Food Science and Technology International, Tokyo
Online ISSN : 1881-3976
Print ISSN : 1341-7592
ISSN-L : 1341-7592
3 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の19件中1~19を表示しています
Food Technology and Engineering
Original papers
  • Toshiyuki WATANABE, Yutaka HASHIMOTO, Toshio JOH, Toshiro HAYAKAWA
    1997 年 3 巻 1 号 p. 1-5
    発行日: 1997/02/25
    公開日: 2009/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    It is highly important to rheologically characterize the factors and structures of gelatinized rice flour gel (rice cake) to control both the qualities of the final products (rice cracker) and the manufacturing process. Accordingly, attempts were made to analyze the rice cake factors and understand the structure by measuring the shear viscosity development after the onset of steady shear flow of various rice cake samples, which were different both in rice cultivars (the primary factors) and in preparation conditions (the secondary factors). As a result, it is considered that the viscosity and elasticity terms in the linear region and the nonlinear region contribute to the analysis of the primary factors and the secondary factors, respectively and furthermore understanding the relationship of each to the pseudo-network structure of rice cake.
  • Toshiyuki WATANABE, Yutaka HASHIMOTO, Toshio JOH, Toshiro HAYAKAWA
    1997 年 3 巻 1 号 p. 6-9
    発行日: 1997/02/25
    公開日: 2009/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the manufacturing process, the relationship between the expansibility of glutinous rice crackers and the properties of gelatinized and retrograded rice flour gel (rice cake) has not been fully clarified. We analyzed glutinous paddy rice from various angles using proximate analysis, amylography, measurement of degree of dispersion and differential scanning calorimetry. The tendencies, depending on cultivars, as measured were related. In particular, it was suggested that the amount and strength of intermolecular hydrogen bonds in rice was related to the expansion volume of rice cake because the enthalpy and peak temperature of DSC is closely related to its volume. Accordingly, it was suggested that DSC might be usable as a common standard for characterization of the factors affecting the properties of rice cake and its structure from the viewpoint of rice cracker expansibility.
  • Hideki HORIE, Toshihiro MUKAI, Katsunori KOHATA, Tetsuhisa GOTO
    1997 年 3 巻 1 号 p. 27-30
    発行日: 1997/02/25
    公開日: 2009/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    A flow injection method to determine the concentrations of (—)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in tea infusions was developed. A bioreactor, packed with immobilized tannase, was connected to a pH-ISFET (Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor) electrode. The pH decrease, due to the gallic acid produced from EGCG by the enzyme reaction, was monitored by the electrode. The response of this system was linear between 50 mg/l and 1,000 mg/l of EGCG. The sample could be injected every 3 min. The concentrations of EGCG in green tea infusions obtained by this FIA method showed a fairly high correlation with those by HPLC.
Technical paper
  • Koji TAKEYA, Hiroaki KONISHI, Masami KAWANARI, Tadatoshi CHIBA, Yuzo S ...
    1997 年 3 巻 1 号 p. 10-16
    発行日: 1997/02/25
    公開日: 2009/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    A kinetic model including isomerization of fatty acids for soybean oil hydrogenation considering the adsorption of fatty acids on the catalyst surface affecting the hydrogenation rate has been evaluated in this study. The hydrogenation of soybean oil was conducted in a 12 l loop reactor equipped with a venturi nozzle. A reduced nickel catalyst was adopted. The hydrogenation experiment was carried out an experimental design with respect to reaction temperature, flow rate of catalyst-oil mixture, hydrogen pressure and reaction time. Adsorption of fatty acids including trans-acids on the surface of the reduced nickel catalyst significantly affected the reaction rate of the hydrogenation. The adsorption equilibrium coefficients of linolenic and linoleic acids were much greater than those of oleic and elaidic acids, which indicated that the former acids were hydrogenated faster than the latter acids. The time course of fatty acid concentration calculated from the hydrogenation rate constant derived from the kinetic model proposed in this study was in good agreement with those obtained from experiments. The kinetic model explained the hydrogenation totally with consideration of trans-acid formation.
Food Science and Chemistry
Original papers
  • Yukiko TOKITOMO, Yuko NAGASAWA, Akiko KATO, Rieko ITAGAKI, Miki SATO, ...
    1997 年 3 巻 1 号 p. 17-21
    発行日: 1997/02/25
    公開日: 2009/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Changes in free amino acid content of γ-irradiated onions during storage were investigated using HPLC analysis. A radiation dose of 0.2 kGy for sprouting inhibition had no influence on the amounts and the patterns of changes in amino acids during storage. The contents of γ-aminobutyric acid (Gaba) and alanine (Ala) of onions remarkably increased with an excess dose of 5 kGy irradiation. The increase in Gaba and Ala of onions stored in nitrogen gas for 4 weeks were similar to that of 5 kGy-irradiated onions stored for 3 weeks after irradiation.
  • Toshio TAKEUCHI, Yutaka NIBU, Katsumi MURATA, Isao KUSAKABE
    1997 年 3 巻 1 号 p. 22-26
    発行日: 1997/02/25
    公開日: 2009/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    An alginate lyase was purified from a crude enzyme of Flavobacterium multivolum K-11 by successive column chromatographies, such as cation exchange, chromatofocusing, and gel filtration. The enzyme thus obtained migrated as a single band on SDS-PAGE. The relative molecular mass of the enzyme was 43-kDa by SDS-PAGE and 41-kDa by HPLC gel filtration chromatography. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 8.7. The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH 8.0 and 40°C, and was stable in the pH range of 6.0 to 9.0 and at temperatures up to 30°C. The enzyme activity was remarkably inhibited by chemical compounds such as EDTA, PCMB, MIA, TNBS, and N-bromosuccinimide. The enzyme was specific for poly-guluronate and produced several kinds of oligomers. Thus, the results suggested that the enzyme was classified as endo poly (α-L-guluronate) lyase (EC 4.2.2.11).
  • Hidemi IZUMI, Alley E. WATADA, Willard DOUGLAS
    1997 年 3 巻 1 号 p. 34-40
    発行日: 1997/02/25
    公開日: 2009/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The physiology and quality of ‘Greenbelt’ broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. italica) were monitored during CA storage in 0.5% O2 and 10% CO2 at 0 and 5°C and in 1% O2 and 10% CO2 at 10°C and subsequent air storage at the same temperature. The CA reduced respiration, weight loss, and decay at all temperatures, yellowing and L-ascorbic acid loss at 5 and 10°C, and ethylene production and microbial growth at 10°C. Upon transfer of the florets to air following CA storage for 4, 3, and 1 weeks at 0, 5, and 10°C, respectively, respiration rate increased initially and then remained constant. Ethylene production continually increased. Decay, microbial count, odor, color, and L-ascorbic acid content remained essentially unchanged for a few days after the samples were transferred to air regardless of temperature.
  • Yohoko SHONO, Miki YOSHIMURA, Sachiko KIMURA, Naoki YAMAUCHI
    1997 年 3 巻 1 号 p. 41-45
    発行日: 1997/02/25
    公開日: 2009/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Changes in the sugar content and sucrose metabolizing enzymatic activities of stored green peas were studied. Green pea seeds were removed from their pods, and the pods without seeds or whole peas were stored at 1°C or 20°C. Their sucrose content significantly decreased, especially in seeds without pods stored at 20°C, but the stachyose and verbascose contents increased. Glucose and sucrose were the major components in the pods. The pod sucrose content significantly decreased, especially in pods with seeds stored at 20°C. Sucrose synthase (sucrose synthesis, sucrose cleavage) and invertase activities in the seeds decreased during storage, but sucrose phosphate synthase activity increased after 1 or 2 days of storage and then decreased. According to these results, we suggest that sucrose might be utilized not only in the synthesis of starch, but also in the synthesis of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides such as stachyose and verbascose.
  • Hideo HATATE, Yoichiro HAMA, Toshiyoshi ARAKI, Nobutaka SUZUKI
    1997 年 3 巻 1 号 p. 46-48
    発行日: 1997/02/25
    公開日: 2009/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The tetrapeptide originating from a peptide synergist consisting of 21 amino acid residues (peptide C-1) was found to increase the antioxidative activity of α-tocopherol (Toc) and sodium ascorbate (AsA). Peptide C-1, which had been previously isolated from bovine serum albumin hydrolysates, was again hydrolyzed with a lysyl endopeptidase to give three peptide fragments. Each fragment was tested for its synergistic effect with Toc and AsA, and only one fragment had a potent synergism comparable to the original peptide, C-1. The structure of the active fragment was confirmed as the tetrapeptide, Asp-Thr-His-Lys, by amino acid analysis and sequence determination. In addition, peptide C-1 and its active fragment corresponded to residues 1 to 21 and 1 to 4 of BSA, respectively.
  • Nasra HASSAN, Mikako TAKASUGI, Koji YAMADA, Michihiro SUGANO
    1997 年 3 巻 1 号 p. 56-60
    発行日: 1997/02/25
    公開日: 2009/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    To estimate the effect of food processing on allergen content in dairy products, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) contents of 4 milks, 5 yogurts and 6 cheeses were compared using inhibition ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. Results of the inhibition ELISA suggested that low temperature-pasteurized milk contained several times higher levels of β-LG than high temperature-pasteurized milk, and that yogurts contain a lower amount of β-LG than milks. On the contrary, results of SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting suggested that the degradation of milk proteins including β-LG during yogurt manufacturing was not very extensive. These results suggest that yogurts contain factor(s) which interfere some reactions of inhibition ELISA. β-LG was also detected in cheeses, though the level was lower than that of milks. Though milk proteins were degraded most extensively in Roquefort cheese, its β-LG level was the highest. Among them, processed cheese had the lowest amount of β-LG, followed by Emmental cheese. These results suggest that an appropriate application of specific bacteria is useful for the preparation of low allergenic dairy products.
  • Mayu KAKIO, Yuji KAWAI, Masahiko KUNIMOTO, Koji YAMAZAKI, Norio INOUE, ...
    1997 年 3 巻 1 号 p. 61-68
    発行日: 1997/02/25
    公開日: 2009/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Sardine moist meals were inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae IFO 4202 seed and fermented. Accompanying the growth of the fungus, the chemical composition of the meals significantly changed during incubation. The fermentation contributed to antioxidation of lipids and reduction of histamine. Glucose supplement during fermentation was effective in inhibiting the production of volatile basic nitrogenous compounds. Fermented meals maintained superior quality of the proteins, protecting amino acid residues during incubation. The initial bacterial cell counts in meals were 3×102 CFU/g and reached 108 CFU/g in 72-h incubation. The Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., Moraxella spp. and Acinetobacter spp., were predominant in the initial meals. Gram-positive bacteria, especially Micrococcus spp., gradually became predominant during incubation. Fermentation and glucose supplement enhanced this predominancy of Micrococcus spp. during incubation. Fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae in the presence of glucose was considered to be effective for improvement of the chemical, nutritional and microbiological quality of fish meals.
  • Hidetoshi ISHIKAWA, Makoto SHIOTA, Mototake MURAKAMI, Ichiro NAKAJIMA
    1997 年 3 巻 1 号 p. 77-81
    発行日: 1997/02/25
    公開日: 2009/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil, its purified palm triacylglycerol (PTG), palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS) and high melting palm stearin (HMPS) fractions as well as randomized palm oil (RP) and its high melting randomized palm stearin (HMRPS) fractions were solidified at 5°C and kept isothermally at 10, 20 and 30°C for 60 days. X-ray diffraction showed that PTG was in β' form crystals, while palm oil and RP were in both α- and β' forms at 5°C. In HMPS and HMRPS, the higher percentage of β-transformation was observed with a higher content of trisaturated triacylglycerols and at a higher temperature. RP transformed from β' to the intermediate form crystals during prolonged storage. Other fats were stable in β' form crystals. Palm oil, RP, HMPS and HMRPS exhibited long-spacing values between those of tripalmitin and tristearin in α, β' and β modifications, respectively. This confirms that palm oil and its modified oils form a double-chain-length conformation.
  • Yoshiaki MIYAKE, Kanefumi YAMAMOTO, Toshihiko OSAWA
    1997 年 3 巻 1 号 p. 84-89
    発行日: 1997/02/25
    公開日: 2009/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    An antioxidant was isolated from the peel and juice of lemon fruit (Citrus limon BURM. f.). It was identified as eriocitrin (eriodictyol 7-rutinoside) of the flavanone glycoside by HPLC, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR analyses. The purified eriocitrin was readily soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. A water solution of 0.05% eriocitrin was weakly acidic (pH 4.2). Eriocitrin was found to be stable even at high temperature (121°C, 15 min) in acidic solution (pH 3.5). The distribution of eriocitrin in citrus fruits was found to be especially abundant in lemons and limes, however, it was scarcely found in other citrus fruits. In the case of lemon fruit, eriocitrin was primarily distributed in the peel (about 1,500 ppm) composed of the albedo (mesocarp), flavedo (epicarp), and pulp vesicles. It was also significantly present in the juice (about 200 ppm) but was not detected in the seed. Two varieties of lemon fruits, eureka and lisbon, almost had the same eriocitrin content. The antioxidative activity of eriocitrin in the linoleic acid autoxidation system was equal to that of α-tocopherol, and it was enhanced when used together with citric acid. The eriocitrin had a synergistic effect on α-tocopherol.
Technical papers
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