Grafting of non-transgenic scion onto genetically modified (GM) rootstocks provides superior agronomic traits in the GM rootstock, and excellent fruits can be produced for consumption. In such grafted plants, the scion does not contain any foreign genes, but the fruit itself is likely to be influenced directly or indirectly by the foreign genes in the rootstock. Before market release of such fruit products, the effects of grafting onto GM rootstocks should be determined from the perspective of safety use. Here, we evaluated the effects of a transgene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) on the grafted tomato fruits as a model case. An edible tomato cultivar, Stella Mini Tomato, was grafted onto GM Micro-Tom tomato plants that had been transformed with the GUS gene. The grafted plants showed no difference in their fruit development rate and fresh weight regardless of the presence or absence of the GUS gene in the rootstock. The fruit samples were subjected to transcriptome (NGS-illumina), proteome (shotgun LC-MS/MS), metabolome (LC-ESI-MS and GC-EI-MS), and general food ingredient analyses. In addition, differentially detected items were identified between the grafted plants onto rootstocks with or without transgenes (more than two-fold). The transcriptome analysis detected approximately 18,500 expressed genes on average, and only 6 genes were identified as differentially expressed. Principal component analysis of 2,442 peaks for peptides in proteome profiles showed no significant differences. In the LC-ESI-MS and GC-EI-MS analyses, a total of 93 peak groups and 114 peak groups were identified, respectively, and only 2 peak groups showed more than two-fold differences. The general food ingredient analysis showed no significant differences in the fruits of Stella scions between GM and non-GM Micro-Tom rootstocks. These multiple omics data showed that grafting on the rootstock harboring the GUS transgene did not induce any genetic or metabolic variation in the scion.
Colistin (CST) is considered the last resort for the treatment of infectious diseases due to multidrug-resistant bacteria. Since the mcr-1 gene has been reported in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from food, animals, and humans in China, the prevalence of CST-resistant bacteria has been of great concern. Here, we investigated the prevalence of CST resistance and plasmid-mediated colistin-resistance genes (mcr) in gram-negative bacteria isolated among retail meats in Japan. CST-resistant bacteria were isolated from 310 domestic retail meats (103 chicken meat, 103 pork, and 104 beef) purchased between May 2017 and July 2018 from retail shops in Japan using CST-containing media and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The mcr gene was investigated in isolates with a CST minimum inhibitory concentration of ≥1 μg/mL. Excluding the intrinsically CST-resistant isolates, CST-resistant bacteria were isolated from 39 of the total chicken meats (37.9%), 19 of the pork samples (18.4%), and 18 of the beef samples (17.3%). A total of 459 isolates were identified, out of which 99 were CST-resistant. CST resistance (resistance breakpoints: Aeromonas, >4 μg/mL; others, >2 μg/mL) was found in Aeromonas spp. (48/206, 23.3%), Yersinia spp. (5/112, 4.5%), Escherichia coli (23/39, 59%), Citrobacter spp. (4/26, 15.4%), Klebsiella spp. (2/23, 8.7%), Raoultella spp. (2/16, 12.5%), Enterobacter spp. (7/14, 50%), Pseudomonas spp. (1/8, 12.5%), Pantoea spp. (5/7, 71.4%), Ewingella spp. (1/4, 25%), and Kluyvera spp. (1/2, 50%). The mcr gene was detected in 16 isolates: mcr-1 in 14 isolates of E. coli from 10 chicken samples (9.7%), and mcr-3 in two isolates of Aeromonas sobria from pork and chicken samples (each 1.0%). The findings of this study highlight the necessity of surveillance of CST resistance and resistance genes in bacteria that contaminate retail meats.