Neoplastic lesions were observed in untreated aged Sprague Dawley (SD) rats throughout their lifespan starting at 5 weeks. Their mean survival times were 89 to 105 weeks of age. The total tumor incidences were 70 to 76.7% and 87 to 95.8% in males and females, respectively. The common neoplasmas were pituitary adenoma and adrenal pheochromocytoma in both sexes, testicular Leydig cell tumor in males and mammary gland tumors, thyroidal C-cell adenoma and uterine stromal polyp in females.
Six groups of limited flora (LF) Hartley guinea-pigs were produced by inoculation of hysterectomy-derived GF guinea-pigs with various combinations of cecal bacteria of conventional (CV) guinea-pigs to determine the effective bacterial cocktails for the establishment of a specific pathogen free (SPF) colony. Bifidobacterium magnum (Bif) isolated from CV guinea-pigs was used for pretreatment. The mortality of LF guinea-pigs inoculated with only Bif was 75%, and that of those inoculated with Bif plus chloroform-treated cecal suspension (CHF) or Bif plus CHF plus 32 isolates from CV guinea-pigs was 40 to 66.7%. These three groups were in an unhealthy condition with mucoid enteritis-like diarrhea. However, the mortality of LF guinea-pigs inoculated with the anaerobic growth on EG plates injected with 10-5 dilution of cecal contents (CF) or inoculated with Bif plus CF was 6.3 and 15%, respectively. These latter two groups of LF guinea-pigs were transferred to separate barrier rooms and some of the LF guinea-pigs were maintained in isolators as a source of intestinal flora for SPF guinea-pigs. The composition of cecal flora of LF guinea-pigs was stable for a long time, and bacteroidaceae and peptococcaceae were maintained as predominant components. The basic composition of the cecal flora of SPF guinea-pigs originated from LF guinea-pigs, which consists mainly of the anaerobic bacteria, was not changed over a long period, and the flora composition became similar to that in CV guinea-pigs. Guinea-pig-specific pathogens from the SPF colonies were not detected during experiments.
The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat is an animal model for obese-type non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in humans. Our present investigation was designed to identify epistatic interactions influencing NIDDM by performing least squares analysis of variance of all pairs of informative markers in 160 F2 progenies bred from an intercross of OLETF and Fischer-344 rats. We identified four interactions between Nidd15/of (chromosome 7) and Nidd16/of (chromosome 14), Nidd15/of and Nidd17/of (chromosome 15), Nidd16/of and Nidd18/of (chromosome 15), and Nidd16/of and Nidd19/of (chromosome 17), which account for a total of ~40% of the genetic variation of entire glucose levels after glucose challenge in the F2. The Nidd16/of locus, which is involved in three of four digenic interactions, and the Nidd19/of are likely to correspond to Nidd2/of and Nidd14/of, NIDDM loci previously identified in the F2 by single-QTL model and multiple-QTL model, respectively, while Nidd15/of, Nidd17/of and Nidd18/of loci reflect novel NIDDM loci. An aberrant increase of the entire glucose level due to synergism occurs in the double OLETF homozygote genotype of Nidd15/of and Nidd16/of, and of Nidd16/of and Nidd19/of, as well as in the OLETF homozygote genotypes of Nidd15/of and Nidd16/of, respectively, combined with the heterozygote genotypes of Nidd17/of and Nidd18/of. These findings demonstrate that inter-allelic interactions are likely to be an important component of NIDDM susceptibility.
Transgenic mammals, from small laboratory rodents to domestic animals, have been successfully produced to date, but their production efficiency within or across species has been variable. This is probably due to the differences in the type of injected DNA and/or technical procedures employed in each laboratory, as well as the reproductive characteristics of the species. Here we report the direct comparison of the efficiencies of producing transgenic mice, rats, rabbits and pigs by one technician using a fusion gene composed of the bovine αS1-casein promoter and human growth hormone (hGH) gene. Before the fusion gene was injected into the zygotes, high magnitude centrifugation to visualize the pronuclei was necessary for all of the pig zygotes and one-third of the rabbit zygotes, but not for mouse and rat zygotes. Post-injection survival of the mouse zygotes (67.1%) was lower than those of the rat, rabbit and pig zygotes (89.6 to 100%). The volume change of the pronucleus following DNA injection was the lowest in mice (50% increase), moderate in rabbits (148% increase), and the most prominent in rats (238% increase). The data from only 1 pig zygote indicated a 22% increase in the pronucleus volume by DNA injection. The PCR analyses of the tail DNA of new born offspring indicated that 0.8% (4/493), 4.8% (22/463), 0.8% (3/367) and 0.9% (2/221) of the injected eggs in mice, rats, rabbits and pigs, respectively, developed into transgenic offspring. Some of the founder animals in all four species expressed the transgene in the mammary gland which was confirmed in hGH mRNA by RT-PCR and/or hGH peptide in Witch's milk with ELISA. These results suggest that the maximum volume of DNA solution injectable into the pronucleus is a possible factor explaining the species differences in the production of transgenic animals.
The fibers of the anterior belly digastric muscle of mice, fed a granulated diet for various periods, have been studied histochemically and morphometrically. The diameters of the anterior belly digastric fibers in normal mice fed only a granulated diet were smaller than those in mice fed a solid diet. Differences in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity of muscle fibers between op/op and normal mice gradually appeared in the anterior belly digastric muscle and, by the age of 90 days, under-development of muscle fibers was observed in the mid-belly region of the anterior belly digastric muscle of op/op mice fed a granulated diet. These results indicate mechanical stress in mastication plays an important role in the development of the anterior belly digastric muscle structures.
Swine neutrophils were quantitatively examined for the direct and indirect migratory responses to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) in vitro and the effects of pseudorabies virus (PrV), frequently co-infecting with APP, were also observed. About 30% of swine neutrophils responded to viable APP, while 3.2% of the neutrophils responded to 0.1% casein which served as the control. The migration to APP was not affected by preincubation of neutrophils with PrV, which inhibited the random migration. When the random migration was normalized to 1, the chemotactic indices for APP, opsonized-APP and casein were 64, 70 and 8.5, respectively. Heat-killed APP or E. coli lipopolysaccharide stimulated the production of interleukin-8 activity by adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Preincubation of PBMC with PrV inhibited the production of neutrophil attractant activity when stimulated with heat-killed APP. The results suggested that the direct chemotaxis of neutrophils to viable APP might contribute to early infiltration in Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia, and that PrV might inhibit indirect recruitment of neutrophils to infected lungs by compromising the functions of PBMC.
The LEA rat was established from a Long-Evans rat closed colony as the control strain of the LEC rat, which is reported to exhibit several mutant phenotypes such as hepatic disorder (hts), blockage of the T cell differentiation (thid) and X-ray hypersensitivity (xhs1 and xhs2). Here we report that the LEA rat is hypersensitive to X-rays to a similar degree as the LEC rat, although it is normal with respect to the hts and thid phenotypes. We further performed genetic linkage analysis of X-ray hypersensitivity in the LEA rat. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) linkage analysis revealed that xhs1 but not xhs2 is the locus responsible for X-ray hypersensitivity in the LEA rat.
The ALP activities and properties of rat intestine cut into 20 segments were examined, and we were able to demonstrate that the ALP activity of upper intestine is high compared to that of lower intestine. This result coincided with those of other reports. However, we newly clarified that there is an ALP isoenzyme found in the lower intestine which can be inhibited by L-homoarginine. The molecular weight of the ALP isoenzyme was 136 kDa. In addition, it was clarified that there are several isoenzymes from upper to lower intestine. This study demonstrates that there exist isoenzymes, which are inhibited by L-HArg, in the intestine which are similar to the isoenzymes in the liver, bone and kidney.
Proteoglycans were localized immunohistochemically in the dermis of Donryu rats, using monoclonal antibodies raised against large proteoglycan (PG-M/versican) and small proteoglycan (decorin). The localizations of these proteoglycans in the dermis were compared between young rats (22-day old) and old ones (24 or 30 months of age), and distinct age differences were observed. In the young dermis, PG-M/versican was observed to be abundant in almost all fibroblastic cells (both cytoplasm and cell processes) whose cellularity was very rich compared with the dermis of old rats. Decorin was only faintly visible in the interstitial fibrous elements of young dermis. In the old dermis, however, decorin was distinctly detected on the fibrous elements, which were diffusely distributed as a fibrous network, and likewise PG-M/versican was visible in only a few fibrous elements which seemed to be the fine processes of fibroblastic cells. In the border layer between epidermis and dermis as well as the basal layer surrounding hair follicles, both large and small proteoglycans could be observed in old dermis. Since decorin, which was abundant in old dermis, has been found to have a growth inhibitory effect, it is conceivable that decorin may be one of the Cell Growth Inhibitory Factors in aging as proposed by Tauchi et al. [17, 18].
We established SHN and SLN strains of mice with a high and a low mammary tumor potentials from the same basal stock of Swiss albino. The selection history of females (mothers) for subsequent generations, mammary tumorigenesis and reproduction up to recent generations are presented and compared with the results up to F30 published in 1979. The changes with generation of each parameter varied in both strains except the conditions of female (mother) selection for subsequent generations, which were generally constant. However, the fluctuations in parameters up to F30 became generally smaller with advancing generations. Based on the fluctuations from generation to generation of mammary tumorigenic and reproductive parameters, an interdependency between mammary tumor potential and reproductivity is suggested in SLN, but less so in SHN. The pup growth rate was increased and associated with selection for mammary tumorigenesis in SHN; this parameter is usually used as an indicator of mother lactational performance in mice. The significance of selection for mammary tumor potential in association with reproductivity was further discussed.
Olive, corn, sesame or peanut oil which have been used as vehicles in the immature rat uterotrophic assay or Hershberger assay, for detection of endocrine disrupting effects of environmental chemicals, was administered to ten immature female rats by subcutaneous injection from postnatal day (PND) 21 for 3 or 7 days, and each oil was also administered to ten male rats from PND 21 for 7 and 10 days. The body weights, and the weights of sex and sex accessory organs in female and male rats were measured. There were no significant differences in body weights of female rats between each oil group and the control group, while the body weight of male rats in the group given peanut or olive oil was significantly increased from 8 or 9 days after administration. There were no changes in the sex and sex accessory organ weights of female or male rats related to the endocrine disrupters. The results of the body weights and organ weights demonstrate that each oil is a suitable vehicle for the immature rat uterotrophic assay. However, each oil is suggested to be unsuitable for the Hershberger assay, because the analysis of changes of sex accessory organ weights in this assay might be confused by the increased body weights.
Pelage skin of C3H/HeJ mice homozygous at an autosomal recessive mutant locus, rough fur (ruf) which is located on chromosome 9, was histologically analyzed. Sebaceous glands synthesizing lipids were larger in the mutant mice than in controls in an examination by Sudan IV staining. Electron microscopic analysis of the sebaceous gland showed that lipid droplets were denser in mutant mice than in control mice, and that they were irregular in shape in ruf mice while those of controls were round. Our results suggested that rough fur (ruf) mice might be an animal model for hyperlipogenesis of the pelage skin.
Murine pathogenic Escherichia coli O115a,c:K(B) (MPEC) is the causative agent of mouse megaenteron, the pathology of which resembles that of transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia caused by Citrobacter rodentium. We compared their genetic and pathological features to reveal the relationship between these two bacteria. To evaluate the genetic distances, 16S rDNA genes were sequenced and biochemical reactions were tested. Mouse strain susceptibility tests, using CF1 MPEC-susceptible germfree mice and BALB/cA(Jic) resistant mice were performed. MPEC strains and C. rodentium showed more than 99.6% identity by comparison of 16S rDNA gene sequences. All results from biochemical reactions and the mouse strain susceptibility tests were identical. It is proposed that MPEC should be reclassified as C. rodentium.
IgE-dependent histamine release from rat mesenteric mast cells was investigated. Excised mesenterium was cut into pieces and incubated with IgE overnight at 4°C for sensitization. Over 10 pieces of mesenterium specimen could be prepared from a rat. Antigen-induced histamine release from mesenterium specimen was initiated rapidly and reached a plateau in 5 min. In an optimal condition, over 50% of total histamine was released. In contrast, unpurified and purified peritoneal mast cells released only 22.5% and 5.3% of total histamine, respectively, upon IgE stimulation. Tranilast, a mast cell stabilizer, inhibited the histamine release from mesenteric mast cells significantly. The mesenterium might be a useful material for studying tissue-associated mast cell activation.
We experimented with vein grafting surgery on Götingen minipigs. Using the internal jugular vein for the tissue graft, we performed side-to-side anastomosis to the carotid artery, to which it runs parallel. One key point in this surgery was to prevent vasospasm of the carotid artery so as to keep the lumen sufficiently patent during anastomosis. The histopathological findings in the grafts which remained patent resembled those of vein grafts in humans. We therefore considered that this technique in minipigs can be applied for the study of coronary artery bypass surgery in humans.