IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the most common causes of glomerulonephritis in the world. The proliferative and crescentic forms of IgA are found in up to 30% of cases and are associated with nephritic-range proteinuria, accelerated hypertension, and accelerated decline toward ESRD. Thus, it is important to investigate the mechanism of the onset of IgAN and to identify the most appropriate treatment. We herein review the pathogenesis and treatment of IgA nephropathy. As to the pathogenesis, we found that CB4 provoked exacerbation of renal pathologic findings in HIGA mice via endothelial injury, IFN-gamma production, and dysfunction of the mesangial pathway and could possibly become one of the factors involved in the mechanism of the onset or evolution of human IgAN. As to the treatment of IgAN, we evaluated the efficacy of tonsillectomy plus prednisolone, warfarin, and dipyridamole including methylprednisolone pulse therapy (tonsillectomy plus pulse therapy) and prednisolone, warfarin, and dipyridamole including mizoribine (PWDM) for the treatment of diffuse IgAN in children. These therapies were effective in ameliorating the proteinuria and histological severity of patients with IgAN. Furthermore the detail investigations into the pathogenesis of IgAN and double-blind randomized control studies on children with IgAN will be necessary.
Secretoglobin (SCGB) 3A2 is a downstream target gene for the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TITF1). SCGB3A2 plays a role as an anti-inflammatory agent, however, its role in primary pulmonary carcinomas has not been examined. We assessed immunohistochemical expression of SCGB3A2 in primary pulmonary carcinomas and evaluated the correlation between the expression and histopathological phenotypes and prognosis. One hundred and fifty-six primary lung cancers undergone for surgical resection were examined. The percentages of SCGB3A2 positive cells were scored and tumors had immunoreactivity in more than 10% of tumor cells were considered positive for SCGB3A2. Overall reactivity for SCGB3A2 was observed in 116 (74.4%) of 156 primary lung cancers. SCGB3A2 was predominantly expressed in adenocarcinomas (86.5%), compared with squamous cell carcinomas (50.0%) and small cell carcinomas (42.9%). The expression in papillary adenocarcinomas was seen at higher frequency than that in tubular adenocarcinomas. There was no significant relationship between SCGB3A2 expression and tumor differentiation, and pathological stage. Positive expression of SCGB3A2 was not associated with better survival rate. SCGB3A2 expression in primary pulmonary carcinomas is high, especially in adenocarcinomas. Our results indicate that SCGB3A2 has a potential to be a specific and useful marker for primary pulmonary adenocarcinomas.
Synovial vascularization in metacarpophalangeal joints of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis treated with leukocytapheresis (LCAP) was evaluated by Doppler sonography. After the treatment with LCAP, evaluation with American College of Rheumatology core set showed improvement, and the levels of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A protein decreased. Power Doppler sonography demonstrated a reduction of color flow signals of the joints, and spectral Doppler sonography demonstrated an increase in vascular resistant, indicating a reduction of vessel's permeability. This is the first report evaluating a synovial vascularization and blood flow of the joints by Doppler sonography before and after LCAP therapy. Doppler sonography might be one of the useful methods for evaluating the therapeutic response of LCAP.