Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune complication of heparin therapy caused by antibodies to complexes of platelet factor 4 (PF4) and heparin. These pathogenic antibodies against PF4/heparin bind and activate cellular FcγRIIa on platelets to induce a hypercoagulable state culminating in thrombosis. Recent studies indicate several conditions, including joint surgery, induce spontaneous HIT, which can occur without exposure to heparin. To determine the real-world evidences concerning the incidences of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total joint arthroplasty for rheumatic disease, we conducted a multicenter cohort study (J-PSVT) designed to document the VTE and seroconversion rates of anti-PF4/heparin antibody in 34 Japanese National hospital organization (NHO) hospitals. J-PSVT indicated that prophylaxis with fondaparinux, not enoxaparin, reduces the risk of deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing arthroplasty. Multivariate analysis revealed that dynamic mechanical thromboprophylaxis (intermittent plantar device) was an independent risk factor for seroconversion of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies, which was also confirmed by propensity-score matching. Seroconversion rates of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies were significantly reduced in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients compared with osteoarthritis (OA) patients, which may link with the findings that IgG fractions isolated from RA patients not OA patients contained PF4. Our study indicated that a unique profile of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies is induced by arthroplasty for rheumatic diseases.
Targeted therapy against actionable gene mutations shows a significantly higher response rate as well as longer survival compared to conventional chemotherapy, and has become a standard therapy for many cancers. Recent progress in next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled to identify huge number of genetic aberrations. Based on sequencing results, patients recommend to undergo targeted therapy or immunotherapy. In cases where there are no available approved drugs for the genetic mutations detected in the patients, it is recommended to be facilitate the registration for the clinical trials. For that purpose, a NGS-based sequencing panel that can simultaneously target multiple genes in a single investigation has been used in daily clinical practice. To date, various types of sequencing panels have been developed to investigate genetic aberrations with tumor somatic genome variants (gain-of-function or loss-of-function mutations, high-level copy number alterations, and gene fusions) through comprehensive bioinformatics. Because sequencing panels are efficient and cost-effective, they are quickly being adopted outside the lab, in hospitals and clinics, in order to identify personal targeted therapy for individual cancer patients.
To investigate the possible implications of autophagy, one of the degradation pathways induced by metabolic stress, in the dynamic reconstructive process of wound healing, the appearance and changes of punctate structures for microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), an autophagosome marker, were examined in a rat skin wound healing model. Although the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I in Western blotting was not evidently changed during the wound healing process, LC3-positive dots were clearly observed in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, and occasionally in macrophages, by immunohistofluorescence microscopy. Some of the LC3-positive dots were colocalized with Atg16L signal, an isolation membrane marker, and electron microscopy revealed the presence of typical autophagosomes in fibroblasts near the margin of the wound. The number of LC3-positive dots per fibroblast increased during the later period of the proliferation phase, and interestingly, it was higher in the margin than the center of the wound. It was also high in the periwound skin area. These results suggest that drastic functional changes in fibroblasts during wound healing process are accompanied by the alteration of the autophagy-lysosomal degradation system.
Emotional disturbance including depression is associated with increased mortality among dialysis patients. The Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) is a simple tool for assessing emotional disturbance. This study investigated the relationship between emotional conditions as assessed with the SDS test and mortality among 491 hemodialysis patients. At baseline, 183 (37.3%), 180 (36.7%), 108 (22.0%), and 20 (4.1%) were classified as normal, borderline depression, depression, and severe depression, respectively. During the two years of observation period, 57 of 491 (11.6%) died. The SDS scores in the non-survivors were significantly higher than those in the survivors (p<0.0001). Logistic analyses showed that the diagnoses made by the SDS test were associated with significantly greater risks for all-cause mortality (99%CI: 1.905-3.698 for that without adjustment, 1.999-4.382 for that with full adjustment). When the SDS score = 50 was selected as the cut off value, the test screened two-year all cause death with sensitivity = 57.9% and the specificity = 78.1%. In conclusion, hemodialysis patients had high prevalence of emotional disturbance assessed by the SDS test, and high SDS score was significantly associated with all-cause mortality. These findings underscore the importance of screening for emotional conditions using the SDS test among hemodialysis patients.
Background: According to previous reports, lobectomy with bronchoplasty or angioplasty is a more feasible surgery than pneumonectomy for central-type non-small cell lung cancer. However, few studies have compared both the short- and long-term outcomes between pneumonectomy and pulmonary function-preserving surgery.
Methods: From January 2004 to December 2015, 18 patients underwent pneumonectomy (Group PN) and 12 patients underwent pulmonary function-preserving surgery (group PS) at Fukushima Medical University Hospital. Clinicopathological factors were statistically compared between the two groups.
Results: The operation times in Group PN and Group PS were 285.9±27.9 and 271.3±99.2 min, respectively (p=0.613), while the amounts of intraoperative bleeding were 324.8±248.9 and 164.5±116.6 g, respectively (p=0.020). The duration of chest drainage and hospitalization after surgery in both groups were not significantly different but there was a tendency toward shorter periods of these durations in Group PS. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate in Group PN and PS was 51.4% and 74.1%, respectively, without a significant difference (p=0.298). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate in Group PN and PS was 52.5% and 56.6%, respectively, also without a significant difference (p=0.748). The 5-year OS rate was inferior to the 5-year DFS rate in Group PS, and the 5-year OS rate was not better than the 5-year DFS rate in Group PN.
Conclusions: The short-term results were better in Group PS than PN. However, the long-term results in both groups were similar. Other causes of death influenced OS in both groups; this result might have been affected by the surgical procedures.
Three-dimensional (3D) laparoscopic surgical systems have been developed to account for the lack of depth perception, a known disadvantage of conventional 2-dimensional (2D) laparoscopy. In this study, we retrospectively compared the outcomes of total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) with 3D versus conventional 2D laparoscopy. From November 2014, when we began using a 3D laparoscopic system at our hospital, to December 2015, 47 TLH procedures were performed using a 3D laparoscopic system (3D-TLH). The outcomes of 3D-TLH were compared with the outcomes of TLH using the conventional 2D laparoscopic system (2D-TLH) performed just before the introduction of the 3D system. The 3D-TLH group had a statistically significantly shorter mean operative time than the 2D-TLH group (119±20 vs. 137±20 min), whereas the mean weight of the resected uterus and mean intraoperative blood loss were not statistically different. When we compared the outcomes for 20 cases in each group, using the same energy sealing device in a short period of time, only mean operative time was statistically different between the 3D-TLH and 2D-TLH groups (113±19 vs. 133±21 min). During the observation period, there was one occurrence of postoperative peritonitis in the 2D-TLH group and one occurrence of vaginal cuff dehiscence in each group, which was not statistically different. The surgeon and assistant surgeons did not report any symptoms attributable to the 3D imaging system such as dizziness, eyestrain, nausea, and headache. Therefore, we conclude that the 3D laparoscopic system could be used safely and efficiently for TLH.