Intestinal mucositis is one of the major problems in the patients receiving cancer treatment. Nimesulide is a drug with antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antiulcer features. We aimed to investigate the effect of nimesulide on the small intestine mucositis induced by methotrexate (MTX) in rats. Experimental animals were divided into the control group, MTX group (MTXG) and nimesulide+MTX administered group (NMTXG) with eight rats per group. The control and MTXG groups were given distilled water by gavage and the NMTXG was given nimesulide 100 mg/kg orally. After one hour, the NMTXG and MTXG rat groups were administered oral MTX 5 mg/kg. This procedure was repeated once a day for 15 days and the rats were sacrificed. The duodenum and jejunum of each rat was removed for the assessment of biochemical markers and histopathological evaluation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels were significantly higher in the duodenal and jejunal tissues of the animals which received MTX, compared to the control and NMTXG (P<0.001). Also, the levels of total glutathione (tGSH), glutathione reductase (GSHRd), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly lower in the MTXG (P<0.001) compared to other groups. MTX led to villus and crypt epithelial damage and inflammation containing marked PMNL and eosinophils in the intestinal tissues histopathologically. Whereas, there was only mild irregularities in the villus structures of the NMTXG. Nimesulide protected the small intestines against damage by MTX. Intestinal mucositis caused by MTX may be preventable by co-administered nimesulide.
Neuropathic cancer pain is caused by tumors compressing the spinal nerve roots and is usually difficult to treat. The aim of current study was to determine the influence of NGF antibody on pain-related markers and behavior in a mouse model of neuropathic cancer pain. Twenty mice were used to model neuropathic cancer pain by applying murine sarcoma cells to their left sciatic nerve. Ten mice were sham operated. Two weeks after surgery, the murine sarcoma-affected mice were allocated randomly into treatment groups receiving either sterile saline (saline group) or an anti-nerve growth factor antibody (anti-NGF group). Three weeks after surgery (a week after treatment), the pain-related behavior of mice was evaluated using a CatWalk system. Subsequently, bilateral dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) from the L4–L6 levels and spinal cords at L4–L6 levels were resected. DRGs were immunostained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF-3), and spinal cords were immunostained for ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (iba-1). Mechanical allodynia was observed in mice from the saline group and was improved in mice from the anti-NGF group. CGRP and ATF-3-immunoreactivity in DRGs and microglia expression in the spinal dorsal horn were upregulated in the saline group compared with the sham group, and they were suppressed in the anti-NGF group compared with the saline group (P<0.05). These findings suggest that anti-NGF therapy might be valuable for treating neuropathic cancer pain.
Animal models of thrombocytopenia are indispensable for evaluating the in vivo efficacy of hemostatic agents, cryopreserved platelets, and artificial platelets, but no large animal models are available. In this study, we generated a swine model of acute thrombocytopenia with prolonged bleeding times by administering the chemotherapeutic drug busulfan. First, we tested multiple doses of busulfan (4, 6, and 8 mg/kg) in pigs, and found that 6 mg/kg of busulfan is an optimal dose for producing a safe and moderate thrombocytopenia, with a platelet count of less than 30,000/µl. The pigs administered 6 mg/kg of busulfan (n=8) reached half their initial counts at day 7, counts below 30,000/µl at day 12, and their nadirs at day 15 (on average). The minimal platelet count was 14,000/µl. With this dose of busulfan (6 mg/kg), bleeding times were significantly prolonged in addition to the decrease in platelet counts (r=−0.63, P<0.01), while there were no cases of apparent hemorrhage. White blood cell counts were maintained at over 5,000/µl, and there were no infections or other adverse events including anemia or appetite or body weight loss. All pigs were sacrificed on day 16, with subsequent examination showing a significant reduction in cellularity and colony-forming units in the bone marrow, indicating that thrombocytopenia was the result of myelosuppression. In summary, administration with 6 mg/kg of busulfan induces safe and moderate thrombocytopenia with a prolonged bleeding time in swine.
We examined the effect of Yokukansankachimpihange (YKSCH), a form of Yokukansan containing parts of two herbaceous plants, Citrus Unshiu Peel (Chimpi) and Pinellia Tuber (Hange), on aggressive behavior of mice housed individually. Mice were fed a zinc-deficient diet for 2 weeks. In a resident-intruder test, the cumulative duration of aggressive behavior was decreased in zinc-deficient mice administrated drinking water containing YKSCH (approximately 300 mg/kg body weight/day) for 2 weeks. We tested mice for geissoschizine methyl ether (GM), which is contained in Uncaria Hook, and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), a major metabolite of glycyrrhizin contained in Glycyrrhiza, which were contained in YKS and YKSCH. In hippocampal slices from zinc-deficient rats, excess exocytosis at mossy fiber boutons induced with 60 mM KCl was attenuated in the presence of GA (100–500 µM) or GM (100 µM). The intracellular Ca2+ level, which showed an increase induced by 60 mM KCl, was also attenuated in the presence of GA (100–500 µM) or GM (100 µM). These results suggest that GA and GM ameliorate excess glutamate release from mossy fiber boutons by suppressing the increase in intracellular Ca2+ signaling. These ameliorative actions may contribute to decreasing the aggressiveness of mice individually housed under zinc deficiency, potentially by suppressing excess glutamatergic neuron activity in the hippocampus.
Induction of hyperbilirubinemia in experimental rabbits by phenylhydrazine was optimized in terms of dose, dose interval and number of doses using response surface methodology. Central Composite Design was employed using five levels for each of the three input variables. Degree of hyperbilirubinemia was measured in terms of bilirubin level in serum of animals. A dose dependent significant elevation (P<0.05) of total serum bilirubin level was observed which was optimized by using eight factorial, six axial and six central points as suggested by experimental design. Optimum levels of phenylhydrazine dose, total number of doses and a dose interval to achieve maximum elevation (4.06 mg/dl−1) of total serum bilirubin were found to be 11.56 mg/kg−1 body weight, 8 and 24.65 h, respectively. The induction procedure was validated by performing five replicate experiments on a group of five animals which showed 3.56 ± 0.47 mg/kg−1 body weight elevation in total serum bilirubin level.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the leading cause of liver disease and hepatic carcinoma (HCC). Approximately 350 million people worldwide are infected with HBV and at risk of chronicity. An efficient HBV-tolerant murine model that mimics HBV infection in humans is desirable for HBV-related research. In this study, we investigated and established a murine model by hydrodynamic injection (HDI) of pAAV/HBV into the tail vein of AAVS1 site element-transgenic mice. In 80% of the injected mice, the serum level of HBsAg reached 103-4 IU/ml and persisted for more than half a year. Next, the model was used to evaluate RNA interference (RNAi)-based antiviral therapy. Data obtained using the model demonstrated that this model will facilitate the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying chronic HBV infection and will also be useful for evaluating new antiviral drugs.
While the cage refinement is a necessary step towards improving the welfare of research rats, increasing the complexity and surface area of the living space of an animal may have physiological impacts that need to be taken into consideration. In this study, ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg) caused a short duration anesthesia that was significantly decreased in Sprague-Dawley rats housed in multilevel cages (MLC), compared to rats housed in standard cages (SDC). The withdrawal reflex, the palpebral reflexes and the time-to-sternal all occurred earlier in MLC housed rats, suggesting an effect of housing on the physiology of the rats. In addition, during anesthesia, cardiac frequencies were increased in animals housed in the smaller SDC. Respiratory frequencies, the blood oxygen saturation and rectal temperatures during anesthesia did not vary between conditions during the anesthesia. While xylazine pharmacokinetics were unchanged with caging conditions, the clearance and half-lives of ketamine and its metabolite, norketamine, were altered in the rats housed in MLC. Finally, while no difference was ultimately seen in rat body weights, isolated liver and adrenal gland weights were significantly lighter in rats housed in the MLC. Increasing cage sizes, while having a positive impact on wellbeing in rats, can alter anesthetic drug metabolism and thus modify anesthesia parameters and associated physiological processes.
Isoflurane is a widely used anesthetic, but its effects with increase in inspired concentration on cardiovascular function have not yet been clarified in rodents. Additionally, there are only a few studies comparing isoflurane-induced cardiorespiratory effects between rat strains. Thus, we investigated the differences in cardiorespiratory responsiveness to increasing concentration of inspired isoflurane in SHR/Izm, WKY/Izm and Crl:CD (SD) rats, by increasing the setting values of vaporizer’s dial indicator. The rats were anesthetized with 1.5% isoflurane, and electrocardiograms, blood pressure, and respiratory rate were recorded simultaneously. Thereafter, the inspired concentration was increased stepwise to 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%, and cardiorespiratory parameters were obtained at each concentration. Under anesthesia at more than 4%, although prolongation of the RR and PR intervals was observed in all strains, shortening of the QTC interval was found only in SHR/Izm rats. From frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability, an increase in LF/HF ratio and a decrease of HF components were observed in SHR/Izm and WKY/Izm rats, respectively, with 5% isoflurane anesthesia. Blood pressure and heart rate were remarkably reduced in SHR/Izm rats at higher concentrations, whereas the reduction was smallest in WKY/Izm rats among the three strains examined. Respiratory rate was inspired concentration-dependently decreased in all strains. These results suggested that SHR/Izm rats are more sensitive to suppressive effects of isoflurane anesthesia on cardiovascular function among these rat strains.
We reared ICR mice during a growth period (3 to 10 weeks of age) and examined the effect of exercise induction, by enriching the rearing environment with obstacles such as ladders, compared to the standard environment. Environmental enrichment significantly increased the amount of exercise in both sexes (P<0.01). Enriched exercise mice had higher body weight than control mice at 6 to 9 weeks of age in males and 8 weeks of age in females (P<0.05). The sexual maturation of female enriched exercise mice was significantly advanced compared to the control (P<0.001). Enriched exercise mice showed decreased anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and lower plasma corticosterone levels in both sexes compared to the control, and differences were statistically significant in males (P<0.05). In both sexes, enriched exercise appeared to increase natural killer cells in blood compared to the control, but no statistical differences was detected. In conclusion, we confirmed that daily low-stress exercise could be induced using a three-dimensional rearing environment in growing mice. In addition, we suggest that exercise has beneficial effects on physical growth, sexual maturation and anxiety-like behavior. Furthermore, environmental enrichment might be more effective in male than female in group-housed mice.
The engineered Salmonella typhimurium ΔppGpp (S.t ΔppGpp) has been studied in terms of its ability to carry imaging probes (bacterial luciferase, Lux) for tumor imaging or carry therapeutic molecules (Cytolysin A) to kill cancer cells. To establish a novel cancer therapy, bacterial therapy was combined with radiotherapy using the attenuated strain S.t ΔppGpp/pBAD-ClyA. Radiotherapy (21Gy) contributed to S. typhimurium colonization in a colon tumor (CT26) model of BALB/c mice. The combination of bacterial therapy and radiotherapy treatments reduced tumor growth compared with only bacterial therapy.
We examined the relationship between atherosclerosis and the provocation of coronary spasm as well as the influence of coronary spasm on the onset of acute ischemic myocardial disease. Coronary spasm was provoked in anesthetized normal Japanese white (JW) rabbits and myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbits, an animal model for coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction, by injecting ergonovine during the infusion of norepinephrine through a marginal ear vein. A decrease in contrast flow in the left circumflex artery was observed on coronary angiograms. Ischemic changes were observed on the electrocardiograms of 29% (2/7) of JW and 79% (27/34, P=0.007) of WHHLMI rabbits. The frequency of coronary spasm was significantly high in rabbits with severe coronary plaques showing diffuse lesions. Left ventricle motility in vasospasm-positive rabbits, which was evaluated with echocardiograms, was decreased by 29% following the ergonovine injection (P<0.001), and every serum ischemic marker markedly increased 4 h after the provocation of vasospasm. These results demonstrate that atherosclerotic coronary arteries are positively related to the provocation of vasospasm, and vasospasm in severe atherosclerotic coronary segments evokes angina pectoris-like findings and/or non-fatal myocardial infarction. WHHLMI rabbits may be a novel animal model for angina pectoris and acute ischemic heart disease.
AA amyloidosis is a protein misfolding disease characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid A (AA) fibrils. AA amyloidosis has been identified in food animals, and it has been postulated that AA amyloidosis may be transmissible to different animal species. Since the precursor protein of AA fibrils is serum amyloid A (SAA), which is an inflammatory acute phase protein, AA amyloidosis is considered to be associated with inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Chronic diseases such as autoimmune disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus could be potential factors for AA amyloidosis. In this study, to examine the relationship between the induction of AA amyloidosis and chromic abnormalities such as autoimmune disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus, amyloid fibrils from mice, cattle, or chickens were experimentally injected into disease model mice. Wild-type mice were used as controls. The concentrations of SAA, IL-6, and IL-10 in autoimmune disease model mice were higher than those of control mice. However, induction of AA amyloidosis in autoimmune disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus model mice was lower than that in control mice, and the amount of amyloid deposits in the spleens of both mouse models was lower than that of control mice according to Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that factors other than SAA levels, such as an inflammatory or anti-inflammatory environment in the immune response, may be involved in amyloid deposition.
Morinda citrifolia L. commonly known as noni or Indian mulberry belongs to the family Rubiaceae. Noni fruit juice has recently become a very popular remedy for the treatment of several diseases, including psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to investigate the anticraving effect of Tahitian Noni® Juice (TNJ) against ethanol seeking behavior in ICR male mice using the conditioned place preference (CPP) test. The CPP procedure consisted of four phases: preconditioning, conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement. During conditioning, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of ethanol (2 g/kg body weight (bw)) and normal saline (10 ml/kg bw) were given on alternate days for 12 days. Then, the animals were subjected to extinction trials for the next 12 days to weaken CPP. Finally, CPP was reinstated in the extinguished animals by a single low-dose priming injection of ethanol (0.4 g/kg bw, i.p.). The effect of TNJ (as a source of drinking water) on different phases of ethanol CPP in mice was studied. TNJ-treated mice showed a significant reduction in ethanol seeking behavior in the CPP test. The reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM) also showed a similar effect in the CPP test. The outcome of this study suggests that TNJ is effective in attenuating ethanol craving in mice and could be utilized for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Further clinical studies in this direction are warranted to support the present preclinical findings.
Several drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes exhibit sexual dimorphism depending on the pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretory patterns. However, the mechanism underlying CYP sexual dimorphism remains unclear. We previously established a transgenic (Alb-DsRed2 Tg) rat that expressed red fluorescent DsRed2 protein, particularly in hepatocytes, to visualize cell differentiation and multiplication and found that hepatic DsRed2 expression exhibited sexual dimorphism that was limited to adult males. In this study, we compared the expression patterns between sexual dimorphic Cyps and DsRed2 in Tg rats after experimentally reversing the GH secretory patterns in males and females. Postnatal day 1 male and female Tg rats were gonadectomized and then testosterone propionate (0.25 mg/rat) was subcutaneously administered to ovariectomized females immediately after surgery. Cyp mRNA and DsRed2 expression levels were quantified using RT-PCR and an in vivo imaging system, respectively. GH-dependent Cyps and hepatic DsRed2 expression patterns were reversed in males and females at 9 weeks after birth and were significantly correlated (P<0.05). This suggested that DsRed2 expression in these Tg rats depended on GH secretory patterns. Based on DsRed2 fluorescence, this Tg rat model could become a tool to readily and effectively evaluate changes in GH-dependent Cyp expression.
IL-6 is a cytokine that is involved in various physiological and pathological conditions, and approaches using gain-of-function transgenic animals have contributed in elucidating IL-6 function. However, studies of the multiple functions of IL-6 in vivo are very time consuming because they require the generation of transgenic mice that harbor the gene encoding IL-6 under the control of specific promoters to mimic different pathologies. Here, we report the establishment of a conditional human IL-6 transgenic mouse, LGL-IL6, which conditionally expresses human IL-6 by taking advantage of the well-characterized Cre recombinase drivers.
The common marmoset is a non-human primate that has increasingly employed in the biomedical research including the fields of neuroscience and behavioral studies. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D has been speculated to be involved in psycho-neurologic actions in the human brain. In the present study, to clarify the role of CYP2D in the marmoset brain, we investigated the expression patterns of CYP2D mRNA in the brain using in situ hybridization (ISH). In addition, to identify the gene location of CYP2D19, a well-studied CYP2D isoform in the common marmoset, a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study was performed. Consistent with findings for the human brain, CYP2D mRNA was localized in the neuronal cells of different brain regions; e.g., the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra, and cerebellum. FISH analysis showed that the CYP2D19 gene was located on chromosome 1q, which is homologous to human chromosome 22 on which the CYP2D6 gene exists. These results suggest that CYP2D in the marmoset brain may play the same role as human CYP2D6 in terms of brain actions, and that the CYP2D19 gene is conserved in a syntenic manner. Taken together, these findings suggest that the common marmoset is a useful model for studying psychiatric disorders related to CYP2D dysfunction in the brain.
Oral surgical procedures occasionally require removal of the periosteum due to lesions, and these raw bone surfaces are prone not only to infection but also to scar formation during secondary healing. The objective of this study was to identify successful methods for reconstruction using periosteal defect dressings. We created 1-cm2 defects in the skin and cranial periosteum of 10-week-old male Wistar rats under isoflurane anesthesia. The animals were assigned to three defect treatment groups: (1) polyglycolic acid sheets with fibrin glue dressing (PGA-FG), (2) Spongel® gelatin sponge dressing (GS), and (3) open wound (control). Postoperative wound healing was histologically evaluated at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The moist conditions maintained by the GS and PGA-FG treatments protected the bone surface from the destructive effects of drying and infection. Complete wound healing was observed in the GS group but not for all animals in the PGA-FG and control groups. Histologically, osteoblast proliferation on bone surfaces and complete epithelialization with adnexa were observed in the GS group at 6 weeks after surgery. In contrast, PGA sheets that had not been absorbed inhibited osteoblast proliferation and delayed wound healing in the PGA-FG group. Wound surface dressings maintain a moist environment that promotes wound healing, but PGA materials may not be suitable for cases involving exposed periosteum or bone surfaces due to the observed scar formation and foreign-body reaction.