Tsukuba High Emotional (THE) and Tsukuba Low Emotional (TLE) strains of rats have been congenitally bred for use in studies of emotionality. The current study investigated THE and TLE strain differences in the footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalization responses of adult male rats. Ultrasonic vocalization response inducibility (ratio of rats emitting ultrasounds) and vocalization activity in THE rats were statistically higher than in TLE rats. We next examined the causal relation between the ultrasonic vocalizations and the activation of the pituitary-adrenocortical axis in response to footshocks in these two strains of rats. Rats were sorted into two groups, vocalizing and non-vocalizing, after being exposed to the shock regimen daily for 5 successive days. Basal plasma concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone were not different between THE and TLE rats. After receiving footshocks, significant increases in plasma concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone were induced in both strains of rats. These increases in plasma concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone were significantly higher in THE than in TLE rats. However, in vocalizing and non-vocalizing rats of both strains, no statistical differences in plasma concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone were observed after footshocks. These findings suggest that the high emotionality of the adult male rats was reflected in the emission of ultrasounds, and that the emission of ultrasonic vocalizations might not be related to the activation of the pituitary-adrenocortical axis.
Gnotobiotic Wistar rats were produced using gnotobiotic techniques, which were established in the production of a SPF mouse colony, in order to establish a barrier-sustained colony. One strain of Escherichia coli, 28 strains of Bacteroidaceae (B-strains), three strains of Lactobacillus (L-strains) and a chloroform-treated fecal suspension (CHF, Clostridium mixture) were prepared from conventional Wistar rats as the microflora source. Two groups of limited-flora rats, E. coli plus B-strains and E. coli plus CHF, were produced. After confirmation that Clostridium difficile was not detected in the CHF-inoculated rats, two groups of limited-flora rats were transferred to an isolator and housed together in a cage. These rats were then orally inoculated with L-strains. The gnotobiotic rats showed colonization resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the number of E. coli in the feces was 105 to 106/g. The gnotobiotic rats were transferred to a barrier room as a source of intestinal flora for SPF colonies. In the SPF rats, basic cecal flora was mainly composed of Bacteroidaceae, clostridia, fusiform-shaped bacteria and lactobacilli, and did not change over a long period. Their flora became similar to that of conventional rats.
The possibility of horizontal transmission of T. gondii was examined in squirrel monkeys. After three monkeys were inoculated perorally with 1.1-2.1 × 103 cysts of the T. gondii ME49, the animals were divided into two cages and maintained with one normal monkey for each cage as a cagemate. Two out of the three T. gondii-inoculated monkeys died, and the remaining one monkey was sacrificed in a moribund state one week after infection because of acute toxoplasmosis. Many T. gondii tachyzoites were recovered from broncho-alveolar lavages and were also found histopathologically in the lung, liver, spleen, kidney and lymph nodes and impression smears of tissues from the three T. gondii-inoculated monkeys by Giemsa staining. Anti-T. gondii antibody was examined by immunoblot assay in these animals, and the antibody to T. gondii major surface membrane protein (p30) could be detected after the start of experiment. Furthermore, a specific band of T. gondii NTPase gene was observed by PCR in the liver and lung of infected and cagemate monkeys, and the sequence of the second PCR products obtained from the cagemates, which were clinically normal but gave a positive result in immunoblotting assay, was exactly the same as the sequence of the NTPase gene of T. gondii ME49. These findings suggested that transmission of T. gondii from the infected monkeys to cagemates occurred easily, and since many T. gondii tachyzoites were recovered from the broncho-alveolar lavages of the three T. gondii-inoculated monkeys, we suggest that aerosol infection plays an important role for the enzootic toxoplasmosis in colonies of squirrel monkeys.
The relationship among ultrasonic vocalization (USV), prolactin and maternal behavior was investigated in lactating rat mothers and their pups. The lactating mother had a cannula inserted into the external jugular vein, and was exposed to USVs emitted from a pup immediately. Changes of prolactin and maternal behavior were determined. Prolactin increased dramatically during exposure to USVs, when maternal search, retrieving and nest building behavior appeared significantly. These results suggested that the relationship among USV, prolactin and maternal behavior was included in communication between lactating mother and pup.
Waveforms of isolation calls emitted from hamster pups, which were Syrian hamsters, Djungarian hamsters, and Chinese hamsters, were compared in a basic study on improving reproduction by decrease of cannibalism, because it was reported that maternal behavior was induced by isolation calls in rodents. Isolation calls of hamster pups, isolated from their mother and receiving cold stress, were collected by Real-Time Spectrogram (RTS), and calculated to spectrograms and power spectra by SIGNAL. Isolation calls consisted of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) and audible vocalizations (ADVs) in each species. Waveforms of isolation calls emitted by the hamster pups, were shown to have several characteristic features. In this study, the species specificity of isolation calls was shown in hamster pups. It would seem that the species specificity originates in the differences of sensitivity to cold stress via the autonomic nerve in hamsters.
We performed a genome-wide quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of body weight at 10 weeks of age in a population of 321 intercross offspring from SM/J and A/J mice, progenitor strains of SMXA recombinant inbred strains. Interval mapping revealed two significant QTLs, Bwq3 (body weight QTL3) and Bwq4, on Chromosomes (Chrs) 8 and 18 respectively, and five suggestive QTLs on Chrs 2, 6, 7, 15 and 19. Bwq3 and Bwq4 explained 6% of the phenotypic variance. The SM/J alleles at both QTLs increased body weight, though the SM/J mouse was smaller than the A/J mouse. On the other hand, four of the five suggestive QTLs detected had male-specific effects on body weight and the remainder was female-specific. These suggestive QTLs explained 5-6% of the phenotypic variance and all the SM/J alleles decreased body weight.
Incidence of pyometra observed in our colony-raised beagle dogs over a 12-year period is described. Pyometra was observed in 25 female dogs of more than 4 years old, frequently at 8-11 years, with the average age of onset 9.36 ± 0.38 years. The incidence of the disease was 15.2% of the female dogs (n=165) more than 4 years old. Clinical findings useful in the diagnosis of this disease included an excretion of pus from the cervix, rapid increase in leukocyte count, and enlarged uterus as revealed by radiography. The relationships of delivery, estrus cycles to this disease are discussed. Ovariohysterectomy or uterectomy was the only effective method of treatment. In conclusion, the results indicated that pyometra might be an age-related disease because it occurred particularly in aged dogs.
Behaviors of mice in the forced swimming test are motionlessness, climbing and the other stereotypical behaviors. We observed these behaviors in different ages and sex and in repeated forced swimming trials. The findings were 1) quantities of the climbing and the other behaviors were different with the age and sex, 2) repeated per day forced swimming remarkably increased motionlessness and motionlessness is memorized for at least 14 days, and 3) climbing is the typical opposite behavior of motionlessness and was related to adrenergic but not serotonergic neuronal activity. When these behaviors are recognized as adaptation behaviors, we conclude that mice given repeated forced swimming, but not mice given one trial of forced swimming, can be considered as a model of human depression relating to adrenaline neuronal activity.
Genetic linkage analysis was performed between the low expression phenotype of peripheral CD4+ T cells and the thid (T-helper immunodeficiency) phenotype using (BN × LEC)F 1 × LEC backcross progenies. In contrast to a previous result using a thid congenic strain that the low expression phenotype of CD62L was not correlated with the thid phenotype, our result in this study indicated that the low expression phenotype of CD62L was genetically linked with the thid phenotype. The discrepancy between the previous and present results may be due to the source of animals, congenic strain versus backcross progenies. It is suggested by this study that the thid locus controls the expression level of CD62L in peripheral CD4+ T cells.
The relationship between cryptorchidism and testicular tumors has been well established in canines, and the tumor has been proposed as a model for studying its human counterparts. Herein we report canine malignant retroperitoneal seminoma in a 4-year-old castrated Basset hound, most likely without testicular involvement, similar to that of the classic seminoma of humans.
The use of simian agent 8 (SA8) as an antigen for B virus (BV) antibody detection was evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys. Seventy-two sera judged as positive using BV antigen were all positive when the SA8 antigen was used. Out of 28 BV-negative sera 2 were positive against the SA8 antigen and one serum was classified as indeterminate. The present data indicates that detection of BV antibody can be achieved accurately and safely by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using SA8 antigen.
Arterial supply to the stomach of dogs indigenous to Bangladesh was investigated by using latex. The hepatic, left gastric and splenic arteries sent their major branches to the stomach. The cranial and caudal branches of the left gastric artery supplied the lesser curvature of the stomach. The right gastric, and right and left gastroepiploic arteries also sent their branches to both the lesser and greater curvatures. Six or seven short gastric arteries from the splenic artery supplied the greater curvature. Anastomoses between the left and right gastric, between the left and right gastroepiploic, and between short gastric arteries and left gastric arteries were observed.