Thyroid cancer in children, the most common endocrine malignancy, shows aggressive behavior and has a high recurrence rate after surgical ablation. Radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment is the most effective primary modality for medical ablation of juvenile thyroid cancer, and leads to intentional hypothyroidism. Although several negative impacts of hypothyroidism have been reported in children in response to other antithyroid agents, the combined effects of RAI exposure and hypothyroidism, on growing bones specifically, are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of RAI-induced hypothyroidism on the long bones during the pubertal growth spurt using immature female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group, and an RAI-treated group fed with RAI (0.37 MBq/g body weight) twice via gavage. After 4 weeks, we observed a significantly-reduced serum free thyroxine level in the RAI group. The latter group also displayed decreased body weight gain compared to the control. In addition, the lengths of long bones, such as the leg bones and vertebral column, as well as bone mineral content, were reduced in the RAI-treated animals. Our results confirm the negative impacts of RAI-induced thyroid deficiency during puberty on longitudinal bone growth and bone mineralization.
The aim of this study, was to determine the effect of sulfasalazine for different periods of time reduces disseminated intravascular coagulation, inflammation and organ damages by inhibiting the nuclear factor kappa beta pathway. The study was performed with 30 Wistar albino rats and the groups were established as Control group, LPS group; endotoxemia was induced with LPS, SL5 group: sulfasalazine (300 mg/kg, single dose daily) was administered for 5 days before the LPS-induced endotoxemia, and LS group: sulfasalazine (300 mg/kg, single dose) was administered similtenously with LPS. Hemogram, biochemical, cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α) and acute phase proteins (HPT, SAA, PGE2) analyzes and oxidative status values were measured from blood samples at 3 and 6 h after the last applications in the all groups. The rats were euthanized at 6 h and mRNA levels of BCL2 and BAX genes were examined from liver and brain tissues. Sulfasalazine reduced the increased IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2 levels and significantly increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 levels. In addition, decreasing of ATIII level was prevented in the SL5 group, and decreasing of fibrinogen levels were prevented in the LS and SL5 groups within first 3 h. In LPS group, leukocyte and thrombocyte levels were decreased, however sulfasalazine application inhibited decreases of leukocyte levels in LS and SL5 groups. In addition, sulfasalazine inhibited the decrease of total antioxidant capacity and unchanged apoptosis in brain and liver. In conclusion, the use of sulfasalazine in different durations reduce the excessive inflammation of endotoxemia cases.
The purpose of this research was to assess whether the presence of seminal plasma (SP) can improve sperm quality of rabbit spermatozoa stored at 16°C for 72 h and moreover evaluate the cryoprotectant effects of glycerol, N-N-Dimethylformamide (DMF), and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Semen samples were pooled and divided in eight fractions. Four of them were diluted with INRA (extender A), INRA with 6% glycerol (extender B), INRA with 6% DMF (extender C), or INRA with 6% NMP (extender D), respectively. The other four fractions were centrifuged, and the supernatant was removed in order to eliminate SP. Each sample was then resuspended with extender A, B, C, or D, respectively. All samples were stored at 16°C and analysed at 4, 24, 48, and 72 h by ISAS®, vitality test, HOS test, and acrosome integrity test. After analyse of the results, SP samples showed a significantly higher percentage (P=0.020) in the HOS test (71.9 ± 1.6%) than non-SP samples (66.5 ± 1.6%). Non-SP samples had better results for kinematic parameters. Extenders A and C showed great results for the percentage of motile spermatozoa (63.1 ± 4.3% and 63.4 ± 3.7%, respectively), vitality (88.9 ± 2.6% and 87.7 ± 2.7%, respectively), and HOS test (68.9 ± 1.4% and 75.2 ± 1.4%, respectively). Extenders B and D showed worse data for sperm quality. These results suggest that SP has a protective effect on rabbit sperm membranes and maintains better sperm motility. The addition of glycerol and NMP to INRA does not improve rabbit sperm quality; nevertheless, the DMF cryoprotectant exerts a protective effect on the membrane of spermatozoa, improving seminal quality during rabbit sperm preservation at 16°C.
Phencyclidine (PCP) has been used to model cognitive deficits related to schizophrenia in rats and mice. However, the model in mice is not consistent in terms of the PCP effective dose reported. Furthermore, most of the previous studies in mice excluded the presence of drug washout period in the regime. Thus, we aimed to optimize the dose of PCP in producing robust cognitive deficits by implementing it in a PCP regime which incorporates a drug washout period. The regimen used was 7 days’ daily injection of PCP or saline for treatment and vehicle groups, respectively; followed by 24 h drug washout period. After the washout period, the test mice were tested in water maze (5 days of acquisition + 1 day of probe trial) for assessment of spatial learning and memory. Initially, we investigated the effect of PCP at 2mg/kg, however, no apparent impairment in spatial learning and memory was observed. Subsequently, we examined the effect of higher doses of PCP at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg. We found that the PCP at 10 mg/kg produced a significant increase in “latency to reach the platform” during the acquisition days and a significant increase in “latency of first entry to previous platform” during the probe day. There was no significant change observed in “swim speed” during the test days. Thus, we concluded that PCP at 10 mg/kg produced robust deficits in spatial learning and memory without being confounded by motor disturbances.
After incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), neural circuits may be plastically reconstructed to some degree, resulting in extensive functional locomotor recovery. The present study aimed to observe the post-SCI locomotor recovery of rhesus monkey hindlimbs and compare the recovery degrees of different hindlimb parts, thus revealing the recovery process of locomotor function. Four rhesus monkeys were chosen for thoracic hemisection injury. The hindlimb locomotor performance of these animals was recorded before surgery, as well as 6 and 12 weeks post-lesion. Via principal component analysis, the relevant parameters of the limb endpoint, pelvis, hindlimb segments, and joints were processed and analyzed. Twelve weeks after surgery, partial kinematic recovery was observed at the limb endpoint, shank, foot, and knee joints, and the locomotor performance of the ankle joint even recovered to the pre-lesion level; the elevation angle of the thigh and hip joints showed no obvious recovery. Generally, different parts of a monkey hindlimb had different spontaneous recovery processes; specifically, the closer the part was to the distal end, the more extensive was the locomotor function recovery. Therefore, we speculate that locomotor recovery may be attributed to plastic reconstruction of the motor circuits that are mainly composed of corticospinal tract. This would help to further understand the plasticity of motor circuits after spinal cord injury.
Degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) is a common cardiac disease in geriatric dogs characterized by the degeneration of the mitral valve, leading to decreased cardiac output and activation of the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. This disease results in an increased resting heart rate (HR) and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2). A recent publication demonstrated that dogs with asymptomatic DMVD had a significantly higher HR and systemic blood pressure (BP) than age-matched control dogs. This higher HR will eventually contribute to increased MVO2. This study aimed to determine the effects of a single oral dose of ivabradine on the HR, MVO2 as assessed by the rate-pressure product, and BP in dogs with asymptomatic DMVD. Seven beagles with naturally occurring DMVD were instrumented by the Holter recorder and an oscillometric device to measure electrocardiogram and BP for 24 and 12 h, respectively. Each dog was randomly subjected to receive either placebo or ivabradine (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg). The results revealed that oral administration of ivabradine significantly decreased the HR and rate-pressure product in a dose-dependent manner without adverse effects. The highest dose of 2.0 mg/kg significantly reduced systolic and mean BP. Therefore, the findings imply that a single oral ivabradine administration at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg is suitable for dogs with asymptomatic DMVD to reduce the HR and MVO2 without marked effects on BP. This may potentially make ivabradine promising for management of an elevated HR in DMVD dogs.
Schisantherin A (SinA), one of the most abundant active ingredients of Schisandra chinensis, was reported to protect and benefit the liver, however, its effect on alcohol-induced liver injury (ALI) was still not clear. In the present study, an ALI mice model was induced by feeding mice an alcohol-containing liquid diet for four weeks. Then, 100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg SinA was administered to mice every day by gavage for the last two weeks. Histopathological analysis showed that alcohol-induced liver lipid vacuoles were reduced by SinA. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, 61.90 ± 14.65 vs. 93.65 ± 20.50, 50.46 ± 13.21 vs. 93.65 ± 20.50) and alanine transaminase (ALT, 41.29 ± 9.20 vs. 64.04 ± 18.13, 36.52 ± 7.71 vs. 64.04 ± 18.13) in the serum of ALI mice were significantly reduced by 100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg SinA when compared with control mice. Alcohol-induced oxidative stress and the inflammatory response in the liver were suppressed by SinA in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, treatment with SinA decreased alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and increased acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity in ALI mice. Alcohol-induced upregulation of CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 in the liver was inhibited by SinA. Further, SinA suppressed activation of the NF-kB pathway in ALI mice. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that SinA is able to protect against ALI, and this may be, at least in part, caused by regulation of alcohol metabolism and the NF-kB pathway. Our data suggest a therapeutic potential of SinA in the treatment of ALI.
The porcine mitral regurgitation (MR) model is a common cardiovascular animal model. Standardized manufacturing processes can improve the uniformity and success rate of the model, and systematic research can evaluate its potential use. In this study, 17 pigs were divided into an experimental group (n=11) and a control group (n=6). We used a homemade retractor to cut the mitral chordae via the left atrial appendage to establish a model of MR; the control group underwent a sham surgery. The model animals were followed for 30 months after the surgery. Enlargement and fibrosis of the left atrium were significant in the experimental group compared with those in the control group, and left atrial systolic function decreased significantly. In addition, model animals showed preserved left ventricular systolic function. There were no differences in left atrial potential or left ventricular myocardial fibrosis between the two groups. Atrial fibrillation susceptibility in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group. Our method enables the simple and effective production of a MR model with severe reflux that can be used for pathophysiological studies of MR, as well as for the development of preclinical surgical instruments and their evaluation. This model could also be used to study atrial fibrillation and myocardial fibrosis but is not suitable for studies of heart failure.
It is observed that the increase in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability (BBBP) is associated with ischemic stroke and thought to trigger neuronal damage and deteriorate ischemic infarction, even though there is no experimental proof. Here, we investigated the effect of BBBP increase on brain damage, using a combination of photochemically-induced thrombotic brain damage (PIT-BD) model, a focal brain ischemic model, and transient bilateral carotid artery occlusion model (CAO, a whole brain ischemic model), in mice. In PIT-BD, BBBP increased in the region surrounding the ischemic damage from 4 h till 24 h with a peak at 8 h. On day 4, the damaged did not expand to the region with BBBP increase in mice with PIT-BD alone or with 30 min CAO at 1 h before PIT-BD, but expanded in mice with 30 min CAO at 3.5 h after PIT-BD. This expansion was paralleled with the increase in the number of apoptotic cells. These findings indicate that increase in BBBP does not cause direct neuronal death, but it facilitates ischemic neuronal loss, which was attributed, at least partially, to acceleration of apoptotic cell death.
Strong evidence for an association between idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection has been reported in humans. Chronic ITP is known to be improved by the eradication of HP. The purpose of this study was to reproduce these events by the experimental infection of several strains of mice with HP. BALB/c, C57BL/6, and DBA/2 mice were untreated or orally inoculated with HP. Two months later, platelet counts were compared in samples from HP-infected and noninfected mice. Platelet counts (mean ± SD, × 104 cells/µl) in blood samples from HP-infected BALB/c, C57BL/6, and DBA/2 mice were 102.28 ± 14.71, 99.65 ± 17.00, and 111.57 ± 16.20, respectively; the respective counts from noninfected mice were 121.80 ± 13.30, 104.35 ± 18.20, and 107.84 ± 14.33. A significant difference in platelet counts between HP-infected and noninfected mice was observed in BALB/c mice (P≤0.01) but was not observed in DBA/2 mice, even though the histocompatibility (H)-2 type of the DBA/2 was the same as that of BALB/c mice. According to ELISA results, the optical density value for the anti-HP antibody in HP-infected BALB/c mice was not correlated with the number of platelets (P>0.50). These results suggest that the decrease in platelet count caused by HP infection is not related to antibody titer and histocompatibility-2 type. Experimental infection of BALB/c mice with HP can reproduce the relationship between HP and ITP and serves as a good model to investigate the mechanistic basis for the effectiveness of HP eradication therapy for ITP treatment.
This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of everolimus, a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, on cisplatin chemotherapy-induced ovarian toxicity. Eighty sexually mature, virgin, female, 7-week-old C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: control, cisplatin (Cis), everolimus (mTORi), and everolimus plus cisplatin (mTORi+Cis). Mice in the Cis and mTORi+Cis groups were intraperitoneally injected with 2 mg/kg of cisplatin for 15 d. Mice in the mTORi and mTORi+Cis groups were orally administered 2.5 mg/kg of everolimus for 29 d, from one week before the first cisplatin injection to one week after the last cisplatin injection. Histological examinations were performed 24 h after the last everolimus administration. The primordial, primary, and antral follicles were significantly depleted in the Cis group compared with that in the control group, confirming the gonadotoxicity of cisplatin. The number of primordial, secondary, and antral follicles was significantly higher in the mTORi+Cis group than in the Cis group, thereby displaying the effect of mTORi-treatment on ovarian protection. Primordial, secondary, and antral follicle counts were similar in the mTORi+Cis and the control groups. The results of this study indicate a protective effect of an mTOR inhibitor against cisplatin chemotherapy-induced gonadotoxicity in the ovarian reserve in an in vivo mouse model.
The aim of this study was to propose a new animal model evaluating the serial time course of in-stent stenosis by repeated carotid artery catheterization in the same animal. 16 bare-metal stents were implanted in the normal external and internal iliac artery of 8 miniature pigs. Repeated measurements were performed in the same animal every 2 weeks for 12 weeks through carotid artery catheterization. The time course and peak neointimal proliferation were evaluated by intravascular ultrasound. Health of all animals was assessed by clinical and hematological examinations. As a result, 7 times of carotid artery catheterization was performed per pig, but all animals remained healthy without both any complications and hematological inflammatory abnormalities. The time course of neointimal proliferation of each stent was observed from the stage of hyperplasia to partial regression. The peak neointimal proliferation varied from 6 to 12 weeks despite implantation of identical stents using the same deployment method. In conclusion, repeated carotid artery catheterization to the same animal is feasible without animal health deterioration. This model should be useful to evaluate the time course of neointimal proliferation after stent deployment in preclinical study.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutator mice showing accelerated accumulation of mtDNA with somatic mutations are potentially useful models of human aging, whereas mito-miceΔ showing accelerated accumulation of mtDNA with a deletion mutation (ΔmtDNA) are potentially useful models of mitochondrial diseases but not human aging, even though both models express an age-associated decrease in mitochondrial respiration. Because osteoporosis is the only premature aging phenotype observed in mtDNA mutator mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genetic background, our previous study precisely examined its expression spectra and reported that both mtDNA mutator mice and mito-miceΔ, but not aged mice, developed decreased cortical bone thickness. Moreover, decreased cortical bone thickness is usually not seen in aged humans but is commonly seen in the patients with hyperparathyroidism caused by oversecretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). In the present study, we showed higher concentrations of blood PTH in mtDNA mutator mice and mito-miceΔ than in aged mice. We also found that both models developed decreased mitochondrial respiration in the duodenum or renal tubules, which would lead to hypocalcemia, oversecretion of PTH, and ultimately osteoporosis. Thus, mtDNA mutator mice and mito-miceΔ may be useful models of human osteoporosis caused not by aging but by hyperparathyroidism.
People consume Catha edulis (khat) for its euphoric effect, and type 1 diabetics have claimed that khat could reduce elevated levels of blood sugar. However, khat has been suggested to provoke diabetes mellitus through destruction of pancreatic β-cells. This study investigated the effect of an ethanolic khat extract on pancreatic functions in type 1 diabetes (T1DM)-induced male Sprague-Dawley rats and to assess its in vitro cytotoxicity in rat pancreatic β-cells (RIN-14B). T1DM was induced in a total of 20 rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of 75 mg/kg of streptozotocin. The rats were distributed into four groups (n=5): the diabetic control, 8 IU insulin-treated, 200 mg/kg khat-treated, and 400 mg/kg khat-treated groups. Another 5 rats were included as a nondiabetic control. Body weight, fasting blood sugar, and caloric intake were recorded weekly. Four weeks after treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and blood was collected for insulin, lipid profile, total protein, amylase, and lipase analysis, while pancreases were harvested for histopathology. In vitro, khat exerted moderate cytotoxicity against RIN-14B cells after 24 and 48 h but demonstrated greater inhibition against RIN-14B cells after 72 h. Neither 200 mg/kg nor 400 mg/kg of khat produced any significant reduction in blood sugar; however, 200 mg/kg khat extract provoked more destruction of pancreatic β-cells as compared with the diabetic control. Ultimately, neither 200 mg/kg nor 400 mg/kg of khat extract could produce a hypoglycemic effect in T1DM-induced rats. However, 200 mg/kg of khat caused greater destruction of pancreatic β-cells, implying that khat may cause a direct cytotoxic effect on pancreatic β-cells in vitro.
The body surface area (BSA) of an organism is one of the important parameters for evaluating physiological functions. In drug development, normalization by BSA is an appropriate method for extrapolating doses between species. The BSA of animals has generally been estimated by multiplying the k value by 2/3 of the power of the body weight (BW) (Meeh’s formula). In mathematics, if it is assumed that the density and body shape of the animals are essentially constant, the BSA is proportional to BW2/3. In this study, we measured the BSA and volume (V) of 72 laboratory rabbits (48 males and 24 females of New Zealand White rabbits [NZW]), using a computed tomography scanner. After BSA and V determination, the k value, density, and sphericity were calculated. We analyzed variations in the k value, density, and body shape of laboratory rabbits. The mean k value of the 72 NZW was 11.0. We advocate using Meeh’s formula, as follows, for estimating BSA of laboratory rabbits (NZW): 100 × BSA [m2] = 11.0 × BW [kg]2/3.
Recently, genome editing in mouse zygotes has become convenient and scalable, in association with various technological developments and improvements such as novel nuclease tools, alternative delivery methods, and contemporary reproductive engineering techniques. We have so far demonstrated the applicability of ultra-superovulation, in vitro fertilization (IVF), and vitrification/warming of zygotes in microinjection-mediated mouse genome editing. Moreover, an electroporation-mediated method has rapidly become established for simple gene knockout and small precise modifications including single amino acid substitutions. Here, we present an updated example of an application coupling the following three latest technologies: 1) CRISPR–Cas9 ribonucleoprotein as the most convenient genome-editing reagent, 2) electroporation as the most effortless delivery method, and 3) cryopreserved oocytes created by IVF via ultra-superovulation as the most animal welfare- and user-friendly strategy. We successfully created gene knockout and knock-in mice carrying insertion/deletion mutations and single amino acid substitutions, respectively, using the streamlined production system of mouse genome editing described above, referred to as the CREATRE (CARD-based Reproductive Engineering-Assisted Technology for RNP Electroporation) system. Owing to its accessibility, robustness, and high efficiency, we believe that our CREATRE protocol will become widely used globally for the production of genome-edited mice.
Acute kidney injury, which is caused by renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), occurs in several clinical situations and causes severe renal damage. There is no effective therapeutic agent available for renal IRI at present. In this study, we performed an experiment based on an in vivo murine model of renal IRI to examine the effect of carnosol. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups (10 rats in each group): the sham, IRI, and carnosol groups. Rats in the carnosol group were injected intravenously with 3 mg/kg of carnosol, and those in the sham and IRI groups were injected intravenously with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide 1 h before ischemia. Rats were sacrificed after 24 h of reperfusion. The blood and kidneys were harvested, renal function was assessed, and histologic evaluation was performed to analyze renal injury. A renal myeloperoxidase activity assay, in-situ apoptosis examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemical assay, and western blot were also performed. Carnosol pretreatment significantly reduced renal dysfunction and histologic damage induced by renal IRI. Carnosol pretreatment suppressed renal inflammatory cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. In addition, carnosol markedly inhibited apoptotic tubular cell death, caspase-3 activation, and activation of the p38 pathway. Carnosol pretreatment protects rats against renal IRI by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis. Although future investigation is needed, carnosol may be a potential therapeutic agent for preventing renal IRI.