanning electron microscopic observation supported these light microscopic observations. These results suggest that BN rats have lower sensitivity to HCHO inhalation than F344 rats.
The effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied on the libido of sexually experienced male rats after dosing them with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight twice daily of different fractions of E. longifolia Jack for 10 days. Results showed that E. longifolia Jack produced a dose-dependent increase in mounting frequency of the treated animals with 400 mg/kg of chloroform, methanol, water and butanol fractions resulting in mounting frequencies of 5.3 ± 1.2, 4.9 ± 0.7, 4.8 ± 0.7 and 5.2 ± 0.1, and 800 mg/kg further increased them to 5.4 ± 0.8, 5.4 ± 0.8, 5.2 ± 0.6 and 5.3 ± 0.2 respectively but there were no erections, intromissions, ejaculations or seminal emissions during the 20-min observation period which allowed for the measurement of sexual arousal reflected by mounting frequency uninfluenced by other behavioural components. This study provides evidence that E. longifolia Jack is a potent stimulator of sexual arousal in sexually vigorous male rats in the absence of feedback from genital sensation.
The period of ovulation in mature house musk shrews was examined in a natural mating group and a superovulation group treated with gonadotropin. In the natural mating group, ovulation started 14 hr after mating in 3 of the 7 house musk shrews (42.8%), and occurred in all 5 house musk shrews by 15 hr after mating. In the superovulation group, ovulation started 13 hr after the administration of hCG in 3 of the 5 house musk shrews, and was observed in all 5 shrews by 16 hr after the administration. In the natural mating group, ovulated ova were collected from the ovarian bursa of 14 house musk shrews 14-20 hr after mating (mean, 2.2 ± 1.0 ova) and from the oviduct of 42 animals 14-24 hr after mating (mean, 3.6 ± 1.8 ova). Among the ova ovulated 14-16 hr after mating, both mature ova with the first polar body and immature ova without the first polar body were observed. In the superovulation group, ovulated ova were collected from the ovarian bursa of 31 house musk shrews 13-22 hr after the administration of hCG (mean, 9.7 ± 6.8 ova), and from the oviduct of 28 animals 13-24 hr after the administration of hCG (mean, 20.0 ± 11.7 ova). There were also mature and immature ova in the ova ovulated 13-16 hr after the administration of hCG. The time when ova ceased to be recovered from the ovarian bursa roughly coincided with the time when new corpora lutea ceased to be found in the ovaries. These findings suggested that the period of ovulation of house musk shrews was 14-20 hr after mating in the natural mating group and 13-22 hr after the administration of hCG in the superovulation group. Both the natural mating group and superovulation group ovulated both mature ova with the first polar body and immature ova without the first polar body.
The effects of different fiber sources on feed intake, weight gain and digestibility of fiber were examined in guinea-pigs fed pelleted diets containing alfalfa meal, oaten hay, beet pulp and commercial hay cubes mixed with a basal diet at ratios of 3:1 (75% in the diet), 1:1 (50%) and 1:3 (25%). The basal diet contained 50.0% corn, 4.1% wheat, 22.1% wheat flour and 17.7% corn gluten meal. Food intake increased as the amount of fiber source was increased, but not in the case of beet pulp. The most digestible fiber (ADF and NDF) was that of beet pulp. Apparent digestibility of dry matter decreased with increasing ratios of fiber source to the basal diet for all fiber sources, but fiber and crude protein digestibilities varied and depended not only on the ratio of fiber to the basal diet but also on the source of the fiber.
Subcapsular cell hyperplasia (SCH) in the adrenal cortex of aged mice (13-15 months old) was frequent in both sexes of BALB/c, C3H/He, DBA/2J and IQI/Jic mice and in the females of A/J and C57BL/6, although the incidence and severity of SCH were considerably different among mouse strains. Mast cells were closely associated with SCH in the A/J, BALB/c, C57BL/6, DBA/2J and IQI/Jic mice, but not in the C3H/He strain. Compared with other strains, IQI/Jic mice had a significantly larger number of mast cells in the adrenal glands. Our findings suggest that mast cells may participate in the development of SCH, and IQI/Jic would be suitable for studying the pathogenesis of SCH and the role of mast cells in this lesion.
The nucleoprotein (NP) gene of Sendai virus was detected by touchdown nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the lungs of a rat presented with respiratory illness and high serum ELISA titer to Sendai virus. This method seemed to be of value in controlling infection in laboratory rodents.
Replication of murine coronaviruses in eight mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines of several genetic backgrounds was examined. Both mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) type 2 and MHV, strain A59 replicated well with no or minimal cytopathic effect in all the ES cell lines tested. The results suggest the possibility that MHV-infected ES cells may disseminate MHV in mouse colonies due to embryo manipulation.
Split Liver Transplantation (SLT) is an attractive method to solve the problem of a shortage of liver grafts. A through knowledge of the anatomy of the porcine liver vessels and bile duct is essential in performing the experimental SLT. This study was undertaken to decide the split line for successful SLT in pigs by examining the main branching patterns both vessels and bile duct in 30 porcine livers macroscopically and angiographically. The hepatic arterial branching patterns were divided into three types and bile duct patterns into two types. There was no exception in branching patterns of the portal vein and the hepatic vein. We conclude it is desirable that the donor liver should be divided into two grafts between the left medial lobe and quadrate lobe.
The beginning of each anagen phase of the hair growth cycle appears to partially repeat the stages in the initial development of the hair cycle, but the regulatory mechanism of the hair cycle is unclear. We have investigated the levels of histamine related enzyme activities in the third hair cycle period of C3H mouse after depilation. The level of histidine decarboxylase activity increased just after depilation treatment and returned to the normal level within two weeks: this change was relevant to histamine content as we have previously reported. This result suggests that the histamine synthesising enzyme, histidine decarboxylase, activity may be involved in the distinctive process of hair re-growth, in particular, the initiation of the anagen phase.