Objective: Impaired dietary intake (DI) contributes to deterioration of quality of life (QOL) in patients with end-stage diseases, including cancer, but the effects of DI on QOL specifically in terminal cancer has not been widely studied. Here, we evaluated the relationship between DI and QOL in patients with end-stage cancers.
Methods: We evaluated the energy amount of DI, performance status (PS) and QLQ-C15-PAL score of cancer patients with short prognoses in multicentre survey and analysed the parameters that influence QOL.
Results: We recruited 33 patients in this study. In univariate analysis, DI was significantly associated with PS (P=0.002, r=–0.531), physical functioning (P=0.003, r=–0.503), fatigue (P=0.038, r=–0.362), and appetite loss (P=0.004, r=–0.490).
Conclusions: Improved DI could contribute to QOL of patients with end-stage cancers.
Objectives: Although large hepatectomy (i.e., resection of 2–3 segments) is an increasingly common treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, it can lead to liver failure. However, a resected liver may contain large quantities of both normal hepatocytes (NHs) and carcinoma cells. We investigated separating these cell types so that NHs could be used as transplantable cells.
Materials and methods: Cancer cells were developed by immortalizing rat hepatocytes, using an artificial chromosome vector. Cancer cells and primary hepatocytes (PHs) were mixed in a 1:1 ratio, then separated into two groups using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Normal hepatocytes after FACS (NHaF) and cancer cells after FACS (CAaF) were transplanted into two spots on opposite sides of the backs of nude mice; and also into the spleens of three groups (NHaF, CAaF and controls) of non-albumin rats (NARs), from which we measured blood albumin levels, using ELISA.
Result: The PH and cancer cells were successfully separated using FACS. After separation, cancer cells transplanted subcutaneously in nude mice formed tumors, whereas transplanted PH cells in NARs only produced higher albumin levels.
Conclusion: Transplanted NHaF cells did not produce tumors. However, this cells function was not enough in power for transplant source by this method. Nevertheless, we believe this technique can be improved and used to treat patients successfully.
Objective: Sivelestat sodium hydrate (Siv) is expected to be an effective therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome, although its mechanism of action is not understood. In this study, we investigated which myeloid cells-derived cytokines were suppressed by Siv.
Methods: Continuous hemofiltration was performed by circulating fresh porcine blood through a semi-closed circuit. To ensure that leukocytes survived for 360 min, 5% glucose, heparin, and air were continuously injected. The control group received continuous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) only, whereas the Siv group received LPS and Siv. Complete blood count, levels of various cytokines, and other variables were compared between the groups.
Results: Interleukin (IL)-1β level was significantly suppressed in the Siv group compared with that in the control group (p<0.05).
Conclusions: The results suggested that Siv suppressed the production of IL-1β and possibly other cytokines by myeloid cells. Whether this suppression of cytokine production is caused directly by Siv or mediated via suppression of granulocyte elastase should be evaluated in the future.
Objectives: Development of the autonomic nervous system may play a role in myocardial repolarization lability in infants, but its relationship to repolarization abnormalities remains unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between gestational age and ventricular repolarization lability using the variability ratio (VR).
Methods: Infants who underwent electrocardiography at a 1-month check-up were included (n=209; 125 males). Gestational age and the following four VR parameters at 1 month of age were compared: VR-I, SDQT/SDRR; VR-II, SDQT/rMSSD; VR-III, SDQTc/SDRR; and VR-IV, SDQTc/rMSSD; where SD, QTc, and rMSSD are standard deviation, QT interval corrected using Fridericia’s formula, and root mean square difference of successive RR intervals, respectively. Twenty-eight preterm infants born at <37 weeks of gestation and 181 full-term infants were included.
Results: Significant correlations were observed between gestational age and VR-I, -III, and -IV (all p<0.05). All VR values were significantly higher in preterm infants compared with full-term infants (I: 0.54 vs 0.48, II: 1.15 vs 0.96, III: 0.88 vs 0.68, IV: 1.59 vs 1.39; median, all p<0.05).
Conclusion: VR assessed at 1 month after birth was impaired in preterm infants, suggesting immaturity of their cardiac autonomic nervous system and ventricular myocardial repolarization.
Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a benign hepatocyte-derived epithelial tumor. HCA is associated with oral contraceptive use among Caucasian populations. We report a case of hepatocellular adenoma with a pedunculated protuberance and high protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) levels, which made diagnosis challenging. The patient was a 22-year-old woman. In a medical check-up, a high γ-GTP level was detected and a 115-mm solid mass was found in her lower abdomen via abdominal ultrasonography. A blood test showed a high PIVKA-II level. Abdominal CT showed a tumor in the lower abdomen. Contrast-enhanced CT showed a blood vessel thought to be the left hepatic artery connecting to the mass, and a blood vessel thought to be the left hepatic vein returning from the mass to the inferior vena cava. In EOB-MRI, uneven enhancement was observed after contrast imaging, but washout in the equilibrium phase was unclear. Parenchymal hepatocyte phases showed a pale, non-uniform, high signal. These findings indicated that the tumor was derived from the left lobe of the liver and was suggestive of HCC. Surgical resection was then performed. A pathological examination led to a diagnosis of HCA, corresponding to unclassified HCA. The WHO classification of tumors of the digestive system based on an immunohistological examination includes HNF1α-inactivated HCA, β-catenin-activated HCA, inflammatory HCA, and unclassified HCA. In summary, our patient had a large HCA with pedunculated protrusion into the extrahepatic pelvic cavity. This case was challenging to diagnose because of abnormally high PIVKA-II levels, and it was resected laparoscopically.