Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is one of the most important viral pathogen related to acute lower respiratory infection in young children. The virus surface envelope contains the G, F, and SH proteins as spike proteins. The F protein is considered to be a major antigenic target for the neutralizing (NT) epitope as only the F protein is essential for cell infection among the three viral envelope proteins, and it is more highly conserved than the G protein. Recently, four antigenic targets related to NT activity have been reported;site I, site II, site IV, and site zero (0). Site II is the target for palivizumab used throughout the world to suppress severe RSV infection as passive immunity in high-risk children since 1998. Under the recent conditions in which indications for palivizumab administered subjects are being expanded, palivizumab-resistant mutations have been confirmed overseas in children with RSV infection, although they remain infrequent. Therefore, continuous genetic analysis of the palivizumab-binding region of the F protein is necessary. In addition, as vaccine development progresses, RSV infection control is expected to improve greatly over the next decade.
Background: To evaluate the recent frequency of onset and severity of IgA vasculitis with nephritis (IgAVN) in Fukushima Prefecture, we examined the epidemiology and clinico-pathological manifestations of IgAVN in our hospital over a 10-year period.
Methods: We enrolled 18 patients with IgAVN treated between 2004 and 2013 in the Department of Pediatrics, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine. These patients were divided into two groups; Group 1 consisted of 12 patients with IgAVN hospitalized between 2004 and 2008 and Group 2 consisted of 6 patients with IgAVN hospitalized between 2009 and 2013. The epidemiology, clinical features, laboratory data, pathological findings, and outcome were retrospectively compared between the two groups.
Results: The numbers of patients with IgAVN per year in Group 2 were lower than that in Group 1. The frequency of patients with higher than grade IIIb disease in Group 2 (50%) was lower than that in Group 1 (94%); furthermore, the frequency of patients with higher than grade IV disease in Group 2 (0%) was lower than that in Group 1 (50%).
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the incidence of onset and severity of IgAVN in patients diagnosed between 2009 and 2013 were lower than those in patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2008.
The T-box 19 (TBX19) gene encodes a transcription factor characterized by a highly conserved DNA-binding motif (T-box). Recent studies have revealed that TBX19 has been identified as one of the genes activated by KRAS mutations, and is upregulated in colon adenoma. These results indicate that TBX19 may work as an oncogene in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the expression and role of TBX19 have yet to be investigated. Here, we investigated TBX19 mRNA and protein expressions in colon cancer cells or surgically resected CRC. We found that TBX19 mRNA expression was significantly increased in tumorous tissues compared to that in non-tumorous tissues, and increased TBX19 mRNA expression was associated with positive lymph node metastasis in our cohort. The expression of TBX19 mRNA was not correlated with that of TBX19 protein in tissue sample taken from the CRC patients. Moreover, TBX19 showed positive staining even in the normal colonic tissues and the adjacent non-tumorous tissues. These results suggest that the expression of TBX19 protein is not correlated with the expression of TBX19 mRNA. In addition, our results promote further investigations into the impact of TBX19 upregulation on colorectal carcinogenesis, as well as the underlying mechanisms.
The Fukushima Medical University conducted a mental health care program for evacuees after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. However, the mental health status of non-respondents has not been considered for surveys using questionnaires. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of non-respondents and respondents. The target population of the survey (FY2011-2013) is people living in the nationally designated evacuation zone of Fukushima prefecture. Among these, the participants were 967 people (20 years or older). We examined factors that affected the difference between the groups of participants (i.e., non-respondents and respondents) using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Employment was higher in non-respondents (p=0.022) and they were also more socially isolated (p=0.047) when compared to respondents; non-respondents had a higher proportional risk of psychological distress compared to respondents (p<0.033). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, within the participants there was a significant association between employment status (OR=1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.12-3.51) and psychological distress (OR=2.17, 95% CI:1.01-4.66). We found that non-respondents had a significantly higher proportion of psychological distress compared to the respondents. Although the non-respondents were the high-risk group, it is not possible to grasp the complexity of the situation by simply using questionnaire surveys. Therefore, in the future it is necessary to direct our efforts towards the mental health of non-respondents and respondents alike.
A 66-year-old man was referred to our hospital with an increasing subepithelial lesion in the gastric antrum. Using esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a tumor with a steep, 20-mm-high rise protruding in the lumen was observed. The mucosal surface of the tumor was reddish, with ulcers forming at the base. Moreover, the tumor was mobile and soft. A biopsy specimen was taken from the ulcer, but tumor tissue was not collected from the submucosa. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) showed a high echoic mass in the submucosa. However, because the mucosal surface of the ulceration was red, the mesenchymal tumor with internal bleeding was inferred to be lipoma. Additionally, because the tumor was small, flexible, and soft, collecting tumor tissue under EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration was inferred as difficult. We were unable to make a final diagnosis because the lesion showed a small tumor with atypical macroscopic morphology. Therefore, endoscopic submucosa dissection (ESD) was chosen for the diagnostic treatment. Sodium hyaluronate sufficient for separation from the muscular layer was injected into the submucosa. Then submucosal dissection was performed just above the muscle layer. Results demonstrate the possibility of removing the tumor reliably without perforation. Pathological evaluation of the ESD specimen indicated a diagnosis of gastric lipoma.
Lusutrombopag, a small molecule thrombopoietin receptor agonist, has been approved for the treatment of chronic liver disease-associated thrombocytopenia due to hypersplenism in patients scheduled to undergo elective invasive procedures in Japan. We performed partial splenic embolization (PSE) after administration of lusutrombopag in two patients with thrombocytopenia due to cirrhosis. Case 1 involved a 50-year-old man who developed cirrhosis due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and alcohol consumption. Case 2 involved a 30-year-old woman who developed cirrhosis due to HBV infection only. Lusutrombopag administration led to an increase in platelet count in both patients, and PSE was performed safely. However, in Case 2, the patient developed disseminated intravascular coagulation. Further study with a larger population is required to investigate the indications for and risks of the use of lusutrombopag.