Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects multiple organs, including the central nervous system. Neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) is a severe and potentially fatal condition. Several factors including autoantibodies have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NPSLE. However, definitive biomarkers of NPSLE are yet to be identified owing to the complexity of this disease. This is a major barrier to accurate and timely diagnosis of NPSLE. Studies have identified several autoantibodies associated with NPSLE;some of these autoantibodies are well investigated and regarded as symptom-specific. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the manifestations and pathogenesis of NPSLE. In addition, we describe representative symptom-specific autoantibodies that are considered to be closely associated with the pathogenesis of NPSLE.
Objective: Anastomotic leakage (AL) is one of the most devastating complications of rectal cancer surgery. Not only does AL result in reduced quality of life, extended hospitalization and impaired defecatory function, it also has a high local recurrence rate. In this study, we investigated risk factors for AL as it may help to decrease its occurrence and improve patient outcomes.
Methods: This study was a retrospective, single-institution study of rectal cancer patients who underwent elective low anterior resection between April 2002 and February 2018 at Fukushima Medical University Hospital. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of AL. Patient-, tumor-, and surgery-related variables were examined using univariate and multivariate analyses.
Results: One hundred sixty-one patients, average age 63.5±11.5 years, were enrolled in the study. The overall AL rate was 6.8% (11/161). In the univariate analysis, modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS)=2 (p=0.003), use of multiple staplers (≥3 firings) for rectal transection (p=0.001) and intraoperative bleeding (≥250 g) were significantly associated with AL incidence. Multivariate analysis identified that mGPS = 2 (odds ratio [OR]: 19.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.96-125.00, p=0.002) and multiple firings (OR: 18.19, CI: 2.31-111.11, p=0.002) were independent risk factors for AL.
Conclusion: Higher mGPS score and multiple firings were independent risk factors for AL.
Autophagy is an essential intracellular self-degradation system, and is known to maintain the homeostatic balance between the synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular proteins and organelles. Recent studies have suggested a possible role of autophagy in systemic sclerosis (SSc);however, differences in autophagy among pathological phases of SSc have not yet been examined. Therefore, in the current study we investigated the expression pattern of an autophagosome marker protein, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in the lesional skin of a murine model and human SSc. In bleomycin-induced mouse scleroderma skin, the number of LC3-positive puncta was significantly higher than that in phosphate buffered salts-injected control skin after 4 weeks of treatment. Such an increase, however, was not observed in the skin after 2 weeks of bleomycin treatment, in which few myofibroblasts were detected. In the sclerotic phase of SSc patients, the number of LC3-positive puncta in the lower dermis was significantly higher than in the upper dermis. It was also significantly higher than in the lower dermis of the control patients. No increase in LC3-positive puncta was observed in the skin from SSc patients in edematous phase, in which myofibroblasts were hardly detected. These results suggest that changes in the autophagic degradation system reflect a skin remodeling process that leads to fibrosis.
Objectives: To clarify (1) the prevalence and associating factors of work-life conflict (WLC);(2) the details of gender-based discrimination;and (3) the association between WLC and gender-based discrimination among various professionals in a medical university organization.
Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted in 2017, included all employees working at a public medical university and two affiliated hospitals that lie in provincial cities in Japan. The outcome of interest was time-based WLC in the work-to-family or family-to-work direction, measured with a shortened version of an existing scale. Gender-based discrimination was measured according to a three-point scale.
Results: Among the 3,347 employees, complete data sets were available for 2,285 (complete response rate, 68.3%). Of these, approximately 30% of respondents had perceived WLC. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that faculty members, nurses, and employees between 30 and 39 years old had a greater risk of WLC regardless of gender. Men were more likely to perceive gender-based discrimination in the contents of their work and the number of incidental tasks, while women were more likely to perceive discrimination with promotions and evaluation of academic achievements. Both men and women respondents who perceived gender-based discrimination had an increased risk of WLC.
Conclusions: When promoting organizational well-being in a medical university, increased attention should be paid to faculty members, nurses and employees between 30 and 39 years old, as they have a greater risk of WLC. Our results also suggest that promoting gender equality is important to help achieve appropriate work-life balance.
There are a few children with isolated congenital complete atrioventricular block (ICCAVB) who do not require a pacemaker. We report a female infant born at 36 weeks by emergency cesarean section because of fetal heart rate abnormalities who was diagnosed as having ICCAVB. In accordance with the echocardiographic findings, we simultaneously measured the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) by chest radiography and serum N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) and have continued to follow her as an outpatient for about 8 years. CTR and NT-proBNP showed strong positive correlation (r=0.894, p<0.05). In such few children with ICCAVB as this patient, CTR measurement during their follow-up would be very useful to easily understand their cardiac load status.
Although bronchogenic cysts are the most common primary mediastinal cysts, intracardiac bronchogenic cysts are extremely rare. We report a case of a bronchogenic cyst of the interatrial septum in a 42-year-old woman who presented with recent onset of dyspnea on exertion. Cardiac investigations including transthoracic echocardiography and computed tomography revealed a cystic homogeneous mass in the interatrial septum. The patient underwent surgical resection, and the resultant atrial septal defect was repaired using an autologous pericardial patch. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed findings consistent with a benign bronchogenic cyst. Although bronchogenic cysts are extremely rare, they should be considered in the differential diagnoses of intracardiac tumors. Complete resection of bronchogenic cysts is recommended primarily for diagnostic and potentially therapeutic purposes.
Objective: Ovarian torsion is an acute gynecological condition. Torsion is more likely to occur with benign rather than malignant tumors. Mature cystic teratoma of the ovary (MCTO) is frequent in women of reproductive age; however, the incidence of malignant transformation is approximately 2%. We report a case of malignant transformation of MCTO presenting as ovarian tumor torsion.
Case report: A 51-year-old premenopausal woman was diagnosed with mature cystic teratoma in the left ovary 7 years ago. The patient visited our hospital because she had been experiencing of pain in left lower abdomen for the past two days. She was diagnosed with ovarian tumor torsion and underwent emergency surgery. The left ovarian tumor was twisted, and left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma arising from the MCTO. We carefully followed the patients without performing staging laparotomy. On postoperative day 112, multiple lymph node metastases in the pelvic and para-aortic areas were found by positron-emission tomography and computed tomography. After referral to a university hospital, total hysterectomy, right salpingo-oophorectomy, partial omentectomy, and pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy were performed. Metastases of squamous cell carcinoma were confirmed in the pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes. Six courses of adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin were given following radical surgery to prevent the recurrence of malignant transformation of MCTO. No recurrence of the disease has been observed during 2 years of follow-up.
Conclusion: When physicians diagnose large ovarian tumor torsion cases, preoperative examinations should be performed, with the possibility of malignancy in mind.
We describe two cases of spontaneously perforated pyometra (SPP) in elderly women treated with two different surgical approaches. An 88-year-old woman underwent emergency laparotomy for presumed diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract perforation. During surgery, SPP and a tumor of the sigmoid colon were identified. Total hysterectomy and sigmoid colon resection were performed. Despite exhaustive postoperative treatments, the patient died on postoperative day (POD) 189 due to peritonitis and pneumonia. A 93-year-old woman with acute abdomen was diagnosed with severe pyometra and primarily treated with transcervical drainage. Due to progression of generalized peritonitis, laparoscopic surgery was performed. Intraoperatively, scar from a uterine body perforation was identified, leading to the diagnosis of SPP. Only peritoneal irrigation and drainage were performed, in consideration of her advanced age. She improved and was discharged from the hospital on POD 35. The prognosis for SPP is sometimes poor, especially in older women. Minimally invasive surgical intervention might be considered for primary treatment in such cases.
A 69-year-old man was admitted to Hanawa Kousei Hospital with acute hepatitis attributed to alcohol consumption. His condition improved with conservative treatment. Computed tomography (CT) showed localized thickening of the colonic wall at the splenic flexure;carcinoembryonic antigen level was slightly elevated to 9.7 ng/mL. Colonoscopy (CS) showed an ulcerative lesion in the colonic splenic flexure. Ischemic colitis (IC) and type 4 colon cancer were suspected, but biopsy was not confirmatory. Malignancy could not be ruled out by contrast-enhanced CT;repeat CS showed circumferential stenosis of the colonic splenic flexure. Ischemic colitis was suspected based on changes between the first and second CS. Biopsy histopathology led us to diagnose stricture-type IC. Constipation, but not intestinal obstruction, occurred. Conservative treatment improved the stenosis. Excessive alcohol consumption may lead to IC;imaging studies may be useful to distinguish IC from colon cancer. Since most cases of ischemic colitis can be improved with conservative treatment, patients with stricture-type ischemic colitis may also be treated without surgery early on, with follow-up that includes careful, periodic imaging.