Objectives: From our previous results, manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in the blood of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients without depression were higher than those of both the PD patients with depression and controls, the hypothesis that “two types of PD exist-PD without depression and affected by Mn and Fe, and PD with depression and unaffected by Mn or Fe” was induced. To investigate the hypothesis, correlations among blood and urine metals were compared in the subjects. Methods: Subjects comprised PD patients with depression, PD patients without depression and controls recruited from an outpatient clinic in China. Morning blood and urine samples were used to measure concentrations of metals. Results: In the controls, Mn, Fe and zinc (Zn) levels in blood strongly correlated with each other. The correlation coefficient between Mn and Zn in blood was significant in the PD patients with depression and the controls, but not in the PD patients without depression. Correlations of Fe between blood and urine in the PD patients without depression were significant, but not in the PD patients with depression and the controls. Conclusions: A common route of simultaneous intake of Mn, Fe and Zn could exist in our subjects, however in PD patients without depression, a large intake of Mn may have been from another route. Some results of the PD patients without depression were different from those of the PD patients with depression and the controls. Thus, two types of PD may exist.
Background/Aims: We examined whether conventional ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were useful to evaluate liver hardness and hepatic fibrosis by comparing the results with those obtained by a tactile sensor using rats with liver fibrosis. Methodology: We used 44 Wistar rats in which liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal administration of thioacetamide. The CT and US values of each liver were measured before laparotomy. After laparotomy, a tactile sensor was used to measure liver hardness. We prepared Azan stained sections of each excised liver specimen and calculated the degree of liver fibrosis (HFI: hepatic fibrosis index) by computed color image analysis. Results: The stiffness values and HFI showed a positive correlation (r=0.690, p<0.001), as did the tactile values and HFI (r=0.709, p<0.001). In addition, the stiffness and tactile values correlated positively with each other (r=0.814, p<0.001). There was no correlation between the CT values and HFI, as well as no correlation between the US values and HFI. Conclusion: We confirmed that it was difficult to evaluate liver hardness and HFI by CT or US examination, and considered that, at present, a tactile sensor is useful method for evaluating HFI.
Flexor pronator muscles (FPMs) play a key role in stabilizing the elbow joint against valgus forces. However, no studies have investigated the in vivo kinematics of FPMs against these forces on the elbow. This study aimed to clarify the in vivo contribution of each FPM as a dynamic stabilizer in a clinical situation. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in this study. Verbal informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The elbow was flexed to 90 degrees, and the forearm was placed in the neutral position. Manual valgus stress was applied to the elbow joint until maximal shoulder external rotation was achieved. The width of the ulnohumeral joint space and the ulnar shift of the sublime tubercle were measured before and after isometric contraction of FPMs using ultrasonography. The horizontal distances were decreased 1.1±0.6 mm after forearm pronation, 0.6±0.5 mm after wrist palmar flexion, 0.1±0.4 mm after wrist ulnar flexion, and 0.2±0.5 mm after finger flexion. Significant changes were observed during forearm pronation, wrist palmar flexion, and finger flexion but not during wrist ulnar flexion (p<0.05). The sublime tubercle was significantly shifted 0.5±0.1 mm medially after forearm pronation, 0.2±0.1 mm medially after wrist palmar flexion, and 0.1±0.1 mm laterally after wrist ulnar flexion and finger flexion (p<0.05). The FPMs, especially the pronator teres and the flexor carpi radialis, function as dynamic stabilizers against elbow valgus stress. The results of this study may be useful in developing injury prevention and rehabilitation strategies for throwing injuries of the elbow.
A 65-year-old woman who had undergone surgery for rectal cancer was referred to our hospital with an abnormal shadow on chest X-ray. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed a 3-cm-diameter mass with ill-defined margins in the left lower lobe and a well-defined, 1-cm-diameter, round nodule in the right upper lobe. Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) of the left lung tumor revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma originating from the rectal cancer. The patient underwent synchronous partial resection of the right upper lobe and left lower lobectomy under video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). The pathological diagnosis of the right lung tumor was chondromatous hamartoma, and the left lung tumor was metastasis originating from the rectal cancer. The patient’s postoperative course was uneventful, and she was well and free of disease 4 years after pulmonary metastasectomy.
The purpose of this study was to carry out a program of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) based on the pain sustainment/exacerbation model for tension-type headache (TTH) patients and to examine the effectiveness as a pilot study. The participants were 4 TTH patients who consulted the outpatient clinic of a university hospital. It consisted of 4 individualized sessions as CBT program (including psychological education, self-monitoring, relaxation technique, cognitive restricting and exposure), and a follow-up examination was carried out 1 month after its completion. The sessions, each of which was 60 minutes long, were executed at weekly intervals. As a result, the score of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) decreased after program compared with before program in all patients. The score of escape/avoidance was also reduced at the post-program and follow-up (1 month later) compared with the score of pre-program in patients except Case 2, in whom the score was 0 throughout the study. The degree of the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) improved by program and changed to “mild” or “none” in all participants. These findings show that in patients with TTH this short CBT program has effect on pain catastrophizing, escape/avoidance and daily disability.
Background: Lumbar supports are used in the management of low back pain (LBP). Although various types of lumbar supports are available, insufficient evidence exists regarding their effectiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of lumbar support on postural change and muscle fatigue in a prospective longitudinal study. Methods: A total of 144 subjects (9 men and 135 women) with LBP were enrolled in this study. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: a conventional lumbosacral support (LS) group and a wear-type support (SW) group. They filled in questionnaires that included the Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36), the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ), and a questionnaire that evaluated the severity of LBP at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 months. The first 40 enrolled subjects were investigated for muscle fatigue and walking efficacy during a gait-loading test, and posture at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. Results: The intensity of LBP and the number of days with LBP significantly decreased over time in both groups. The decrease was similar in both groups at each time point. Wearing either support for 3 months did not induce erector spinae muscle fatigue. Furthermore, walking efficacy improved but spinal alignment was not affected by either support. Subjects in the SW group reported that the support was comfortable to wear for long periods, while subjects in the LS group mentioned that the LS relieved LBP by tightly supporting the lower back. Conclusion: Both types of support reduced mild LBP and improved walking efficiency without causing muscle fatigue.
Background and Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 2-port laparoscopic surgery for ovarian tumors and uterine leiomyomas. A conventional slip knot under laparoscopic surgery is useful, but it is difficult for beginners. Therefore, we developed new suture technique. Methods: Between January 2011 and December 2012, 38 patients underwent 2-port total laparoscopic cystectomy (TLC); between January 2010 and December 2011, 45 patients underwent multiport (3 or 4 ports) TLC. Between January 2011 and December 2012, 25 patients underwent 2-port laparoscopic myomectomy (LM); between January 2010 and December 2011, 34 patients underwent multiport (3 or 4 ports) LM. Surgery time, blood loss, postoperative length of stay and complications were retrospectively compared in each group. Results: No significant differences in surgery time, blood loss or postoperative length of stay were found between 2-port TLC and multiport TLC. No significant differences were found in the aforementioned parameters between 2-port LM and multiport LM. We showed here a new suture technique ‘intra-abdominal suturing/extra-abdominal traction method’ instead of conventional slip knot. Conclusions: We confirmed that 2-port TLC and LM are less invasive than conventional multiport laparoscopic surgery; furthermore, they are as safe as the conventional procedure. The new suture technique is easier than conventional slip knot and can applies sufficient tension to the suture knot for beginners.
Background:To identify the cause of cerebral embolism, we performed transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients suspected of embolic brain infarction including transient ischemic attack (TIA). We analyzed TEE findings and investigated factors associated with left atrial thrombus (LAT) detected by TEE. Methods:We enrolled 98 consecutive patients who underwent TEE and had acute brain infarction or TIA that was possibly due to embolism. We assessed age, sex, presence of atrial fibrillation (AF), days from admission to TEE and TEE findings, including the prevalence of LAT, spontaneous echo contrast (SEC), left atrial appendage (LAA) slow flow velocity, patent foramen ovale (PFO), atrial septal aneurysm and aortic plaque (ASA). Results:LAT was detected with TEE in 20 patients (20%). The factors that were significantly associated with the presence of LAT were male sex (unadjusted odds ratio (OR), 3.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-14.58; p=0.037), presence of AF (unadjusted OR, 9.58; 95% CI, 2.58-35.50; p< 0.001), SEC (unadjusted OR, 8.48; 95% CI, 2.57-28.00; p< 0.001) and LAA slow flow velocity (unadjusted OR, 5.18; 95% CI, 1.59-16.91; p=0.005). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that male sex (adjusted OR, 5.30; 95% CI, 1.09-25.71; p=0.039), presence of AF (adjusted OR, 8.97; 95% CI, 1.10-73.20; p=0.041) and SEC (adjusted OR, 10.87; 95% CI, 1.001-118.0; p=0.049) were independently associated with LAT, but LAA slow flow velocity was not. Conclusion:SEC is an important risk factor associated with LAT in patients suspected of embolic brain infarction that is independent of AF.
Aim: To assist in the long-term health management of residents and evaluate health impacts after the Tokyo Electric Power Company’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Fukushima Prefecture, the Fukushima prefectural government decided to conduct the Fukushima Health Management Survey. This report describes the results for residents aged 16 years or older who received the health check examinations and evaluates the data obtained from 2011 and 2012. Methods: The target group consisted of residents aged 16 years or older who had lived in the evacuation zone. The health check examinations were performed on receipt of an application for a health check examination from any of the residents. The examinations, including measurements of height, weight, abdominal circumference/body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, biochemical laboratory findings, and peripheral blood findings, were performed as required. Results: 1) A total of 56,399 (30.9%) and 47,009 (25.4%) residents aged 16 years or older received health checks in 2011 and 2012, respectively. 2) In both years, a number of male and female residents in the 16-39 year age group were found to suffer obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, or liver dysfunction, and the prevalence of obesity and hyperlipidemia among residents increased with age. Furthermore, the proportion of residents with hypertension, glucose metabolic abnormalities or renal dysfunction was higher in those aged 40 years or older. 3) The frequencies of obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidemia among residents in 2012 were lower than those in 2011. However, the prevalence of liver dysfunction, hyperuricemia, glucose metabolic abnormalities and renal dysfunction among residents was higher in 2012 than in 2011. Conclusions: These results suggested the number of residents who had lived in the evacuation zone with obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, liver dysfunction, hypertension, glucose metabolic abnormalities, or renal dysfunction increased with age in all age groups. Therefore, we think that it is necessary to continue with health check examinations for these residents in order to ameliorate lifestyle-related disease.
We report the case of a 67-year-old man with remnant left liver torsion causing acute hepatic venous outflow obstruction after right hepatectomy for giant hepatocellular carcinoma, which was successfully treated with surgery. After the primary surgery, he developed significant liver dysfunction and renal failure. Doppler ultrasonography disclosed gradual reduction of hepatic perfusion. Abdominal computed tomography revealed that the swollen remnant liver was dislocated in the right subphrenic space. After surgical repositioning of the left lobe into its anatomical position, the hepatic congestion immediately disappeared, and the hemodynamic parameters improved. The falciform and round ligaments were fixed to the anterior abdominal wall to keep the remnant liver in the anatomical position. His postoperative course was uneventful. Doppler ultrasonography was useful to assess hepatic perfusion for screening of acute hepatic venous outflow obstruction and abdominal computed tomography is definitive for diagnosis. Fixation of remnant liver may be effective for preventing hepatic venous outflow obstruction after right hepatectomy, particularly for giant tumor.
A 22-year-old woman presented with complaints of severe pain in a wide region of the thoracolumbar spine. She developed severe pain in the thoracolumbar spine region 2 months after her first delivery and was referred 1 month later. A lateral thoracic X-ray showed depressed degenerative vertebrae (T7, T9). One month after the initial examination, thoracic sagittal magnetic resonance imaging showed low intensity areas on T1-weighted imaging and iso-high intensity areas on T2-weighted imaging at T5, 7, 8, 9 and 11. Bone mineral density measured by ultrasound was low (%YAM 76%). The bone metabolic markers were high, suggesting accelerated osteoclast activity. These findings prompted a diagnosis of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis. She was asked to stop breastfeeding and to wear a lumbar brace, and treatment with nutritional calcium, activated vitamin D3, and risedronate sodium was started. Her low back pain almost disappeared after treatment. Bone metabolic markers showed normalization 8 months after the initial examination. Risedronate sodium was stopped 2 years and 2 months after the initial examination. Teriparatide treatment was started because her bone mineral density remained low; however, the osteoblast marker P1NP was not increased 5 months after the start of teriparatide treatment.
The primary manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are various. One such manifestation is hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). We here report a child with SLE presenting with HPS as a primary manifestation. In October 2010, an 11-year-old Japanese boy presented with pancytopenia, elevated liver enzymes, hyperferritinemia and hemophagocytosis due to macrophages in the bone marrow, and was diagnosed with HPS. A year later, he was found to have proteinuria and hematuria. Oral aphtha and Raynaud’s phenomenon were observed, and the patient showed low serum complement levels and was positive for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs). He was subsequently diagnosed with SLE. Moreover, low serum complement levels and ANA positivity were detected in a serum sample preserved at the onset of HPS. The HPS was considered to be a primary manifestation of SLE on the basis of these findings. Based on this case, the presence of an underlying disease, such as SLE, should be investigated in cases of HPS.
A 55-year-old man with esophageal carcinoma received endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in en-bloc resection. Histopathological examination revealed an admixture of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and endocrine cell carcinoma (ECC) with invasion of the deep submucosa. Immunohistochemically, CD 56 and chromogranin A were positive for ECC. Small-cell, medium-cell, and large-cell type ECC were partly surrounded with SCC and partly formed the duct, presenting various patterns. After ESD, he received chemotherapy including CPT-11 plus Cisplatin. He is alive and in good condition today, 55 months after ESD, with no evidence of recurrence.
The Great East Japan Earthquake hit Fukushima Prefecture on March 11, 2011, just over 3 years ago and it continues to affect our lives. In Fukushima, many people are confirmed dead or still missing due to the earthquake and/or tsunami. Additional “disaster-related deaths” have been attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. Mortality among the institutionalized elderly rates after the NPP accident were exceptionally high during the first 3 months, and persisted at a lower level for 9 months, in comparison with similar periods before the accident. This study demonstrates the great impact of evacuation on mortality of institutionalized elderly, excluding inpatients. We need to pay special attention to evacuation of the elderly, regardless of whether voluntary or forced.
Contents 1. Introduction 2. Thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima 3. Thyroid ultrasound findings in children in three Japanese prefectures 4. Prevalence of thyroid nodular lesions in children and adolescents 4.1 Thyroid cyst 4.2 Thyroid nodule 4.3 Thyroid cancer 5. SummaryConflict of interestReference
Mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression have surfaced and are affecting many residents in Fukushima prefecture as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear disaster. It has also been reported that such mental health problems appeared and persisted after large-scale nuclear accidents in the past, such as the Chernobyl and Three Mile Island accidents, widely affecting the disaster victims.