Babies born in Britain to women of South Asian ethnic origin are lighter on average than the offspring of women of European origin. The causes have been incompletely elucidated but nutritional factors, low socioeconomic status and maternal pre-pregnancy weight have been implicated. This health inequality has received little policy prioritization in Britain. As further research clarifies reasons for this differential, appropriately targeted preventive strategies need to be implemented.
In the present study, anti-ribosomal P antibody in sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus was assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and its association with clinical symptoms of the patients was analyzed. The presence of anti-ribosomal P antibody was associated with increased frequency of lupus nephritis in the presence of anti-DNA antibody, and was associated with increased frequency of vascular thrombosis in the presence of anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibody and/or lupus anticoagulant. The level of anti-ribosomal P antibody correlated inversely with the peripheral lymphocyte counts.
[Purpose] To investigate a new modality of mucosal vaccines, we evaluated the effectiveness of intragastric immunization for inducing a mucosal immune response in the gastrointestinal tract. [Methods] Mice were immunized with β-galactosidase (β-gal) and synthesized oligodeoxynucleotides containing a CpG motif (CpG-DNA) by intragastric injection, and the immune response was compared with those induced by 3 other immunization forms: intranasal, oral, and intradermal. [Results] Intragastric immunization with β-gal and CpG-DNA induced significant anti-β-gal fecal IgA production at 2 weeks; however, at 4 weeks the response was lacking. In contrast, intranasal immunization with β-gal and CpG-DNA induced the highest anti-β-gal fecal IgA production at 4 weeks. [Conclusion] Although intragastric immunization with protein and CpG-DNA induces a mucosal immune response in the gastrointestinal tract, intranasal immunization is the most effective to induce both mucosal and systemic immune responses. This finding may increase the possibility for developing vaccines against mucosal pathogens, especially Helicobacter pylori.
The present study was designed to determine the extent of lymph node dissection for clinical T1 non-small cell lung cancer without negatively influencing curability. The study included 192 cases with clinical T1 non-small cell lung cancers who underwent lobectomy with mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Among 69 cases with right upper lobe tumors, metastasis was found in subcarinal lymph node in one case only. No metastasis was found in subcarinal node in cases free of metastasis in hilar and/or superior mediastinal nodes. Among 33 cases with right lower lobe tumors, metastasis was detected in the superior mediastinal node only in cases with metastasis in hilar and/or subcarinal nodes. Among 51 cases with left upper lobe tumors, no metastasis was found in the subcarinal node. Among 22 cases with left lower lobe tumors, metastasis was found in the superior mediastinal nodes only in cases with metastasis in hilar and/or subcarinal nodes. We propose the following scheme for the extent of mediastinal node dissection. Dissection of mediastinal node for clinical T1 non-small cell lung cancer cannot be omitted. But, 1) for upper lobe tumors, subcarinal lymphadenectomy could be omitted if no metastasis is found in hilar and superior mediastinal nodes based on gross and microscopic examination of frozen sections. 2) Similarly, for lower lobe tumors, superior mediastinal lymphadenectomy could be omitted if no metastasis is detected in the hilar and subcarinal nodes.
Objective: To investigate the effects of an intradermal injection of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated CpG motifs on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis, an experimental model of immune-mediated hepatitis. Methods: Con A was injected intravenously into Balb/c mice. Twelve hours after Con A challenge, blood and liver samples were obtained. CpG ODN was injected intradermally 48 hours before Con A challenge. The extent of liver injury was assessed by determining serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and by liver histology. Serum levels of cytokines, including interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5, were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Co-administration of Con A and CpG ODN significantly increased serum ALT in mice compared with that in the case of administration of Con A alone (10,268±4,654 and 1,140±832 IU/l, respectively, p<0.05). In liver histology, mice treated with CpG ODN and Con A showed more extensive midzonal necrosis than did mice treated with Con A alone. These mice also showed significant increases in serum TNF-α and IFN-γ and decrease in serum IL-5. Conclusions: The results indicate that CpG ODNs aggravate Con A-induced hepatitis by stimulating the production of T-helper-1 (Th1) cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-γ, suggesting that bacterial DNA that contains unmethylated CpG motifs may contribute to the exacerbation of immune-mediated liver injury.