Experimental Animals
Online ISSN : 1881-7122
Print ISSN : 1341-1357
ISSN-L : 0007-5124
49 巻 , 3 号
選択された号の論文の12件中1~12を表示しています
Original
  • Seigo SHUMIYA, Kazunao KURAMOTO, Hiroshi ITOH, Masahiro KANEKO
    原稿種別: Original
    2000 年 49 巻 3 号 p. 153-161
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2003/11/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    Four sub-strains, reared by sib-mating and having for their origin the F344/DuCrj strain of rats, were established by feeding with different levels of low protein and low energy diets, and their characteristics investigated. The amounts of crude protein (CP) and digestible energy (DE) in the four diets were 17.6%-3.0 kcal, 10.5%-2.5 kcal, 8.4%-2.0 kcal, and 10.5%-2.5 kcal, respectively, and the four sub-strains established here were provisionally designated as F344/Tig1, F344/Tig2, F344/Tig3 and F344/Tig4, respectively. Intakes of nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy (MEn) did not differ, and a large intake of digestible crude protein (DCP) was observed in F344/Tig1 rats. The body weight of rats provided with lower-nutrient diets showed a tendency to decrease until the F2 generation, but no change among the generations was seen subsequently, and the same compiled differences in protein content were maintained. Similar transitions were observed in the lifetime rearing test. Though F344/Tig3 rats, which were reared on minimum nutrients, showed a tendency to delayed puberty, we were easily able to breed four pairs in every generation using procedures similar to those used for other strains of rats. There were no differences among the F344/Tig1 to -3 strains of rats in body length, digestive tract length, or organ weight per body weight, and all the rats had a normal range of biochemical values. But the F344/Tig4 showed a high glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and a tendency to decreased liver function and a shorter lifespan. These sub-strains of F344 rats clarified differences in fatty acid compositions, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in serum, liver and the brain. The rats were intended to be useful animal models for the study of nutritional environments and their influence on the memory and learning.
  • Yang CHEN, Masaru SHIMIZU, Katsuhiko SATO, Masao KOTO, Kunihiko TSUNEM ...
    原稿種別: Original
    2000 年 49 巻 3 号 p. 163-170
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2003/11/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    Age-related changes in bone mineral content and bone biomarkers were assessed over the complete lifespan of female cynomolgus monkeys. The bone mass of the lumbar spine increased linearly from birth to about 2.5 years of age, and this increase gradually slowed thereafter until a peak bone mass was achieved at 9 years of age. The bone mass stabilized after 9 years of age, showing no sign of further reduction with age. In contrast with the significant increase in bone mass before 2.5 years of age, significant decreases occurred in the serum concentrations of the following bone formation markers: intact osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, but the serum concentration of carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen did not change significantly throughout the entire lifespan. Concerning the bone resorption markers, the levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase fluctuated throughout the entire lifespan. The skeleton of an aging female monkey undergoes changes similar to those observed in senescent humans, but did not undergo the menopausal changes seen in women. The use of female cynomolgus monkeys to model human skeletal interventions should therefore be undertaken with consideration of the similarities and differences between cynomolgus monkeys and humans.
  • Isao SERIZAWA, Yasuhiko KOEZUKA, Hiromi AMAO, Toru R. SAITO, Kazuaki W ...
    原稿種別: Original
    2000 年 49 巻 3 号 p. 171-180
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2003/11/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a newly discovered subset of lymphocytes. It appears that this subset has potential as important regulators of immune responses. But because there are relatively few NKT cells in lymphoid organs and because of technical difficulties in detecting NKT cells in most mouse strains, the roles of NKT cells have not been fully identified and little attention has been paid to the roles of NKT cells in immunological experiments in which NK1.1 - strains were used. To examine the existence of functional NKT cells in various strains of experimental mice, including NK1.1- strains, we utilized α-galactosylceramide (KRN7000) which is thought to react specifically with NKT cells. Indeed, we could confirm that early cytokine (IL-4 and IFN-γ) secretion at 2 h after the injection of KRN7000 was dependent on NKT cells. With this in vivo system, we have successfully detected the presence of functional NKT cells in various mouse strains, including AKR/N, BALB/c, C3H/HeJ, C3H/HeN, C57BL/6, C.B-17, CBA/N, NC, NOD, SJL, W/Wv, aly/aly and aly/+. Notable increases of serum IL-4 were detected in W/ Wv and aly/+ strains, and defective response of IFN-γ in SJL mice and that of IL-4 in NOD mice were observed. This is the first report to show the functional significance of NKT cells in cytokine secretion in various mouse strains in response to a ligand for the T cell receptor of NKT cells.
  • Kei-ichi KATAYAMA, Noriaki ISHIGAMI, Michio SUZUKI, Ryoichi OHTSUKA, W ...
    原稿種別: Original
    2000 年 49 巻 3 号 p. 181-187
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2003/11/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    Ethylnitrosourea (ENU), a well known DNA alkylating agent, induces anomalies in the central nervous system (CNS), craniofacial tissues, limbs and male reproductive organs. Recently we clarified that excess cell death caused by apoptosis occurred in these organs and tissues of rat fetuses from dams treated with ENU at day 13 of gestation (GD13). In this study, we examined fetuses at GD21 and offspring at 10 weeks of age after ENU administration to pregnant rats at GD13 in order to clarify the relationship between ENU-induced apoptosis in the fetal tissues and teratogenicity of ENU. Severe intrauterine growth retardation was observed in the ENU group, and the body weight of the offspring in the ENU group was significantly lower than that of the control group throughout the experiment. In addition, a high incidence of microencephaly, ectrodactyly and curved caudal vertebrae was observed in the offspring from dams treated with ENU at GD13. Judging from the results of our previous and present studies, it was strongly suggested that ENU-induced apoptosis in rat fetal tissues may play an important role in the induction of anomalies in the corresponding tissues.
  • Kyoko HIGO, Toshikazu USHIJIMA, Atsushi OYABU, Chunlin YE, Shigeru YAG ...
    原稿種別: Original
    2000 年 49 巻 3 号 p. 189-195
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2003/11/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    BUF/Mna (BUF) is a rat strain susceptible to spontaneous development of thymomas. We have previously shown that the thymoma susceptibility is controlled principally by a dominant susceptibility gene located on chromosome 7, thymoma susceptibility gene of rat 1 (Tsr1). To generate genetic markers tightly linked to Tsr1, we performed genetically directed representational difference analysis (GDRDA) with three combinations of the tester and driver DNAs. From 124 {ACI/NMs × (BUF × ACI/NMs) F1} backcross rats, 12 rats with the ACI/BUF genotype in the Tsr1 region (A/B rats) and 13 rats with the ACI/ACI genotype in the region (A/A rats) were selected, and their DNAs were pooled, respectively. Three kinds of tester DNAs, i) inbred BUF, ii) (BUF × ACI)F1, and iii) the pool from the A/B rats, were subtracted by the driver DNA prepared from the pool of the A/A rats. The three combinations yielded one, two, and one polymorphic marker(s), respectively. One marker, D7Ncc28, was isolated commonly by the three combinations of subtraction, and another marker, D11Ncc12 was isolated only by the second combination. Linkage analysis demonstrated that D7Ncc28 was located in the 8.3 cM region where Tsr1 has been mapped. The three combinations of subtraction were shown to be almost equally capable of isolating polymorphic markers in a specific chromosomal region.
  • Atsushi TAKATORI, Mizuho AKAHORI, Seiji KAWAMURA, Shinichi ITAGAKI, Ya ...
    原稿種別: Original
    2000 年 49 巻 3 号 p. 197-203
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2003/11/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    To establish the baseline data, age-related changes and the regional expression of the hepatic P450 isozymes in Syrian hamsters of the APA strain at 3, 6, 12, 18 months old were examined by immunological techniques. Immunohistochemical analysis of liver serial sections revealed that the midzonal and perivenous regions (zones 2 and 3, respectively) were stained with the anti-rat CYP1A1/2, 2B1/2 and 2E1 antibodies. These three antibodies most intensely stained the hepatocytes around the central vein. An anti-rat CYP3A2 staining section had a staining pattern with equally intense reactions in zones 2 and 3. On the other hand, CYP2C6, 2C11 and 4A1 were distributed diffusely throughout the hepatic acinus. There was no age-related difference in the expression pattern of any of the P450 isozymes examined. Total P450 content had a peak at 6 months of age and decreased to 60% of that level thereafter. Western-blot analysis revealed that the peak expressions of the isozymes detected with anti-rat CYP1A1/2, 2C6, 2E1 and 3A2 antibodies were observed in 6-month-old hamsters and declined in older ones. The CYP2B and 2C11 content reached the maximum at the age of 6 months and maintained almost the same level thereafter. The CYP4A level did not change from 3 to 6 months, and then declined to about 40% of the younger level at 12 and 18 months of age. These results suggest that the hepatic P450 isozymes of APA hamsters have region-specific expressions and most isozymes have their peaks of expression at 6 months of age, which differs from the patterns for rat P450.
  • Abliz ARKIN, Toru R. SAITO, Kimimasa TAKAHASHI, Hiromi AMAO, Kazuaki W ...
    原稿種別: Original
    2000 年 49 巻 3 号 p. 205-209
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2003/11/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    We studied whether marking behavior in Mongolian gerbils would be innate or learned behavior. The marking behavior was defined as "animals rubbing their abdominal scent glands on small protruding objects". Between 21 and 90 days of age, Mongolian gerbils, which were kept under such conditions that they would be unable to learn this behavior, were observed at intervals of 5-15 days to find out if there were signs of the behavior or not. Six male and four female Mongolian gerbils were used for observing. Neonate Mongolian gerbils during the age of 3 to 28 days were fostered by ICR mother mice. Weaning Mongolian gerbils were then individually kept away from the others. Marking behavior was observed in 2 out of 6 males at 50 days of age and 2 of 4 females at 60 days and the mean frequency of the marking behavior for 10 min was 3.5 in the males and 5.0 in the females. These results suggest that marking behavior was innate and not learned behavior in Mongolian gerbils.
  • Kiyoshi MATSUMOTO, Norifumi MATSUSHITA, Hiroshi TOMOZAWA, Yoh-ichi TAG ...
    原稿種別: Original
    2000 年 49 巻 3 号 p. 211-215
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2003/11/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    Hematological and genetic characteristics of newly found eosinophilic rats were studied. Hematologically, high blood eosinophil counts started at 6 weeks of age. Almost all 10-week-old rats had eosinophilia with individual counts above 500/μl and 5 to 100 times the normal level. Proliferating eosinophils had normal morphology. An increase in lymphocyte counts was observed at 5 weeks of age, one week earlier than the onset of eosinophilosis. In bone marrow, proliferation of eosinophils was also observed at 8 weeks of age and thereafter progressed, suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of eosinophilia in this rat. The results of genetic cross experiments revealed the disease to be hereditary. The spontaneously eosinophilic rat therefore warrants attention as a model for studying the underlying mechanisms of human and animal eosinophilia.
Note
  • Rea Victoria P. ANUNCIADO, Tamio OHNO, Masayuki MORI, Akira ISHIKAWA, ...
    原稿種別: Note
    2000 年 49 巻 3 号 p. 217-224
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2003/11/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the SMXA recombinant inbred (RI) strains, we measured body weight, blood insulin and lipid (triglyceride, total cholesterol and phospholipid) levels in each strain. In the five traits, mean values of substrains varied remarkably and showed a continuous spectrum of distribution, suggesting control by multiple genes at distinct loci for each trait. We also screened for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in the five traits. Suggestive QTLs for body weight (Chromosomes 1 and 6), insulin (Chromosomes 1, 3, 10 and 17), triglyceride (Chromosomes 4 and 11) and phospholipid (Chromosome 18) levels were detected. The SMXA RI strains are unique tools for analyzing genetic factors that influence body weight, blood insulin and lipids levels.
  • Shin'ichiro NAKAMURA, Ippei SAKAKIBARA, Fumiko ONO, Shinwa SHIBATA, Ma ...
    原稿種別: Note
    2000 年 49 巻 3 号 p. 225-228
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2003/11/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    Squamous cell carcinoma was observed in the oral cavity in a one-year-old male cynomolgus monkey. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of various shaped cells and its assemblies infiltrated into the surrounding connective tissues. Although no obvious metaplastic keratinized cancer pearls were found in the tumor cells, the intercellular bridges were observed. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were stained with anti-keratin, but not with anti-vimentin. On virological examinations, no papilloma virus antigen or Epstein-Barr Virus small mRNA could not be detected. Under the electron microscope, incomplete tonofibrils and desmosomes in the cytoplasm and microvillus of the cell membrane were observed, suggesting a malignancy or low differentiation of the tumor cells in the present case. This is the first case of squamous cell carcinoma observed in very young macaques, to our knowledge.
  • Ri-ichi TAKAHASHI, Kazumi ITO, Yoshihiro FUJIWARA, Kunihiko KODAIRA, K ...
    原稿種別: Note
    2000 年 49 巻 3 号 p. 229-233
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2003/11/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in the methods for preparing a large DNA fragment to be used for making transgenic rats from the standpoint of transgenic production efficiency and integrity of the introduced gene. In yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) transgenesis, three methods for preparing DNA for microinjection were compared: amplification of YAC in yeast (AMP), amplification of YAC in yeast and removal of the amplification element (AMP/RE), and no amplification of the YAC in yeast (AMP-). Production efficiency per microinjected ovum with DNA by the AMP method was four times higher than that by the AMP/RE and AMP-. Based on these results, we favor the AMP method in spite of the thymidine kinase gene-induced male sterility. In bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenesis, linear DNA fragments for microinjection prepared by three kinds of purification procedures were compared: Not I digestion and CsCl gradient ultra-centrifugation (Prep. 1), CsCl gradient ultra-centrifugation, Not I digestion, gel electrophoresis, and β-agarase digestion (Prep. 2), and CsCl gradient ultra-centrifugation, Not I digestion, pulse field gel electrophoresis, and b-agarase digestion (Prep. 3). Although the efficiency of producing transgenic rats was similar with all these three DNA preparations, integration of the intact DNA fragment only occurred with the Prep. 3 procedure. We therefore favor the Prep. 3 method for preparing BAC DNA fragments. These results indicate that the method used to prepare a large DNA fragment such as YAC and BAC DNAs is important in order to produce transgenic rats with an intact transgene.
  • Yutaka MASUDA, Seiki ISHIGOOKA, Yukihisa MATSUDA
    原稿種別: Note
    2000 年 49 巻 3 号 p. 235-237
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2003/11/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the present studies, the behavior of ddY mice digging wood chips was carefully observed. When mice were individually placed on new 5 cm-thick wood chips, their behavior was found to be the same irrespective of their age or sex. The behavior was not prevented by non-noxious 5 black steel rods which were used to measure digging ability, and was not related to habituation or learning. But moist or dirty chips remarkably weakened digging ability. These findings strongly suggest that the digging behavior is a natural and instinctive one, but not an expression of anxiety as previously reported.
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