The nutritional instruction recommending calorie restriction and fish intake was given to 16
male subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) for 6months. NAFLD score
reduction based on the ultrasonographic pattern was observed in 10 of 16 subjects (improved
group). In addition, significant reduction in body weight, body mass index, ALT and
HOMA-IR was observed in the improved group. Although the reduction in energy intake was
observed in both improved and non-improved groups, the significant increases in the intake of
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3PUFA) and fish and the plasma levels of n-3PUFA and
docosahexaenoic acid were only observed in the improved group. These results suggest that the
fish intake with the reduction in energy intake is effective for the improvement of NAFLD.
Αlpha- glucosidase of shochu koji mold, compared to sake koji mold, is less deactivated in sake mash. When brewed using shochu koji, a high level of ethyl α-D-glucoside (α-EG) concentration was detected in the sake. We found α-EG rich sake containing more than 3% (wt/vol) of α-EG can be brewed by 1% of koji, enzyme preparations to supplement for the reduced α-amylase and glucoamylase activity, and shochu yeast for fermentation. In sake containing 2.5% α-EG, a significant difference was observed in the moisture content of skin 120 minutes after application compared to water. However, effect of α-EG alone was not observed, suggesting that the moisturizing effect mentioned above was due to a synergistic effect of the fermented product in sake.