Background:The association between daily alcohol intake and changes in renal function in the Japanese general population is not well established.
Methods:We analyzed data from 150 residents who underwent specific health checkups held in Mishima Town in 2016 and 2019. We divided participants on the basis of alcohol consumption: residents with daily alcohol intake of < 20 g/day (the none-to-low group, n = 104, 69.3%); those with daily alcohol intake of ≥ 20 but < 40 g/day (the intermediate group, n = 30, 20.0%); and those with daily alcohol intake of ≥ 40 g/day (the high group, n = 16, 10.7%). We compared baseline characteristics. The primary endpoint was a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), defined as the decrease in eGFR greater than the median decrease over three years.
Results:The three-year changes in eGFR were +0.3 (−4.8, +3.0), −2.3 (−5.1, +1.2), and −4.9 (−8.2, −2.9) mL/min/1.73 m2 in the none-to-low, intermediate, and high groups, respectively (P = 0.007). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, a high amount of alcohol intake was independently associated with a decrease in eGFR, with adjusted odds ratio of 11.418 (95% confidence interval 1.554-83.879, P = 0.017).
Conclusion:A high average daily alcohol intake is associated with a decrease in eGFR.
Introduction:We evaluated the mental health status of children residing in Kawauchi village (Kawauchi), Fukushima Prefecture, after the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, based on the children’s experience of the nuclear disaster.
Methods:We conducted this cross-sectional study within the framework of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS);FHMS data on age, sex, exercise habits, sleeping times, experience of the nuclear disaster, and the “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)” scores for 156 children from Kawauchi in 2012 were collected. Groups with and without experience of the nuclear disaster — “nuclear disaster (+)” and “nuclear disaster (−)” — were also compared.
Results:Our effective response was 93 (59.6%);the mean SDQ score was 11.4±6.8 among elementary school-aged participants and 12.4±6.8 among junior high school-aged ones. We statistically compared the Total Difficulties Scores (TDS) and sub-item scores of the SDQ between “elementary school” and “junior high school” or “nuclear disaster” (+) and (−). There was no significant difference between these items.
Conclusions:We found indications of poor mental health among elementary and junior high school-aged children in the disaster area immediately following the accident, but no differences based on their experience of the nuclear disaster. These results indicate the possibility of triggering stress, separate to that from experiences related to the nuclear disaster, in children who lived in affected rural areas and were evacuated just after the nuclear disaster.
Background:The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pretransplant culture on the survival of pancreatic islet grafts, and to determine the biological characteristics of isolated islets during pretransplant culture.
Methods:The survival of islets from Wistar rats, transplanted to diabetic C57BL/B6 mice, was compared between fresh islets and cultured islets. A comprehensive gene expression analysis was employed to investigate biological processes during pretransplant culture, and in vitro validation studies were performed.
Results:Survival of cultured xenografts was significantly prolonged as compared to that of fresh islets (fresh:12.5 ± 1.9 days, 1-day cultured:16.0 ± 1.3 days (p= 0.017), 3-day cultured:17.0 ± 2.6 days (p= 0.014)). Comprehensive gene expression analysis identified significant upregulation of annotated functions associated with inflammation in cultured groups. Six proinflammatory genes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and IL-6, were significantly upregulated during culture. Validation studies revealed significantly higher levels of IL-6 in the supernatant of cultured islets and HO-1 in the cultured islets when compared with fresh islets.
Conclusion:Transplantation of cultured islets induced significant but minimal prolongation of graft survival in xenogeneic combinations. Comprehensive analysis of gene expression in cultured islets showed biological processes associated with proinflammation during culture.
Of the 47 prefectures in Japan, Iwate had the fewest cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with the first diagnosis officially confirmed on July 28, 2020. A baseline serological survey of COVID-19 antibodies is essential to accurately evaluate an epidemic outbreak. The primary purpose of this study was to determine pre-epidemic prevalence of COVID-19 antibodies among healthcare workers, using two laboratory-based quantitative tests. In addition, a point-of-care (POC) qualitative test, rapid, simple, and convenient for primary care clinics, was compared with the laboratory-based tests. All antibody tests were performed on serum from 1,000 healthcare workers (mean age, 40 ± 11 years) in Iwate Prefectural Central Hospital, May 29-31, 2020. A COVID-19 case was defined as showing positive results in both laboratory-based quantitative tests. None of 1,000 samples had positive results in both of the laboratory immunoassays. The POC test showed positive results in 33 of 1,000 samples (3.3%) (95% confidence interval:2.19-4.41), but no samples were simultaneously positive in both laboratory-based tests. In conclusion, COVID-19 cases were not serologically confirmed by a baseline control study of healthcare workers at our hospital in late May, 2020. Moreover, the POC qualitative test may offer no advantage in areas with very low prevalence of COVID-19, due to higher false-positive reactions compared with laboratory-based quantitative immunoassays.
Thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) is a pathological condition that causes myelopathy, with unilateral lower extremity pain rarely a feature in the presenting complaint. Moreover, most symptomatic cases of thoracic OLF occur in middle-aged men, with younger individuals rarely affected. We present a rare case of severe and chronic unilateral buttock and leg pain mimicking sciatica due to thoracic OLF in a professional baseball pitcher. A 28-year-old, right-handed, Japanese professional baseball pitcher experienced intractable left leg pain with numbness and spasticity. After the initial presentation, extensive testing focusing on lumbar, hip, and pelvis lesions failed to identify a cause for the pain. One year after onset, careful neurological examination showed signs of upper motor neuron disturbance, and thoracic computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed thoracic OLF at the level of the thoracolumbar junction. After resection of the thoracic OLF, the pain, numbness, and spasticity completely resolved. He resumed full training and was pitching in top condition within four months after surgery. Though rare, thoracic OLF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lower extremity pain in young athletes, especially amongst high-level baseball pitchers.
We treated a man with a chief complaint of memory impairment after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Initially, he was diagnosed with dementia. However, after several tests, neither could a definitive diagnosis of dementia be reached, nor was there any apparent evidence for depression, epilepsy, delirium, or internal medicine diseases. During the earthquake, the patient experienced the severe trauma of watching his wife being swept away by a tsunami. Furthermore, he experienced separation from his family. Because of this traumatic experience, we suspected that dissociative disorder was involved in the development of the memory impairment and thus, we switched to treatments focusing on emotional support. Subsequently, the patient’s memory impairment gradually improved. The present case demonstrates the importance of considering dissociative disorders when examining a patient with memory impairment in areas affected by disasters.
Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) is a rare complication that can lead to life-threatening postpartum hemorrhage. PAS can sometimes occur unexpectedly, without placenta previa;such cases can lead to higher maternal mortality and morbidity than expected cases. Here, the authors report a case of unexpected PAS caused by assisted reproductive technology (ART) in a woman with adenomyosis. The patient was a 37-year-old Japanese primipara woman who presented to our hospital at 11 weeks gestation, later returning to her parents’ house to give birth. The woman had adenomyosis and underwent adenomyomectomy, which was followed by an ART pregnancy. The patient was admitted to our hospital because of a life-threatening preterm birth, with a short cervix and no evidence of placenta previa. Despite strict perinatal management, preterm rupture of the membrane (PROM) occurred. During laparotomy, the small intestine, rectum, and both right and left ovaries were clumped together and severely adhered to the surface of the uterus. After delivery, manual partial removal of the placenta was performed, resulting in heavy bleeding from the implantation site, which was diagnosed as an unexpected PAS. Following several uterine compression efforts, we successfully preserved the uterus.
Abdominal oblique muscle injury is characterized by acute pain and localized tenderness over the lateral trunk. This injury is particularly common among throwing athletes, and usually presents as anterolateral abdominal wall pain. Imaging evidence is scarce in regard to whether oblique muscle injury at its junction with the thoracolumbar fascia can instead present with low back pain. A high school baseball player with unilateral low back pain was referred to us with a different diagnosis. Careful palpation and magnetic resonance imaging guided our care, and the patient returned to high-level competition after 7 weeks of conservative treatment, with no report of recurrence in the subsequent 12 months. Oblique muscle injury at its junction with the thoracolumbar fascia should be added to the differential diagnosis for throwing athletes with unilateral low back pain following a torque movement.