In this study we examined changes in colonic mucosal permeability induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) during the acute phase of mouse colitis. To induce colitis, the mice were given drinking water containing 5% (w/v) DSS (MW=40,000) ad libitum. Colonic mucosal permeability was evaluated by the permeation of Evans blue (EB) from the lumen into the wall of the colon on 1, 2, 3 and 7 days postadministration of DSS. Mucosal changes were also histologically examined daily for 7 days postadministration. The permeation of EB increased significantly by days 3 and 7 postadministration. Histological analysis showed that crypt loss was the initial change, with no inflammatory process and the surface mucosal epithelial cells remained morphologically intact. These histological changes developed on 2 to 3 days postadministration. Erosion was first recognized at 5 days postadministration. These findings indicated that the increase in colonic mucosal permeability may have occurred in 3 days postadministration, and the increase in mucosal permeability occurred before the appearance of the inflammatory process. This suggests that an increase in colonic mucosal permeability, leading to the destruction of mucosal barrier function, may play an important role in the induction of DSS-induced murine colitis.
A small ganglion, named the peri-trigeminal ganglion (PTG), was found in the ventromedial border of the rostral half of the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in the musk shrew (Suncus murinus). In frontal sections, the PTG was semicircular or elliptical in shape. Most of the neurons constituting this ganglion were round in shape and much smaller than those of the TG. The retrograde fluorescent tracer fluoro-gold was injected into various regions of the face in order to investigate innervation by the PTG neurons. When the tracer was injected subcutaneously around the external acoustic meatus and around the circumference of the orbit, a number of labeled neurons were seen not only in the TG but also in the PTG. After applying the tracer to the lacrimal gland (LG) and the harderian gland (HG), numerous labeled neurons were detected only in the PTG. A few labeled neurons were found in the PTG after injection into the palatoglossal arch. Immunohistochemically, most of the neurons constituting the PTG were positive for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) antiserum. And a moderate number of somatostatin (SOM)-immunoreactive neurons and a small number of leucine-enkephalin (L-ENK)-immunoreactive neurons were detected. Numerous substance P-immunoreactive nerve fibers and varicosities were found in the PTG, and fewer L-ENK-, SOM- and VIP-immunoreactive fibers were observed. The present results suggest that the PTG is an autonomic ganglion that resembles in part the pterygopalatine ganglion in other species, and mainly innervates the HG and LG.
In order to clarify age-related changes in hematological values of normal rats after birth, blood samples from neonatal F344 rats of both sexes were examined periodically during the period from 0 to 40 days postpartum. The erythrocyte count (RBC) increased with time after birth as a function of age. In contrast, the reticulocyte count (Retics) continuously decreased with time after birth. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) tended to decrease after birth until weaning (about 21 days postpartum), but they began to increase after weaning. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) also gradually decreased after birth until weaning, but they were unchanged thereafter. The platelet count (PLT) gradually increased after birth and reached a plateau at weaning. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed that erythrocytes at birth had characteristic morphological features such as anisocytosis, polychromasia, basophilic stippling, Howell-Jolly body, and erythroblastosis. These characteristic features, however, disappeared by 30 days after birth. The total leukocyte count (WBC) gradually increased with time after birth, due to an increase in the number of lymphocytes. The lymphocyte count started to rapidly increase within several days after birth and the increase continued thereafter. Other differential leukocyte counts also showed various characteristic patterns of changes during the neonatal period. There were no apparent differences between males and females in these changes in hematological values.
DBA/2FG-pcy/pcy (D2-pcy) mice are a hereditary murine model of slowly progressive polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and characterized by the persistent excretion of acidic urine, in association with polyuria, after weaning. In this study, the activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and it histological distribution in the kidney of D2-pcy mice were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Significantly higher CA activity was detected in the cytosolic, but not membrane, fraction of kidney homogenates in 5-week-old D2-pcy mice than in age-matched, control DBA/2 (D2) mice, and a more rapid rate of urine acidification was noted in 11-week-old mice when acetazolamide, an inhibitor of the enzyme, was administered orally. By immunohistochemistry for the major renal CA isoenzyme (CA II), epithelial cells in the distal straight tubules and the cortical collecting ducts were stained intensely, whereas those of the proximal convoluted tubules had only weak and diffuse staining. The glomeruli, the proximal straight tubules and the ascending thin limb of Henle's loop were almost free from staining. In the cells lining cysts and/or dilated tubules, CA II activity was well preserved, although the staining intensity was considerably reduced in fully-flattened, lining cells of cysts, but no difference was found between D2-pcy and D2 mice in any segmental localization of renal CA II activity. From these results it seems that D2-pcy mice in the early stages of the cystic disease continue to secrete excess protons through the CA-mediated reaction that is stimulated for regulation of acid-base balance in the distal portion of the nephron and the collecting duct in kidney. It also suggests that monitoring urine pH may be useful in predicting the effects of early interventions on the progression of slowly developing renal cysts.
When the potent inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) was incorporated into the diet, hypertension was induced and sustained due to the effects of the long-term inhibition of endothelium-dependent relaxing factor (EDRF)/NO. The effects of L-NNA on normotensive rats of four strains (Donryu, Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar, and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY)) were compared relative to control rats. L-NNA administration caused a sharp initial increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) at 2 weeks in all animals, and this was followed by a gradual and steady increase until 4 weeks. At the end of the experiments (5 weeks), the mean SBP of Donryu and SD rats was decreased. The maximum blood pressure of Donryu and Wistar rats during the experiments exceeded 200 mmHg, but that of SD and WKY rats was below 200 mmHg. Body weight loss and death were observed only in L-NNA-fed Donryu rats. Pathological changes in the kidneys and the morbidity rates for the lesions were determined, and indicated that the Donryu L-NNA group was 100% positive. These results suggest that the Donryu strain is more sensitive to L-NNA than the other strains. That dietary L-NNA-induced hypertension in normotensive rats of the four strains provides a new artificially-induced hypertensive model in which vasoconstriction occurs mainly due to EDRF deficiency.
By the selective breeding of obese male mice of the ddY strain and using indices of the heavy body weight and appearance of urinary glucose, we established two inbred strains in 1992: one with obesity and urinary glucose (Tsumura, Suzuki, Obese Diabetes: TSOD) and the other without them (Tsumura, Suzuki, Non Obesity: TSNO). The male TSOD mice constantly showed signs of obesity and urinary glucose with increases in food and water intake, body weight and some fat weight. The body mass index (BMI) clearly showed moderate obesity. Increases in the levels of diabetic blood parameters (glucose, insulin and lipids) were also found in males, in which the levels of blood glucose and insulin were high to the ages past the growth peak. In the histological studies, pancreatic islets of the TSOD males were found hypertrophic without any signs of insulitis or fibrous formation. Among these diabetic characteristics, some of which were similar to the reported models of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), the stable appearances of the hyperglycemia, the hyperinsulinemia and the hypertrophy of pancreatic islets to the ages past the growth peak were the prominent features. In these respect the TSOD mouse may be a useful model for researching the mechanisms of human diabetes and its complications.
The autosomal recessive mutation waltzing (wz), displaying abnormal circling and head-shaking behavior, has previously been reported in the musk shrew (Suncus murinus). Postnatal development of reflexes and locomotor patterns in an open arena were examined in wz/wz mutant shrews. The wz/wz shrews showed extreme developmental delays in surface-righting reflex and negative geotaxis until 10-16 days after birth, but both reflexes eventually recovered to the levels of +/wz normal. Nevertheless, the wz/wz adults exhibited bi-directional circling behavior 59 times, head-tossing behavior 22 times and horizontal head-shaking behavior 6 times more frequent than in the +/wz controls. Although the wz/wz adult shrews were extremely hyperactive with daily spontaneous locomotor activity exceeding 4-7 times control shrew activity, they appeared to have a normal circadian rhythm. This shrew mutant may therefore be useful as a model for hyperactivity syndromes in humans.
Glutathione reductase (GR) activity and flavin concentration were studied in systemic tissues (brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, muscle, kidney, testis) and blood components (erythrocytes and plasma) from male guinea-pigs. GR activity and the flavin concentration were high in kidney and liver, and low in muscle. GR activity in erythrocytes was found in a range of tissues, but flavin concentration in erythrocytes was lower than in any tissues. GR was saturated with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in almost all tissues, but not in muscle or erythrocytes.
We physiologically and histopathologically analyzed vascular damage due to hypertension and vascular remodeling in hypertensive transgenic mice (Tsukuba hypertensive mice; THM). Pubertal (6-week-old) THM already had hypertension similar to blood pressure in adult THM due to an enhanced renin angiotensin system (RAS). They progressively developed remarkable vascular hypertrophy composed of dedifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and extracellular matrix accumulation in the thoracic aorta, and VSMC hyperplasia was predominant in the abdominal aorta. THM are therefore a useful animal model for studying vascular remodeling mediated by enhanced RAS.
We demonstrated emotional piloerection in mice given conditioned fear stress by means of a pass-through apparatus. The emotional piloerection was first assessed in mice of different ages. The results showed that the piloerection changed with age. Pharmacological studies showed that the piloerection was inhibited by an alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin, but, surprisingly, was not inhibited by anxiolytic diazepam. These findings strongly suggest that the neuronal system of piloerection is different from that of freezing behavior, and that the neuronal system of piloerection develops with age.
We established 13 embryonic stem (ES) cell lines from 542 embryos crossed between various strains of mice: 10 lines from 129/Sv-ter embryos (10/48, 20.8%) and 3 lines out of other 9 combinations of intra- or inter-strain matings (1 from intracross of C57BL/6CrSlc, 1 from B6D2F1 × C57BL/6CrSlc, 1 from Yok:ddY × Slc:ICR). No ES cell line from 129/Sv-ter × Slc:ICR embryos suggests the ICR strain might have inhibitory genetic factor(s) for the ES cell formation. Some ES cell lines could be obtained from hybrids even if none or few lines from their parental strains, suggesting a heterosis effect can be expected for establishing ES cell lines in mice.