This paper discusses the needs for performance-based approach and its ideal structure in the area of building fire safety. To demonstrate the needs for performance based approach, the limitation of the trade off system was identified using the alternative solutions for smoke vent as an example. Then the desirable structure of the performance-based system is briefly described together with recent development of the evaluation methods associated with performance-scale.
Fire spread upper floor is mostly incurred by external window flames, which depends on the generation rate of fuel volatile from combustible products in the room. The generation rate of the volatile is thought to be strongly influenced by the area of the combustible exposed to the fire environment. In order to assess the risk of the fire spread to upper floor in high-rise buildings, it is important to know the surface area of combustibles contained in building spaces in actual use. Therefore, the fire load and surface areas of the combustibles in office, hotel room, and apartment, which are considered to be dominant use of high-rise buildings, are investigated. The correlation between the fire load density and the surface area factor, of live fire load in actual use, was obtained for each of the occupancies.
Closed-form equations were derived to calculate the smoke layer height and temperature in the room of fire origin. First of all, a conventional zone type model was introduced and verified against the full-scale experimental data. Then, by using the calculation model, virtual experimental data were created varying the building design parameters such as fire growth rate, floor area and ceiling height. Regression equation was derived for smoke layer temperature using the virtual experimental data that correlates the dependence on building design parameters. As to the smoke layer height, an analytical formula (Tanaka's formula) was verified against virtual experimental data. This type of simple, hand-calculable formula would be useful for practitioners in fire safety engineering design of building for evacuation safety from smoke.
Fire prevention planning is based on requirements in building regulations and laws. It's unclear how much its effective safety is. It usually doesn't consider its cost. Building regulations and laws will be rewritten on the performance in fire prevention. This paper suggests the system that evaluates evacuation safety, and that considers the fireproof cost. This system estimates the cost with public data and estimates evacuation safety with the comparison of smoke behavior and people's one under fire. Finally we applied this system to a model of office building and made clear effective fire prevention planning and their combination.