The Philippine wild-caught castaneus mouse (Mus musculus castaneus) and laboratory mouse (C57BL/6J: B6) were used to develop a new non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) model. Offspring from the cross between a wild male and B6 female were backcrossed to the sire. One male which exhibited highest fasting hyperglycemia (190 mg/dl) among eighty-seven backcross offspring was selected at 10 weeks of age, and crossed with a B6 female to comprise the fundamental stock (F0). Thereafter, full-sib mating was performed to develop a new inbred strain named CBD (Castaneus-B6 diabetic) mouse. Mice with relatively higher fasting hyperglycemia among F0 and F1 generations were selected for breeding. From the F2 generation, mice were defined as diabetic when blood glucose levels exceeded 200 mg/dl at 120 min in intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) at 10 weeks of age, and have been selectively bred. The incidence of diabetic males from the F3-F6 generation fluctuated 45-75% at 10 weeks of age and 59-72% at 20 weeks of age. Diabetic males had about two-fold higher fasting glucose and insulin levels than B6 males. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was impaired in diabetic CBD mice compared to B6 males at 20 weeks. Moreover, diabetic mice had slight obesity compared to B6 mice. These facts indicated that diabetic features of CBD mice resemble NIDDM in humans. The CBD strain, characterized by high incidence and early onset of diabetes with mild obesity would be of value as a new NIDDM model. The method, utilizing wild castaneus mouse of different origin from laboratory mice, maybe useful in the development of other animal models.
In this study, we examined the relationship between the molecular weight of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and the features of colitis in a DSS-induced mouse model of human ulcerative colitis. DSS at three different molecular weights, 5 kD, 40 kD and 500 kD, was used in this study. DSS was administered in drinking water at 5% (w/v) to 6-7-week-old female BALB/c mice. After 7 days of treatment with DSS, the large intestine was examined histopathologically. Colitis was characterized by a loss of crypts, infiltration of inflammatory cells into the mucosa and submucosa, edema of the submucosa, erosion and ulceration and was observed in mice given the 5 kD and 40 kD forms but not the 500 kD. In the 5 kD group, colitis was observed predominantly in the cecum and upper colon. Colitis in the 40 kD group was more severe than that in the 5 kD group, and in the 40 kD group it was more severe in the lower colon than in the upper colon. These findings suggest the molecular weight of DSS to be an important factor in the murine model of colitis.
Partial ovaries from mice, hamsters, rabbits, Japanese monkeys and rats have survived deep-freezing and returned to a normal morphological state after being thawed and transplanted into the rat uterine cavity. This report describes the ice-free cryopreservation of mouse and other ovaries at -196°C by vitrification. The vitrification solution was based on the solutions reported by Rall & Fahy . After ovaries had been exposed to the vitrification solution, they were frozen, with their suspending medium, by liquid nitrogen. After freezing, the ovaries were thawed in 37°C water. The viability of the previously frozen ovarian tissue was tested by transplanting it into the uterine cavity of pseudopregnant rats. Seven days after transplantation, the ovaries were removed with the rat uterus, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histological examination. Survival of the frozen-thawed the ovaries in the rat uterine cavity demonstrates that these ovaries can tolerate exposure to osmotic dehydration and vitrification in a concentrated solution of cryoprotectant and are then immunologically acceptable to the uterine cavity.
The electrophysiological properties of cardiac muscle in KK/Ta mouse (hereafter referred to as KK mouse), an animal model of human non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, were investigated, and the findings compared with those obtained from a non-diabetic control mouse (C57BL/6J mouse; referred to as B6 mouse). The ages of the B6 mice were 23.9 ± 5.4 weeks (n=24) and those of the KK mice used were 25.7 ± 10.8 weeks (n=34). The KK mice had mild obesity, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Ventricular muscles from both mice were examined by light microscopy. Partial myocardial fibrosis and filament disorder in the ventricular muscles were found only in the KK mice. The resting membrane potential of the ventricular muscle was less negative in the KK mice than in the control mice. The maximum rate of rise in the upstroke of the action potential was significantly decreased in the KK mice compared with that of the control mice. These suggest a decrease in a time-independent K+ current (IK1) in the KK mice. The duration of the action potential (APD) at all levels of repolarization was significantly longer in the KK mice than in the B6 mice. A blocker of transient outward current (Ito), 4-aminopyridine, significantly prolonged the APD of the B6 mice, but failed to prolong it in the KK mice, suggesting that Ito in the diabetic mice is very small. A Ca2+ channel blocker, CoCl2, dramatically lengthened all levels of APD in both groups, suggesting that there is no difference between B6 mice and KK mice in L-type Ca2+ current via Ca2+ channels. These suggest the malfunction or deficiency of ionic channels which carry, at least, Ito and IK1 in diabetic mice.
We studied the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack, commonly known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, on the initiation of sexual performance and the weights of sexual accessories in inexperienced castrated male rats. The doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight, which were extracted from E. longifolia Jack, were orally administered to the rats twice daily for 10 days prior to the tests and continued throughout the test period. Testosterone was used as a positive control after injecting 15 mg/kg daily subcutaneously for 32 days. Results showed that E. longifolia Jack produced a dose-dependent increase in sexual performance of the treated animals, but the E. longifolia Jack groups showed lower sexual performance in mounting, intromission and ejaculation than the testosterone group. Further results also showed that E. longifolia Jack promoted the growth of both ventral prostate and seminal vesicles as compared with the control, but the growth of sexual accessories at 800 mg/kg of butanol, methanol, water and chloroform fractions of E. longifolia Jack was less than that of testosterone treated group. The present study therefore gives further evidence of the folkuse of E. longifolia as an aphrodisiac.
A human tumor xenograft contaminated with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) was implanted in a nude rat in order to decontaminate the tumor line. The decontamination failed in the first trial, but succeeded in the second trial. The difference between the two trials was the duration of implantation of the tumor in the nude rat, i.e., 12 days in the first and 24 days in the second trial. Duration of implantation might be a factor in the decontamination of transplantable tumors infected with MHV by passaging in the nude rat.
The rat beige (bg) autosomal recessive gene, causing Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (CHS) in rat, was mapped on Chr 17 by using synteny of rat to mouse and humans. The linkage between the beige gene and PCR-amplified microsatellite markers in (DA-bg × BN)F 1 × DA-bg backcross progeny was analysed. The recombination frequency was 9.5% between Prl and Acrm and 19.1% between Acrm and bg. The proposed order of three genes is Prl-Acrm-bg. This rat bg gene was confirmed to be homologus to the beige (bg) gene of mouse located on Chr 13 and the CHS (Lyst) gene of man located on Chr 1 (1q43).
A carcinogen-resistant inbred strain DRH/Sea has been developed from the Crj:Donryu strain. The rats had a very low incidence of liver tumors when they were fed diets containing a hepatocarcinogen such as 3'-methyl-4-dimethylamino-azobenzene (3'-Me-DAB). Despite using 3'-Me-DAB during the stage of selection, the DRH/Sea rats developed normally, reproduced and did not have any spontaneous tumor in the lung, liver or uterus at over 1 year of age. Although their growth curves were similar to the Crj:Donryu rats, the progression of polyploidization in the liver was significantly delayed when compared with Crj:Donryu rats. Mitogenic changes that occurred in the liver caused by either 3'-Me-DAB or lead nitrate were less significant in the DRH rats than in Crj:Donryu rats. Furthermore, the growth rate of cultured fibroblasts derived from the DRH rats was slower than that of Crj:Donryu rats. These results, together with our previous results, suggest that slow growth potential is present under certain conditions in DRH rats. These findings may explain partly the meaning of the different susceptibility to hepatocarcinogens.
A polycystic kidney rat model is being established from a Crj:CD (SD) rat strain. Unlike existing animal models of polycystic kidney disease, this mutant rat has a completely polycystic liver. Mating experiments revealed that the phenotype is controlled by an autosomal recessive gene. We propose that this gene be tentatively called the "rpc" gene.
he influence of castration on the development of the thymus in neonatal rats was studied to elucidate when after birth the thymus comes under inhibitory regulation by the testis in rats. The relative and absolute weights of the thymus were measured five days after castration these cases. No excessive changes in the weights of the thymus with castration were observed by 31 days after birth. Significant changes in the thymus appeared in the relative weight at 36-day-castration. The absolute weight of the thymus was also significantly increased after 41-day-castration. These findings suggest that in rats the inhibitory regulation of the thymus by testis development does not appear before at least 31 days of age.
We have isolated the virus from a fecal pellet in the colon of a BALB/c mouse with X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) housed in a room in which there has recently been an epidemic due to mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and designated it as the MHV-TY strain. Sequence analysis of the MHV-TY strain was performed on major structural, spike (S), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N), proteins directly from PCR products. The comparison of nucleotide sequences of MHV-TY with other strains investigated so far revealed that all three structural proteins of the TY strain had some unique amino acid sequences among MHV strains which can be used as markers of this strain.