To examine both of the target vessels and the optimal time of their endothelial denudation to study vascular restenosis after balloon injury in cholesterol-loaded rabbits, we made 36 atherosclerotic rabbits by feeding a hypercholesterol diet, and histologically examined the onset time and the development of atherosclerosis. Atheromatous changes were observed first after the 5th week in the thoracic aorta from the start of the diet, and then extended to the abdominal aorta, coronary artery with time. The atherosclerotic lesions in the thoracic aorta and the proximal portion of the coronary artery showed high-grade concentric intimal thickening with luminal stenosis. The abdominal aortic lesion mildly progressed. In the renal, carotid and femoral arteries, in contrast, slight atheroscleromatous changes developed during the diet period. These results suggest that the thoracic and abdominal aortas and the coronary artery would be suitable as target vessels to study vascular restenosis after balloon injury, and the endothelial denudation of these vessels should be performed between the 8th and 15th week in this diet protocol for an accurate analysis.
To determine the effects of high-temperature exposure on antibody response to viral antigen in mice, male BALB/c mice were placed for 13 days in animal chambers at 23°C, 32°C, and 35.5°C. Rectal temperature rose from 37°C to 39°C on day 1 in a 35.5°C environment. The rectal temperature was kept constant throughout the exposure period. The IgG-antibody to Sendai virus (SV) antigen was inhibited to about 50% of the control value (23°C). The serum corticosterone concentration indicating thermal stress increased steadily, peaking on day 1 and then gradually decreased and recovered to the normal level on day 13. Body weight decreased to about 72% of the controls on day 13. Thymus and spleen weight decreased to 31.7% and 61.5% respectively. At 32°C, these effects were less than at 35.5°C. Effects of high-temperature exposure at 35.5°C appeared to noticeably decrease thymus and spleen weight. It is clear that IgG-antibody response to SV antigen is suppresed by high-temperature exposure.
The antitumor effect of indomethacin on Colon 26 tumor was investigated in conventional (CDF1) and nude mice (BALB/c nu/nu), and the telomerase activity in the tumor tissues treated with indomethacin was monitored. Growth of Colon 26 tumor was significantly suppressed with indomethacin treatment compared to the controls both in conventional and nude mice. And telomerase activity in the tumor tissues noticeably declined in contrast to normal somatic tissues (testis, liver and colon), which were not affected by indomethacin treatment. We also showed that indomethacin can suppress tumor growth in association with a preferential decrease in telomerase activity in tumor tissues both in conventional and nude mice to the same extent. This study suggests a method for investigating the mechanism of tumor suppression by indomethacin, and suggests that indomethacin might be useful as a novel agent for human cancer therapy.
We examined lectin-histochemically the glycoconjugate expression in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in the rat under specific pathogen-free (SPF) and conventional (CV) conditions and compared the results for SPF and CV rats as well as for membranous (M) cells and adjacent ciliated respiratory epithelial (CRE) cells in FAE. N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectins, Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Helix pomatia (HPA), Glycine max (SBA) and Vicia villosa (VVA), and α-L-fucose-specific lectin, Ulex europaeus (UEA-I), preferentially bound to M cells mainly in the luminal surface compared with CRE cells in SPF rats, whereas DBA and UEA-I showed signs of preferential binding to the apical and basolateral cytoplasm as well as to the luminal surface of M cells in CV rats. In addition, HPA, SBA and VVA more frequently and extensively labeled M cells than CRE cells in CV rats with the same subcellular staining pattern as DBA and UEA-I. On the whole, the changes in lectin binding frequency and strength were more prominent in M cells than in CRE cells in both SPF and CV rats. The present results indicate that DBA and UEA-I are useful as markers of M cells in NALT. Furthermore, the pattern of expression of carbohydrate residues recognized by such lectins in SPF and CV rats suggests that M cells are highly sensitive to environmental changes.
To validate use of the common cotton-eared marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in inhalation toxicity studies, its nasal morphology was examined. The nasal turbinates each consisted of one maxilloturbinate and one ethmoturbinate: these were more planar in structure than the comparable structures of rodents or dogs. The nasal cavity epithelia comprised squamous epithelium (SE), nasal transitional epithelium (NTE), respiratory epithelium (RE) and olfactory epithelium (OE), listed in order of occurrence from anterior to posterior positions. NTE was distributed as a narrow band lying between SE and RE. OE was limited to the dorsal part of the cavity, which was structurally similar to that of the macaque or man. Overall, this study revealed structural the similarity of the whole nasal cavity in the marmoset to that of macaques or humans. Prediction of nasal cavity changes in man based on extrapolation from experimentally induced changes in the common marmoset therefore seems likely to be feasible, making it a useful animal model for inhalation studies.
Sex difference in susceptibility to oral infection with Corynebacterium (C.) kutscheri was experimentally studied in ICR mice. Immature (4-week-old) and adult (14-week-old) mice were inoculated with two infecting doses of C. kutscheri, and necropsied for bacteriological and serological survey 4 weeks after the bacterial infection. No macroscopic lesions at necropsy were demonstrated, except for one adult male given 109 bacteria. In immature mice, C. kutscheri isolated from the oral cavity and cecum with FNC agar, were recovered in only 40.0% of female mice but in 90.0% of male mice given 106 bacteria (p<0.05), and in only 55.6% of female mice but in 80.0% male mice given 108 bacteria. In adult mice given 109 bacteria, the organism were recovered in only 45.5% of female mice but in 90.9% of male mice (p<0.05), furthermore, the mean number of organisms in the cecum of male mice harboring the organism was significantly higher than that in females (p<0.01). Castration caused an increase in host resistance in adult male mice. These results indicated that ICR male mice were more susceptible than females, in terms of bacterial colonization in the cecum and the oral cavity, to oral infection with C. kutscheri.
A genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 9 consisting of five loci including a new biochemical marker representing a genetic variation of the activity of the liver aldehyde oxidase, (Aox) was constructed. Linkage analysis of the five loci among 92 backcross progeny of (WKS/Iar × IS/Iar)F1 × WKS/Iar revealed significant linkages between these loci. Minimizing crossover frequency resulted in the best gene order: Aox-D9Mit4-Gls-Cryg-Tp53l1. The homologues of the Cryg, Gls, and Aox genes have been mapped on mouse chromosome 1 and human chromosome 2q. The present findings provide further evidence for the conservation of synteny among these regions of rat, mouse, and human chromosomes.
Fetal thyroid follicular cells of congenitally athymic nude mouse (BALB/cAnNCrj-nu/nu) were studied with an electron microscope. The area of the entire cell, nucleus and mitochondrion were measured and compared in athymic and euthymic fetal nude mice (BALB/cAnNCrj-nu/+) at 18 days of gestation. The mean area of cytoplasm was significantly smaller in homozygous athymic nude mice than in heterozygous euthymic ones. The mean area of the mitochondrion was also smaller in homozygous athymic nude mice, but the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the area of the nucleus. These findings suggest that the thyroid gland of athymic nude mice is still underdeveloped at the end of gestation as compared to that of their euthymic littermates.
A polymerase chain reaction with new primers (new PCR) designed from Pasteurella pneumotropica 16S rDNA as an identification system for this organism was compared with the PCR reported by Wang et al. (Wang's PCR) by using 15 bacterial reference species and 70 clinical isolates with the conventional identification system. For the 15 reference strains, both PCRs were identical. For the 70 clinical isolates, the new PCR and Wang's PCR showed consistency with the conventional system in 62.9% (44/70) and 51.4% (36/70), respectively. Twenty-six isolates were inconsistent with the conventional system and the new PCR with respect to morphology and serology. These findings suggested that the new PCR was more sensitive than Wang's PCR, and the new PCR in combination with morphology and serology is useful for P. pneumotropica identification.
P. carinii infection in red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus), born and maintained in a laboratory breeding colony, was examined by histopathologic examination postmortem. P. carinii cysts were detected in 6 of 10 red-bellied tamarins examined, by using Grocott's, toluidine blue O and immunostaining with avidin-biotin complex using antisera for rat-, simian-, and human-P. carinii. The results obtained from the present studies imply that P. carinii may be an important pathogen in this species.
We applied the embryo transfer technique to germfree (GF) mouse production. Embryos harvested from superovulated mice were transferred aseptically, in a sterile environment, to the uterus of GF recipient females which had been mated with vasectomized GF males. One of the recipients became pregnant and delivered offspring. Sterility tests confirmed that the vasectomized males, newborns, recipient female mice, embryo-containing culture media, and the inside of the vinyl film isolator were germfree. These results suggest that the embryo transfer technique can be successfully applied to the production of GF mice.