The prostatic and epididymal portions of rabbit vas deferens were different in the reactivity to electrical field stimulation (EFS), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and noradrenaline (NA). The EFS produced biphasic contractile response ; VIZ. the first rapid twitch like (phasic) and the second slow sustained (tonic) contraction. The ratio of the amplitude of the phasic contraction to that of the tonic contraction in response to the EFS was higher in the prostatic portion than that in the epididymal portion. The increase of stimulation frequency from 5 to 10 and 20 Hz more markedly augmented the tonic contractile response than the phasic contractile response. Then, the ratio of the amplitude of the phasic contraction to that of the tonic contraction decreased according to the increase of the stimulation frequency. The tension development of the phasic and the tonic contractile responses to the EFS in the prostatic portion was significantly larger than those in the epididymal portion. The administration of 1 mM ATP produced phasic contraction. The contractile response to 1 mM ATP was more remarkably appeared in the prostatic portion than in the epididymal portion. The administration of 10 μM NA produced slow sustained tonic contraction, which also more markedly appeared in the prostatic portion than in the epididymal portion. The findings may indicate that the prostatic portion of rabbit vas deferens was more strongly innervated by purinergic nerves, and had higher reactivity to EFS, ATP and NA than the epididymal portion.
Bone marrow (BM) cells are considered the source of stem cells for various organs. However, how quickly BM cells can penetrate and constitute lymphoid organs remains elusive. In the present study, we addressed this issue in a model using genetically-labeled syngeneic BM transplantation (BMT). Methods: Donor BM cells were obtained from “green mice”, transgenic mice with enhanced GFP. Lethally irradiated C57BL/6 mice were infused with 1×106 BM cells from the green mice through the tail vein. BM chimerism was analyzed by FACS and the presence of donor BM cells in thoracoabdominal organs was assessed by fluorescence microscopy. The commitment of BM cells was examined by immunohistochemical staining using epithelium-, macrophage-, B and T-lymphocyte, and endothelium-specific antibodies. Results: BM chimerism reached 40±18.5%, 82.6±23.4%, and 72±18% (mean±SD) at 1, 4, and 12 wks after BMT, respectively. GFP-positive cells were detected in all organs in the course of chimeric formation. Most GFP-positive cells were T and B lymphocytes in lymphoid systems including spleen, thymus, mesenteric lymph nodes and microvilli, and some were positive for macrophage and endothelial cell markers. Conclusions: Our results indicate that BM-derived cells migrate rapidly into various thoracoabdominal organs after BMT, and that lymphoid tissues are predominantly replaced with infused BM in lethally-irradiated mice. This confirmed the previous finding by others and suggests high interest of this model for further studies to characterize kinetics and roles of infused cells.
Although acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most serious coronary disease, the background of its onset and the mortality are not fully understood, especially in Japan. From June 1999 to May 2005, we mailed an annual questionnaire to eighteen hospitals in which emergency cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were available in the Fukushima area of Japan. A total of 1,590 patients were included. The onset time of AMI had two peaks, i.e., from 9 : 00 AM to 10 : 00 AM and 9 : 00 PM to 10 : 00 PM. As for reperfusion therapy, four groups were analyzed, the non-reperfusion therapy group (Group N, n=233), thrombolysis alone group (Group T, n=80), PCI without thrombolysis group (Group P, n=1,106), and PCI with thrombolysis group (Group TP, n=151). The in-hospital mortality rate was significantly reduced in Group P (8.4%) compared with that in Group N (33.0%, p<0.01) and Group T (18.8%, p<0.01). However, the in-hospital mortality in Group P did not differ from that in Group TP (9.9%). The in-hospital mortality was analyzed by the logistic regression analysis among age, arrival time after onset, peak creatine kinase (CK) values, coronary risk factors, reperfusion therapy, PCI, and thrombolysis. There were significant differences in age (p<0.01), peak CK values (p<0.01), hypertension (p<0.05), and diabetes mellitus (p<0.01). These results suggest that the onset of AMI may be partly related to human biorhythms, and that PCI would be effective in reducing the in-hospital mortality.
A 19-year-old Japanese woman had melena 2 months after systemic lupus erythematosus was diagnosed. Colonoscopy showed diffuse ulceration with bleeding in the ileum, suggesting that the melena was due to ischemic enteritis associated with lupus enteritis. Because treatment with high doses of steroid, anticoagulants, and cyclophosphamide pulse was ineffective, surgical intervention was planned. On exploration, it was impossible to determine the extent of resection visually. Intraoperative esophagogastroduodenoscopy clearly revealed the border between the ulcer and normal area, permitting successful resection of the ileum and ileostomy. This is the first report to document the usefulness of esophagogastroduodenoscopy in surgical treatment of ischemic enteritis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.