The use of direct antiviral agents (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus has led to a paradigm shift from viral hepatitis to non-viral disease. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) remains to be an issue in liver disease after the DAAs era. Moreover, fatty liver had been increasing in incidence and has attracted attention because of its risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. In 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake, with the associated tsunami and accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, has changed the lifestyle of residents in Fukushima prefecture. In this manuscript, we outlined the recent topics about AIH, fatty liver, and Fukushima.
Although eye diseases are considered to be relatively less affected by patient sex, it is noteworthy that the presence of hormone receptors have been confirmed in various ocular tissues, which were considered to have few sex-based differences.
Female hormone levels are known to change because of menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause. When female hormone levels markedly fluctuate in such situations, the disease state may change.
The fluctuations in the levels of sex hormones affect the corneal thickness conditions of uveitis.
Estrogen may be a possible therapeutic option for glaucoma because it protects the eyes from damage caused by glaucoma and reduces intraocular pressure;it is particularly promising in the treatment of postmenopausal women with glaucoma.
Estrogen is considered to have a prophylactic effect against eye diseases. However, there is a report that female sex is an independent risk factor for the progression of diabetic retinopathy, so it may not always exert a prophylactic effect. Thus, caution should be exercised.
Based on recent progression of studies on this field, the importance of treatment according to gender has been recognized in the treatment of eye diseases.
Metastatic neoplasms in the stomach from remote primary tumors are uncommon, and gastric metastases of colorectal origin are rare. We herein report a case of gastric metastasis originating from transverse colon cancer in a 61-year-old female patient. Curative right extended hemicolectomy and partial gastrectomy were performed. Histologically, both the colon and stomach tumors were moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with similar features. The postoperative TNM classification was stage IV disease (T4N0M1). The patient received 7 cycles of postoperative bevasizumab+FOLFOX (oxaliplatin plus an infusion of 5-fluorouracil/levofolinate) therapy and 4 cycles of additional chemotherapy with bevacizumab+FOLFIRI (irinotecan plus an infusion of 5-fluorauracil/levofolinate).
The patient has a good quality of life with no signs of recurrence at seven years and four months after surgery.
The appropriate strategy for treating multiple malignant brain tumors has not been well established. We discuss the indications and surgical considerations of multiple craniotomies in the same surgical session, and present three such cases. A 41-year-old woman (case 1) and a 65-year-old man (case 2), both presented with two metastatic brain lesions, one in each hemisphere. The third case was a 65-year-old woman with multiple recurrent atypical meningiomas, who underwent surgical removal in two stages. In the first surgery, only the superior sagittal sinus lesion was excised. Then in the second surgery, multiple disseminated bilateral convexity tumors were excised through a craniotomy on each side. All cases had a remarkable neurological improvement immediately after surgery. We suggest that the indications for surgical removal of multiple brain tumors with two or more craniotomies in the same surgical session are: 1) progressing neurological symptoms, 2) tumors with a maximum diameter more than 2 cm, 3) resistance to radiation and/or chemotherapy, 4) ability to tolerate the scheduled surgical time, 5) vital prognosis anticipated to be more than 3 months, 6) expectation of significant neurological improvement, and 7) single-session surgery not carrying more risk than multiple surgeries.
We report a male infant with a birthweight of 1,400 g at 29 weeks 2 days gestation diagnosed as having cow’s milk allergy (CMA) due to human milk fortifier, who developed severe respiratory symptoms. The infant had no gastrointestinal symptoms; rather, the initial symptoms were apnea attacks and wheezing with a prolonged expiratory phase that progressed to severe ventilatory insufficiency requiring mechanical ventilation. Aggravation of his general condition, which appeared to be due to sepsis, was improved by temporary starvation and respiratory care, but he relapsed on the resumption of enteral feeding of his mother’s milk with a human milk fortifier. As a result, this event was interpreted as a positive oral food challenge test. The infant resumed complete breastfeeding without the fortifier and has not relapsed since. Examination of his serial cytokine profiles from residual serum revealed that although interleukin-5 was not increased, interferon (IFN)-γ was increased, suggesting some relation between the time course of IFN-γ and the infant’s eosinophil count. These findings may indicate that the involvement of IFN-γ is one cause of the onset of this disease.
Vasculitis in Behçet’s disease, termed “vasculo-Behçet’s disease,” is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. We report a case of vasculo-Behçet’s disease complicated by conversion disorder, in which 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) was useful for the diagnosis. A twenty-two-year-old woman recently diagnosed with tonsillitis presented with fever, right foot pain, left equinovarus foot, and numbness in both hands and feet. Laboratory data showed elevated levels of c-reactive protein (CRP). The patient was positive for HLA B51; pathergy testing was also positive. Nerve conduction velocity and electromyography were normal. MRI showed swelling of the left crural muscle group. PET/CT showed intense FDG uptake in the left popliteal artery, demonstrating active vasculitis. The patient was diagnosed with vasculo-Behçet’s disease and treated with corticosteroids, colchicine, and infliximab, which led to obvious improvement of the MRI findings and reduction in CRP. However, left equinovarus foot and numbness in the extremities persisted. She also developed aphonia. They were attributed to psychogenic dystonia and conversion disorder, and psychiatric treatment was effective in relieving those symptoms. We suggest that PET/CT may be useful for the early diagnosis of medium-sized vessel vasculitis in patients with Behçet’s disease.
Medical treatment for heart failure is still limited in patients with symptomatic aortic regurgitation (AR). Here we report the effects of mokuboito used in combination with standard medical therapy for heart failure in an inoperable patient with symptomatic severe AR. We observed acute effects of mokuboito in decreasing systemic vascular resistance and increasing cardiac output, as well as its chronic effects in improving New York Heart Association class, plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels, and left ventricular diastolic function. Given its efficacy, the use of mokuboito might be an additional treatment for patients with heart failure.
This is based on a survey of two-year-old but not three-year-old cohorts. Therefore, we cannot state anything about the incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in over three-years-old children. We submit corrections in the following errata, because the original sentences might mislead the readers without evidence from three-year-old children. Also, we would like to exclude the phrase of “low-dose radiation” from the sections of Key word, Abstract, and Conclusion, because this study did not cover its influence.