To obtain stereographic images of tissues containing both free and sectioned surfaces, backscattered electron (BS) imaging was tested with both resin and de-embedded specimens. Although the ultrastructure of several organelles in cells could be identified on a sectioned plane of the resin-embedded tissues, threedimensional images of tissues were difficult to obtain. On the other hand, threedimensional images showing both the free and sectioned surfaces of tissues could be obtained by scanning electron microscopic observation of the de-embedded specimens stained with heavy metals in BS mode. Organelles in the sectioned plane could be recognized with enough contrast to discriminate the different cellular components even after the de-embedding process. Our present method would make it easier to obtain images of rare structures barely detectable by the conventional cracking methods and will contribute to a three-dimensional analysis of biological specimens.
The incidence of induced abortion (IA) is high in Vietnam. The purpose of this study is to find out whether IA increases the risk of secondary tubal infertility. A case-control study was conducted at Tu Du Hospital in Vietnam between June and September 2001. Interviews were completed with 67 tubal infertility cases matched by age and residence to 67 controls. The median age of subjects was 34 years old. Proportion of subjects with history of IA was 50.8% and 44.8% for cases and controls, respectively. IA did not significantly increase the risk of secondary infertility. Age of first sexual intercourse was under 20 years old for 29.9% of cases and 9.1% of controls, and it significantly increased the risk of secondary infertility [odds ratio (OR)=3.80]. This study was unable to identify IA as a risk factor of secondary tubal infertility. However, the increased OR for age at first sexual intercourse may imply that being sexually active at an earlier age increases the risk of getting both sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies and in turn, increasing the risk of infertility. It is recommended to provide young women and men with the information about health risks related to sexual activity.
To clarify the clinical significance of uterine cervical cytology during pregnancy, we analyzed the incidence of cervical cytology and its accuracy. Of the 1,593 pregnant women underwent cervical cytology, the patients with abnormal cytology were followed up and performed histological confirmation on colposcopic biopsy specimen. An incidence of abnormal cytology and cervical neoplasm during pregnancy were 1.63% (26 cases) and 0.82% (13 cases), respectively. The incidence of abnormal cytology in the pregnant women was significantly higher than that (0.9%) in mass-screened, non-pregnant 214,375 women under the age of 45 years (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference of the incidence of cervical neoplasm between in the pregnant women and in mass-screened, non-pregnant women (0.82% vs. 0.46%). The accuracy of cervical cytology during pregnancy was 45.0% and this was not significantly different from that (27.6%) in the mass-screened, non-pregnant women. Since, cervical screening cytology for uterine cervical cancer in the pregnant women as shown in this study, has an equal effectiveness to that in the massscreened non-pregnant women, routine cervical cytology is highly recommended to performed during pregnancy. In addition, management of pregnant women with abnormal cytology was discussed in this article.
To elucidate the possible roles of the caudate-putamen (CP) on the development of amygdala (AM) kindling and AM-kindled seizures, the bilateral CP were destroyed by intra-CP injection of ibotenic acid (0.5 or 1.0 μg per side) before the AM kindling or after completion of the AM kindling. Prior destruction of the CP, especially by 0.5 μg ibotenic acid injection, caused a significant delay in seizure development. However, after completion of the AM kindling, bilateral destruction of the CP significantly suppressed AM-kindled seizures in proportion to lesion size, however, all animals reached a stage 5 seizure by additional stimulations and established AM kindling. These findings suggest that the intact CP modulates the development of the AM kindling and the generalization and/or expression of the kindled AM seizures, and that the CP plays an important role in the generalization and/or expression of the kindled AM seizures.
We report a case of rectal varices that developed after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) and Hassab's operation for esophageal varices with extrahepatic portal obstruction. A 54-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital in September 1997 for treatment of hematochezia. Emergent colonoscopy revealed tortuous rectal varices with a white plug. Angiography revealed that rectal varices were provided with backward blood flow by the inferior mesenteric vein due to extrahepatic portal obstruction. In this case, previous treatment, EIS and Hassab's operation, for esophago-gastric varices might have inhibited the development of collaterals apart from surface of gastrointestinal tract, such as para-esophageal collateral veins or spleno-renal shunt. Since the thrombus in the extrahepatic portal vein causes strong pressure on inferior mesenteric vein which is connected to the inferior vena cava via the inferior rectal vein, rectal varices might be developed. In this case, it was considered that rectal varices were not treated enough by endoscopic therapy because of regurgitant hyper blood flow against portal venous pressure. Therefore, rectal transection was performed. After the treatment, the patient suffered no further episodes of bleeding from rectal varices.
Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) is a common pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia. The clinical features of infection caused by C. pneumoniae are usually mild and it does not progress into respiratory failure in young people. We describe a healthy, immunologically intact, 22-year-old woman with severe respiratory failure caused by C. pneumoniae accompanied by aspergillosis. The infection rapidly progressed and required mechanical ventilation. C. pneumoniae infection should be taken into account when treating patients with rapidly progressive pneumonia even in immunocompetent young adults.