Following the evacuation of areas affected by Japan’s 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, Kawauchi Village was one of the first municipalities repopulated. Although rehabilitation resources were limited, a healthcare facility near the municipality initiated home-visit rehabilitation in 2016. To the best of our knowledge, reports of home-visit rehabilitation in repopulated villages that were evacuated following a nuclear accident are lacking.
This article describes a case study of home-visit rehabilitation in Kawauchi Village. The purpose of this study was to explore how users of home-visit rehabilitation services in Kawauchi Village perceive home-visit rehabilitation, and whether it had a positive impact on their daily life. A questionnaire survey was conducted, and their ability to perform activities of daily living was assessed, to understand the living conditions of the visiting-rehabilitation service users.
We studied 10 rehabilitation-service users, with a mean age of 86.8 years, who had used the services for an average of 591.4 days. Themes that emerged from the open-ended questionnaire were “established exercise habits and improved physical functions,” “the joy of returning to the village,” “challenges in the mountainous areas” and “changes in relationships due to the earthquake or evacuation.”
In conclusion, home-visit rehabilitation was successfully implemented in the repopulated village, and helped maintain the users’ physical functions. This may thus be a viable choice for rehabilitation care in repopulated areas after disasters.
Background:Non-specific pain or discomfort in the neck and shoulder girdle, called katakori in Japanese, is a common, chronic musculoskeletal condition worldwide. However, its various clinical features are incompletely characterized, even among medical professionals. We aimed to clarify factors affecting katakori and to investigate objectively the associated neck muscle stiffness and skeletal muscle volume.
Methods:All staff members at our private hospital were surveyed about their lifestyle, physical and mental status, and katakori symptoms, using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore possible katakori risk factors. On secondary assessment, ultrasound elastography of the trapezius muscle as well as limb/trunk muscle mass were compared between subjects with severe symptoms and subjects without katakori, using propensity score matching.
Results:Of 359 participants enrolled, nearly 75% had katakori to some degree. Spending time on a computer during work (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]:1.82 for 3-6 hours, aOR:2.48 for > 6 hours), being female (aOR:3.75), and having unsatisfactory sleep (aOR:2.92) were potential risk factors for katakori. Comparison of 13 matched pairs showed a significantly stiffer trapezius in subjects with severe katakori symptoms, but no apparent differences in limb/trunk muscle mass.
Conclusions:Katakori was particularly prevalent in our hospital staff. Possible risk factors for disabling katakori were doing long-term computer work, being female, and having unsatisfactory sleep. Symptoms seem to be associated with elevated neck muscle stiffness. These findings could guide working condition improvements to mitigate katakori.
Background:The standard strategy in Japan for locally advanced rectal cancer is total mesorectal excision plus adjuvant chemotherapy. However, large tumors significantly restrict pelvic manipulation of the distal side of the tumor during surgery;therefore, from an oncological point of view, it is better to shrink the tumor as much as possible preoperatively to optimize the circumferential resection margin. In recent years, advances in systemic chemotherapy have significantly improved the tumor reduction effect, enabling such drug therapy prior to surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer. We herein retrospectively evaluated the clinical, short-term outcomes of patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using capecitabin and oxaliplatin (CAPOX), focusing on overall safety as well as clinical and pathological staging responses to NAC.
Methods:We applied the preoperative chemotherapy protocol to T3-4, any N, M0 or M1a (with resectable metastases) (UICC 8th) Ra/Rb rectal cancers. The chemotherapy regimen consisted of four cycles of CAPOX. After NAC, curative intent surgery with total mesorectal excision/tumor-specific mesorectal excision with/without metastasectomy was performed. Adverse effects (AEs) and compliance with NAC, surgical complications, clinical and pathological staging were evaluated. All patients undergoing the protocol between January 2017 and June 2021 at Fukushima Medical University were enrolled.
Results:Twenty cases were enrolled. No severe AEs were observed either preoperatively or perioperatively. Preoperative assessment of NAC showed no cases of progressive disease (PD). Radical resection was achieved in all cases. Histological therapeutic grading after NAC revealed one grade 3, four grade 2, three grade 1b, eleven grade 1a and one grade 0 among all cases.
Conclusion:This study suggests that NAC for locally advanced rectal cancer is likely to be acceptable because there were no severe AEs pre- or perioperatively, radical resection was achieved in all cases, and there were no cases of PD.
Purpose:Although an association has been suggested between disc degeneration (DD) and low back pain (LBP), some DD is thought to be an age-related change unrelated to symptoms. Age-inappropriate DD, however, may be associated with LBP. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in LBP and LBP-related quality of life between age-appropriate and age-inappropriate DD, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Participants and methods:In this cross-sectional study, degenerative change in the lumbar intervertebral discs of 382 subjects (age range, 27-82 years) was evaluated by MRI. Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD) scores were assigned using the Schneiderman classification, as the sum of grades for all intervertebral levels (0-15). We classified subjects into three groups according to age and DDD score: Low DD (mild DD relative to age), Appropriate (age-appropriate DD), and High DD (severe DD relative to age). We compared the three groups in terms of LBP prevalence, LBP intensity, LBP-specific quality of life (QOL) according to the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ), and the Short Form-36 Item Health Survey (SF-36).
Results:Of 382 subjects, there were 35% in the Low DD group, 54% in the Appropriate group, and 11% in the High DD group. There were no significant differences among the groups in terms of prevalence of LBP, LBP intensity, RDQ score, or SF-36 score.
Conclusion:No association was found between age-inappropriate DD (Low or High DD group) and age-appropriate DD (Appropriate group) in terms of prevalence of LBP, LBP intensity, RDQ, or SF-36.
Background:Postoperative pneumonia is one of the major complications after esophagectomy. The aim of this study was to determine whether bacterial cultures before esophagectomy could predict occurrence of postoperative pneumonia and help treatment strategies for postoperative pneumonia.
Methods:Sixty-nine patients who underwent subtotal esophagectomy at Fukushima Medical University Hospital between January 2017 and May 2021 were included in this study. We collected sputum, oral, and/or nasopharyngeal swabs for bacterial culture preoperatively from all patients and from those who were suspected of postoperative pulmonary infections. We compared cultured pathogenic bacteria obtained preoperatively and postoperatively from patients who developed postoperative pneumonia, and investigated their association with incidence of postoperative pneumonia.
Results:Postoperative pneumonia occurred in 22 of 69 patients (31%), including 13 cases of severe pneumonia with a Clavien-Dindo classification of grade IIIa or higher. Multivariate analysis revealed that longer operative duration (for 30 minutes increase;odds ratio 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.51, p=0.039) and positivity for preoperative bacterial culture (odds ratio 5.03, 95% CI 1.31-19.2, p=0.018) were independent risk factors for severe postoperative pneumonia, but not for all incidences of postoperative pneumonia. Of note, in only 5 of the 22 patients with pneumonia, the same pathogenic species were detected preoperatively and after the onset of pneumonia.
Conclusions:Our results imply that preoperative bacterial culture may be useful to predict severe postoperative pneumonia. However, it may not be useful in determining pathogenic bacteria responsible for postoperative pneumonia.
Postpartum hemorrhage is an important obstetric complication and the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Occasionally, we encounter unexpected massive postpartum hemorrhage diagnosed for the first time after delivery. Therefore, it is essential to pay attention to patients with a high risk of postpartum hemorrhage. The authors report two cases of patients at high risk of postpartum hemorrhage that were successfully managed by resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta before cesarean section. Case 1: A 32-year-old woman with a history of cesarean section and who conceived using assisted reproductive technology was diagnosed with partial placenta previa at 25 weeks of gestation. Because of tocolysis failure, emergent cesarean section with resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta was performed at 36 weeks of gestation. Natural placental resorption was observed. She was discharged at 5 days after delivery without significant hemorrhage. Case 2: A 41-year-old woman with suspected placenta accreta spectrum due to a cesarean scar pregnancy was referred to our hospital at 33 weeks of gestation. A planned cesarean section with resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta was conducted at 37 weeks of gestation. There was no visual evidence of abnormal placental invasion of the myometrium, and natural placental resorption was observed. She was discharged at 5 days after delivery without significant hemorrhage.
Parasitic myoma (PM) is a rare disease in which multiple leiomyomas are intraperitoneally formed. Recently, an increasing number of cases due to specimen morcellation during minimally invasive surgery has been reported. We present the first case of a PM identified intraoperatively during laparoscopic hysterectomy. A 40-year-old Japanese multiparous woman presented to our hospital with heavy menstrual bleeding. She had no history of previous surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging showed uterine myomas. As the patient did not wish for further pregnancy, she underwent oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist therapy followed by a total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Intraoperatively, we identified a thumb-sized tumor on the left side of the peritoneum. Histopathological examination showed evidence of benign leiomyoma.
A 768 g female neonate, born at 25 weeks’ gestation, developed sepsis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis on day 14. Severe thrombocytopenia was observed, and hemophagocytic macrophages were identified in her peripheral blood smear. Cytokine profiles at the time of onset suggested that an inflammatory cytokine storm had activated lymphocytes and macrophages, leading to platelet phagocytosis. After administration of vancomycin for 14 days and immunoglobulin therapy, she improved without any complications. Considering the results of cytokine profiles, early intervention for infection may have prevented progression to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and reduced the severity of clinical symptoms.
Lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSS) is a common spinal disorder among older people. Some LSS patients say that their pain worsens when they lift heavy objects. The Valsalva maneuver is the optimal breathing pattern for producing maximal force. Herein, we present two cases of LSS where the movement of the cauda equina was observed during the Valsalva maneuver.
Case 1: A 74-year-old female with a history of LSS presented to our Department of Urology with frequent urination. The patient was diagnosed as having uterine and bladder prolapse. Pelvic cine MRI scan was conducted for detailed evaluation. While the Valsalva maneuver was performed to diagnose pelvic organ prolapses, we observed movement of the cauda equina. Spine MRI and CT, performed one year before presentation, showed severe LSS due to degenerative spondylolisthesis.
Case 2: A 73-year-old male underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. A follow-up cine MRI to confirm urethrorrhea showed the cauda equina moving during the Valsalva maneuver. Moderate LSS due to degenerative spondylolisthesis was retrospectively found on abdominal CT performed before prostatectomy.
Conclusion: The findings of our report suggest that movement of the cauda equina during the Valsalva maneuver may be implicated in LSS.