Food Safety
Online ISSN : 2187-8404
ISSN-L : 2187-8404
Volume 9, Issue 4
Displaying 1-4 of 4 articles from this issue
Review
  • Jun Suzuki, Rie Murata, Yukihiro Kodo
    2021 Volume 9 Issue 4 Pages 89-100
    Published: 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: December 24, 2021
    Advance online publication: December 07, 2021
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    Anisakiasis is a gastrointestinal disease caused by infection with anisakid nematodes. Anisakis larvae have been listed as distinct food poisoning agents in the manual of Food Poisoning Statistics, Japan since 2013. The reported numbers of food poisoning cases caused by Anisakis larvae are gradually increasing. A total of 94.0% of the causative larvae species were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (A. simplex), and 4.4% were identified as Anisakis pegreffii, among human-isolated anisakid nematodes examined in Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health, Japan from 2011 to 2018. Anisakis species infecting fishes in Japanese waters differ depending on their habitat and depth. A. simplex mainly infects fishes in the Pacific side of Japan, and A. pegreffii mainly infects fishes in the East China Sea and Sea of Japan sides. Regarding the causative foods of anisakiasis, cases by ingestion of mackerel (Scomber spp.) have been the most common in Japan, and cases caused by eating “marinated mackerel” accounted for 32.8% of the total in Tokyo from 2011 to 2017. However, the number of reports of food poisoning caused by skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) was highest in May 2018 in Japan. A parasitological surveys of Anisakis third-stage larvae in skipjack tuna in Japanese waters were conducted in 2018 and 2019, and it was confirmed that more A. simplex infections of skipjack tuna may have occurred in 2018 than usual due to the meandering flow of the Black Current. Moreover, a portion of A. simplex larvae migrated from visceral organs to the ventral muscle in live skipjack tuna before capture, suggesting that an extensive cold chain after capture cannot prevent anisakiasis. In fish species that were reported to be high frequency of causative food of anisakiasis, it is necessary to freeze or at least remove the ventral muscle.

  • Hiroshi Akiyama, Reiko Adachi
    2021 Volume 9 Issue 4 Pages 101-116
    Published: 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: December 24, 2021
    Advance online publication: December 07, 2021
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    In the Japanese allergy-labeling system, food labeling is mandated for 7 specific ingredients (egg, cow’s milk, wheat, buckwheat, peanut, shrimp, and crab) and recommended for 21 food ingredients in reference to case numbers of actual illness and the degree of seriousness. To monitor the validity of the labeling system, official methods for the detection of specific ingredient proteins in processed foods were developed. The official methods consist of ELISA methods for screening, and western blot methods for egg and milk, and PCR methods for wheat, buckwheat, peanut, shrimp/prawn, and crab as confirmation tests. Threshold amounts (a few mg/kg) for labeling were set based on the approach of the analytical detections. Any foods containing protein allergens should be labeled if these contain allergens at greater than 10 ppm (mg/kg). Validation protocol criteria were established to standardize the Japanese official method. Food Safety Commission of Japan conducted a risk assessment of egg as a specific ingredient and judged that current labeling system for foods containing allergens is generally appropriate for “eggs”. In the future, it is important to accumulate necessary scientific knowledge in order to carry out food health impact assessment including further refinement. The Japanese experience and knowledge of food allergy-labeling system would contribute to harmonize international labeling guidelines to protect allergic consumers globally.

Risk Assessment Report
  • Food Safety Commission of Japan
    2021 Volume 9 Issue 4 Pages 117-118
    Published: 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: December 24, 2021
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    Basic Act on allergic diseases measures was enforced in 2015, in order to improve the living environment of Japanese population via enhancing food labeling of concerned allergic ingredients. Food Safety Commission of Japan (FSCJ), then, deemed it necessary to examine this Japanese allergen labeling system. Labeling is currently mandatory for 7 ingredients, and in addition, recommended for 21 distinct ingredients. FSCJ chose to conduct a self-tasking risk assessment on hen-eggs labeling, as hen-eggs show high prevalence of allergy cases out of those presented ingredients. Hen-eggs were specifically focused on this assessment due to the available amount of data. There have been no incidents of hen-egg protein-derived allergic reactions at levels below the “threshold concentration”, which was set at 10 μg of allergenic protein per 1 g of food for the labeling purpose of Japan’s system. On the practical aspect, allergen contamination in pre-packaged foods is continuously prevented through good hygiene practices. Introduction of mandatory HACCP-based approach in the food industry of Japan contributed to appropriate controls, including prevention of labeling errors among others. In conclusion, FSCJ judged the current allergen labeling system on hen-eggs in Japan to be generally appropriate based on the currently available evidences.

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