We started establishing inbred strains of chicken and Japanese quail in 1970. In class Aves, full sib mating is highly difficult due to inbreeding depression. In the chicken, we attempted to establish some inbred strains in three breeds, Black Minorca, White Leghorn and Fayoumi by fixing all the characters that differentiate individuals homozygously. In this paper, we describe some marker genes and characters fixed in the inbred strains of chicken and Japanese quail as well as a calculation of a putative coefficient of inbreeding in 8 chicken inbred strains using band sharing values detected by AFLP analysis. We established generalized glycogenosis type II quail, myotonic dystrophy quail, neurofilament deficient quail, visually impaired chicken, double oviduct chicken with partial kidney deficiency, chicken showing spontaneous lymphocytic thyroiditis with feathered amelanosis, and chicken with a hereditary nervous disorder. The processes of establishment and characteristics of these animal models are described with some interesting information obtained from these animal models. In generalized glycogenosis type II quail, the results of enzyme replacement therapy and gene therapy are described.
We compared mRNA expression by mRNA differential display method in postnatal day 11 (P11), P13 and adult C3H/HeJ mouse cochlea. Forty-seven bands were differentially displayed on polyacrylamide gel when 27 patterns of PCR primer sets were used, and 24 of them showed a remarkable increase within only two days (P11 and P13). DNA sequences of the bands were analyzed for homology to known genes using the BLAST search. Most of the clones were identical to sequences of functions unknown. However, one of the clones showing an increase of mRNA expression between P11 and P13 was identified as mouse TIS7 which is known to markedly increase during differentiation of PC-12 cells to neurons by NGF-treatment. TIS7 expression may be involved in differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells to spiral ganglion cells by the initial sound input. The comparison among P11, P13 and adult mouse cochlear mRNA expressions investigated the genes involved in the various growing stages of the postnatal cochlea.
Although it has been said that Syrian hamsters of the APA strain (APA hamsters) spontaneously develop glomerulosclerosis with age, more prominent and severe glomerulosclerosis with proteinuria as well as arteriosclerosis is induced in diabetic APA hamsters. In this study, in order to supply new information on APA hamsters, tests on renal function and histology were done on non-diabetic and streptozotocin (SZ)-induced diabetic APA hamsters (APA-N and APA-D, respectively), and the data were compared with those of normal Syrian (golden) hamsters (GOL). At 4, 8, 12, 20, and 32 weeks of age, the markers indicating renal function, serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and the urinary total protein level were measured and thereafter histological studies were done. Although there were no remarkable differences between APA-N and GOL in serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, APA-N excreted more urinary total protein from the early weeks of age. In APA-D, an apparent worsening in these markers indicating renal function was detected and diabetic nephropathy in this model was confirmed also in terms of renal function. In the histological studies, the major lesion observed in APA-D was diffuse glomerulosclerosis. This may mean that renal dysfunction in APA-D was mainly caused by the glomerular change and that it is similar to other experimental diabetic animals and human diabetic patients. These data show that the diabetic APA hamster is a desirable model of human diabetic nephropathy.
We investigated the livers, spleens, kidneys and lungs collected from 24 cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) naturally infected with Ebola virus subtype Reston (EBO-R) during the Philippine outbreak in 1996, in order to reveal the histopathologic findings. These macaques showed necrotic hepatocytes with inclusions, slight to massive fibrin deposition in splenic cords, depletion of lymphoid cells in the white pulp of the spleen, and fibrin thrombi in some organs. Immunohistochemical analysis using anti-leukocyte antigen L1 antibody revealed an increase in blood-derived macrophages/monocytes in the livers, kidneys and lungs of EBO-R infected macaques. EBO-R NP antigens were detected in the macrophages/monocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblasts in the liver, spleen, kidney and lung. These results indicate that EBO-R infection is characterized by systemic coagulopathy and an increase in blood-derived macrophages/monocytes in accordance with the EBO-R propagation in macrophages/monocytes.
We investigated the effect of probucol (PB) on atherosclerosis in streptozotocin (SZ)-induced diabetic-hyperlipidemic APA hamsters in three different stages, the early, middle and late stages of atherosclerosis. Male APA hamsters were injected intraperitoneally with SZ or vehicle alone (citrate buffer; CB) as a control at the age of 8 weeks. At 6 weeks after injection (WAI) of SZ or CB (the early stage), 14 WAI (the middle stage) and 26 WAI (the late stage), animals were assigned to PB treated- or non-treated groups (CBPB, SZPB, CB, SZ). After 8 weeks of PB administration with diet, the aorta was taken from each animal for assessment of atheromatous lesions and blood samples were subjected to serum biochemical analysis and the measurement of blood lipid peroxide (LPO). In the middle stage, PB treatment significantly decreased serum total cholesterol level, slightly decreased LPO, and also tended to reduce the lesion area, although no statistical difference was seen. There was no marked effect of PB treatment in the early and late stages. These findings suggest that single use of PB has little effect on atherosclerosis of a hyperglycemia-hyperlipidemia animal model.
The establishment of a new rate-correction method for the QT interval is presented for long-term telemetry ECG recording in free-moving beagle dogs. First, in order to define the QT-RR relation to derive the correction formula, the diurnal variations of the QT and RR intervals and the influencing factors were analyzed, and the QT-RR regression coefficient β was estimated under various conditions: steady and non-steady states of animal, light and dark periods, and over 24 h. In the results, the diurnal rhythm of the QT interval was synchronized with the RR interval reflecting the physical and emotional states of the animal. The coefficient β had considerable variation during the day: β; 0.276 ± 0.052 (maximum to minimum: 0.495 to 0.153). Thus, it was considered that the ideal rate-correction technique for telemetry ECG requires the selection of a flexible coefficient β adjusted to the condition of the measurement. Therefore, rate-correction utilizing analysis of covariance estimating the coefficient β for each dog, was compared with previously proposed formulas which fix the rate-correction coefficient, based on the capacity to dissociate the effects of heart rate on the QT interval. This was then tested by the levels of discrimination apparent in the QT prolongation caused by a class III antiarrhythmic drug, which ranked the formulas on the levels of correction achieved as follows: covariance adjustment>Matsunaga>Van de Water>Bazett. Thus, the rate-correction method utilizing analysis of covariance is proven adequate for data from telemetry ECG recordings.
The effect of inspiratory oxygen concentration and the ventilation method on hemorrhagic shock was investigated. Twenty-eight rats were divided into four groups: mechanical ventilation with pure oxygen (M100); mechanical ventilation with air (M21); spontaneous respiration with pure oxygen (S100); and spontaneous respiration with air (S21). Under intravenous pentobarbital anesthesia, hemorrhagic shock (HS) was induced by withdrawal of blood from the femoral artery. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was maintained at 40-50 mmHg for 2 h. After HS, the blood remaining in the reservoir was reinfused. Then survival rate and MAP were monitored for 2 h. Blood samples were withdrawn and vascular reactivity to norepinephrine (NE; 3.0 μg/kg) was tested before and after HS. Results were shown by changes in MAP in response to NE. During HS, the survival rate of the S21 group was lower than that of the M100 and S100 groups (p<.05). Before HS, MAPs of M100 and S100 groups were significantly higher than those of M21 and S21 groups (p<.05). In the M100 and M21 groups, MAPs at 2 h after reinfusion were significantly lower than the baseline value (p<.05). Before HS, reactivity to NE of the M21 group was significantly higher than that of the other groups (p<.05). In the M21 group, reactivity to NE after HS was significantly lower than it was before HS (p<.05). Inspiratory oxygen concentration and the ventilation method affect the survival rate and vascular reactivity of the rat hemorrhagic shock model. Selection of the inspiratory oxygen concentration and the ventilation method should be made according to the purpose of the individual experiment.
A long-term raising study was carried out on male F344/DuCrj rats with three low protein (Crude Protein (CP); 14.5, 11.5, 8.5%) and low energy (Digestible Energy (DE); 2.0 kcal/g) diets from 4 to 104 weeks of age. In rats fed the 8.5% CP diet, body weight and digestible crude protein (DCP) consumption at 10 weeks of age were lower (P<0.05) but the body weight at 50 weeks of age was higher (P<0.05) than in the other groups. In rats fed the 8.5% CP diet the crude fat digestibility was higher (P<0.05), and the CP/nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy (MEn) ratio was low. On the other hand, the mean survival time at 80 weeks of age was shorter in rats fed the 8.5% CP diet (P<0.05).
We examined changes in blood pressure and blood flow of the arteries of WHHL and Japanese white rabbits after intravenous bolus injections of acetylcholine (3.0 μg/kg), bradykinin (0.5 μg/kg), and sodium nitroprusside (3.0 μg/kg) under a condition of anesthesia. These vasodilators lowered the blood pressure and increased the blood flow in WHHL and Japanese white rabbits. The changes in the hemodynamic parameters of WHHL rabbits after injection of sodium nitroprusside were similar to those of Japanese white rabbits. This suggests that the relaxation response of the tunica media was not diminished in WHHL rabbits. In contrast, the changes in the hemodynamic parameters of WHHL rabbits after injection of acetylcholine or bradykinin were significantly lower than those in Japanese white rabbits. In the histopathological and immunohistological examination, atherosclerotic lesions were observed in the ascending aortas of WHHL rabbits. In the surface of the atheromatous plaques, CD31-positive endothelial cells disappeared partly and the accumulation of RAM-11-positive macrophages was observed in these regions. In addition, plasma NO2- and NO3- levels of WHHL rabbits were significantly lower than those of Japanese white rabbits. These findings suggest that relaxation responses derived from arterial endothelial cells were probably depressed in WHHL rabbits due to dysfunction or denudation of the arterial endothelial cells.
A new polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was developed for genetic typing of the mouse Tnfsf6gld mutation. An artificial restriction site was introduced to the mouse Tnfsf6gld mutation by PCR amplification using a modified primer. The three genotypes of the Tnfsf6 locus (Tnfsf6gld/Tnfsf6gld, Tnfsf6gld/+, and +Tnfsf6-gld/+Tnfsf6-gld) could be distinguished clearly and easily. This PCR-RFLP analysis was found to be useful for the identification of the mouse Tnfsf6gld mutation.
To determine the effects of high temperature on the number of alveolar macrophages (AMs) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in rats, F344 rats were housed in environment chambers at 23°C, 30°C or 35°C for up to 14 days. The number of AMs in the BAL fluid was significantly decreased in rats housed at 35°C on days 7 and 14, compared to the control group housed at 23°C. The total protein content and lactate dehydrogenase activity did not change at high temperatures in BAL supernatant, indicating that there was no increase in alveolar/capillary barrier permeability or lung cellular injury. The results might suggest that high temperature (35°C) affects the pulmonary defense mechanism.
Ovaries from 8 to 10-week-old N MRI mice were vitrified using RPMI solution containing 30% (W/V) ficoll 70, 0.5 M sucrose, 10.7% (V/V) acetamide and 40% (V/V) ethylene glycol (EGFS40%), and were stored in liquid nitrogen. After warming at 25°C in 1 M sucrose solution and equilibration with RPMI medium, the vitrified and fresh ovarian tissues were autografted intraperitoneally. After one and two estrus cycles the animals were sacrificed and the recovered grafts were examined histologically. Five days after transplantation the vitrified ovaries they were invaded by fat and fibrous cells and the large preantral and antral follicles were degenerated. At 11 days postgrafting the stroma was devoid of necrotic cells and contained normal primordial and primary follicles, suggesting that the vitrification is a simple, useful and efficient procedure for cryopreservation of murine ovarian tissues.
We examined whether the Tyzzer’s disease organism, Clostridium piliforme, could be detected in feces by PCR. If the organism could be detected in feces, a diagnosis could be made without sacrifice of the animal. Using the RT strain of C. piliforme, we found that a C. piliforme band could be detected when there were ≥ 1 × 10° bacteria present in the PCR solution, but the presence of fecal extract in the solution depressed the sensitivity 10 fold. Nevertheless, we could detect the C. piliforme-specific band in fecal extracts from rats in a naturally infected colony, and concluded that the use of PCR to detect C. piliforme DNA in fecal extracts would be a useful diagnostic technique.
Plasma and erythrocyte enzyme activities were measured in ddY mice supplemented with dietary selenium (Se) from baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces serevisiae) or selenious acid at 0.3 ppm Se content. Glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) activities increased significantly in erythrocytes from mice supplemented with dietary Se. It was concluded that addition of dietary Se as food additive is very effective for activation of GSHpx in mice.
The time-dependent effects of daily dosing of IGF-I (1.21 mg/g) on the linear growth of the femur were investigated in mice. The femoral length and volume and the number of osteoclasts were significantly greater after IGF-I injection as compared to the non-injected control, suggesting that the IGF-I imbalance might cause a quick turnover cycle of the bone resulting in the altered femoral modeling.