Interactions between leukocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute liver injury. Various adhesion molecules and chemokines play key roles in these cell-to-cell interactions, and the expression of these adhesion molecules and the production of chemokines are regulated by inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We have shown that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on cultured rat sinusoidal endothelial cells stimulated with TNF-α increases in a dose-dependent manner. The number of neutrophils that adhered to sinusoidal endothelial cells pretreated with TNF-α also increased in a dose-dependent manner and significantly decreased upon incubation with an anti-ICAM-1 antibody. In endotoxin-induced rat liver injury, the number of neutrophils infiltrating the sinusoids increased after serum TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and cytok ine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) reached their peak levels. In addition, the level of ICAM-1 expression on sinusoidal endothelial cells greatly increased from 8 h after exposure to endotoxin, and these cells were adhered to neutrophils that expressed both LFA-1 and Mac-1. Moreover, lipo-prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) reduced the extent of liver injury, and also reduced the number of neutrophils that infiltrated the liver, was reduced the production of MIP-2 and CINC, but not that of TNF-α, in rats injected with endotoxin.
New surgical treatment for the intractable nasal obstruction in patients with nasal allergy by using Argon Plasma Coagulator (APC) was introduced. Of patients with allergic rhinitis treated at our institute, 28 patients complaining nasal obstruction were treated APC surgery. Epithelization of the mucosa of inferior turbinate was almost completely accomplished at 4 weeks after surgery, at which time mucosal swelling was reduced, and nasal obstruction was ameliorated in all cases, though a crust and fibrin membrane adhered to the mucosa between 2 to 4 weeks after surgery, resulting in temporary exacerbation of nasal obstruction. Nasal obstruction was again aggravated in only one patient about 6 months after surgery, but such symptom could be ameliorated by re-coagulation. No bleeding and no smoke occurred in the operation. No morbidity was also noticed after operation. APC is easy to perform safely and effectively compared with another laser surgeries, and is useful for intractable nasal obstruction occurring in patients with allergic rhinitis.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of nitric oxide (NO) donors, diethylamine/nitric oxide (DEA/NO) and nitroglycerin (NTG), on isolated uterine and aortic tissues from non-pregnant, mid and late pregnant rats. METHODS: The uterus and thoracic aorta were obtained from non-pregnant (estrous cycle) and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats on day 14 and day 21. The uterine and aortic rings were incubated in organ chambers filled with Krebs-Henseleit solution bubbled with 5% CO2 in air for isometric tension recordings. Cumulative concentration-response relationships to DEA/NO and NTG were obtained in the aortic rings contracted with phenylephrine and in spontaneously contracting uterine rings. RESULTS: The sensitivity and the maximal inhibitory effects of DEA/NO did not differ in aortic tissues of any group. DEA/NO-induced Maximal inhibition of spontaneous contractions of uterine tissues from mid-pregnant rats was greater (although not significantly) than in the tissues from non-pregnant animals (with similar sensitivity), but it was significantly depressed in tissues from late pregnant rats. The sensitivity to and maximal inhibitory effects of NTG were less in aortic tissues from late pregnant versus mid-pregnant and non-pregnant rats. In uterine tissues from late pregnant rats the effect of NTG was negligible. The inhibitory action of both NO donors was much more pronounced in aortic versus uterine tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Uterine smooth muscle is less sensitive than vascular smooth muscle to NO. Uterine smooth muscle from late pregnant animals demonstrates refractoriness to both DEA/NO and NTG, while vascular smooth muscle from late pregnant animals demonstrates refractoriness to NTG, but not to DEA/NO.
Objectives : Effect of paraquat on the fatty acid composition (weight percentage) of rat lung was studied with particular reference to the change of hydroxyproline content in the course of paraquat-induced dysfunction and subsequent repair. Methods: Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were administered paraquat at 20 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously, and the wet weight, hydroxyproline content and fatty acid composition of lungs of each group rats were analyzed at 2, 7, 14 or 28 days after treatment, respectively. Results: The percentage of palmitic acid (C16: 0), arachidonic acid (C20: 4) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22: 6) significantly increased, and the percentage of oleic acid (C18: 1) and the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (M/S) significantly decreased comparing to control on day 28 after paraquat administration. The time-course of each fatty acid was observed for 28 days after paraquat administration. M/S ratio decreased after paraquat administration up to the 28th day, but the polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (P/S) ratio decreased during the first 7 days, followed by a increase, and then reached higher level than the 0 day control at the 28th day. Hydroxyproline also increased between the 14th and the 28th days. Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20: 5) had once increased during the first 2 days and decreased gradually, while C20: 4 maintained high level in this period. C22: 6 increased after paraquat administration and maintained high level up to the 28th day. This result indicated that desaturation and elongation in n-3 series fatty acids were accelerated after paraquat treatment, and consequently C20: 5 was rapidly converted into C22: 6 and decreased. Conclusions: Paraquat might cause elevation of unsaturated fatty acids, especially C20: 4 but not C20: 5 by the stimulation of the fatty acid desaturase system, and could consequently stimulate local collagen synthesis by C20: 4 metabolites in the healing stage.
High efficiency leukocyte reducing filters can remove more than 99.9-99.99% of white cells from cellular blood components and are considered to be effective in decreasing HLA alloimmunization of patients with haematological malignancies. A multi-institution study was performed to determine whether white cell filtration would also be effective in preventing alloimmunization in surgical transfusion recipients. Patients who were to receive red cell blood transfusions during and/or within 48 hours after surgery were randomly assigned to receive red cells/fresh frozen plasma that had been leukoreduced using a high efficiency filter at the bedside or buffycoat-depleted red cells transfused through an aggregate filter. Of 87 patients with no alloantibodies at entry, 17% (8/47) of those in the leukoreduction group, who received a mean of 0.3×106 leukocytes as a result of their transfusions, produced lymphocytotoxic antibodies at day 14 after transfusion, compared to 5% (2/40) in the buffycoat-depleted group, who had received a mean of 1,234.2×106 leukocytes. This difference in the alloimmunization rate between the two arms was not statistically significant. Reduction of leukocytes by bedside filtration does not appear to be effective in preventing HLA alloimmunization in surgical transfusion recipients. The alloimmunized cases suggest that an indirect allorecognition pathway may be involved in the formation of anti-HLA. Further measures are needed to reduce alloimmunization of immunocompetent patients.