Filipinos have traditionally recognized that some foods have benefits beyond nutrition although the term “functional foods” is new to them. Various studies show the nutritional and medical benefits of common Philippine foods. This paper reviews the functional attributes of selected traditional Philippine foods such as rice (Oryza sativa L.), coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), legumes [mungbean [Vigna radiata L. Wilczek]) and indigenous legumes], selected native vegetables (Momordica charantia and Moringa olifeira), root crops (sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas), greater yam (Dioscorea alata) and taro (Colocasia esculenta)] and fruits [mango (Mangifera indica), papaya (Carica papaya), banana (Musa sp.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus)]. Processed food products with functional attributes include nata de coco and achara or pickled grated papaya. Germination and fermentation processes have been shown to improve the health benefits of some foods. Increasingly becoming popular are food products promoted with health benefits such as fermented milk drinks, yoghurt with lactobacillus, spirulina cereal, ganoderma coffee, milk with Bifidobacteria, etc. Evaluation of food products that qualify as functional foods on a scientific basis is done under the existing regulations of the Bureau of Food and Drugs of the Philippines Department of Health. Concerned government agencies have been involved in technical consultation meetings in the Asian region aimed at harmonizing the standards for regulating functional foods in the region. From this review, more studies are recommended on the functional attributes of Philippine traditional foods and newly developed ones, to establish their health benefits and determine the recommended amount and frequency of intake needed to obtain the benefits. An information campaign on functional foods among consumers and the general public should be conducted to enable them to enjoy the benefits of food “beyond nutrition.”
This study reports a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of generation of soybean oil-in-water emulsion droplets using rectangular straight-through microchannels (MCs) with shorter lines of 5 to 15μm and aspect ratios of 2 to 5. The results indicated that rectangular channels exceeding a threshold aspect ratio between 3 and 3.25 were capable of generating small droplets with a diameter (d) between 18 and 53μm in the absence of the continuous-phase flow. The d value was greatly affected by the channel size and slightly affected by the channel aspect ratio. Good agreement was found between the CFD results obtained in this study and experimental results reported in the literature.
The influence of pressure and temperature, in the presence (in glucose broth, GB) or absence (in phosphate buffer, PB) of nutrients, on hydrostatic pressure (HP) induced-germination and inactivation of Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, and B. polymyxa spores was investigated for a relatively low range of 20-100MPa (low HP). Low HP-induced germination was more potent in GB than in PB at 20-60MPa, and the difference in germination ratio between the growth media (GB and PB) tended to decrease with increasing pressure. For B. subtilis and B. cereus, the optimal temperature for the low HP-induced germination in PB tended to be higher than in GB, whereas temperature dependence on low HP-induced germination of B. polymyxa was different considerably from those of B. subtilis and B. cereus. After 30-60min incubation at 40°C and 60MPa, the three types of bacterial spores germinated 5 log-cycles in the presence of nutrients and 2-3 log-cycles in the absence of nutrients. These results indicate that the low HP-induced germination of Bacillus spores has potential as a method of reducing bacterial spores in foods and foodstuffs, especially those containing large amounts of nutrients.
Fish muscle protein films were prepared from blue marlin (Makaira mazara Jordan & Evermann) meat which had been stored at 30°C to intentionally lower the meat quality. In this study, the effects of meat quality and pH on the formation of these protein films were investigated. Moreover, ε-polylysine was added to the film-forming solutions to reduce the microbial population of films. The mechanical properties of the films were slightly affected by acidic and alkaline pHs. However, the water vapor permeability of muscle protein films was not affected by either the quality of the fish meat or the pH of the film-forming solutions. SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) showed the degradation of myosin heavy chain in acidic films and polymerization in alkaline films. It was revealed that biodegradable films can be produced even from very low quality fish meat, and that the bacterial population of films could be drastically reduced by the addition of ε-polylysine.
Mannose, fructose and glucose were treated in subcritical water at 220°C, and the disappearance of each substrate and formation of other hexoses were observed at various residence times in a tubular reactor. Isomerization of mannose to fructose occurred most frequently, followed by mannose to glucose; no isomerization of glucose to mannose was observed. The temperature dependencies of mannose disappearance, the isomerization of mannose to fructose and glucose, and the resulting degradation of the produced fructose and glucose were observed in the range of 180 to 240°C. The activation energy and frequency factor for each process were evaluated according to the Arrhenius equation, and it was found that the enthalpy-entropy compensation for the processes was maintained.
The inactivation kinetics of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fructivorans, which is responsible for the deterioration of sake (Japanese rice wine) quality, was investigated using a continuous flow system for high-pressure carbonation. In addition, the effects of ethanol and sugar concentration on lactic acid bacteria inactivation were investigated. Cells of L. fructivorans (1×106CFU/ml) were inactivated at a treatment temperature of 40°C and a pressure of 20MPa, with a residence time of 1.7min. The D-values (decimal reduction time) at 30 and 35°C were 4.3 and 0.6min, respectively. In addition to ethanol, glucose in sake also increased the inactivation efficiency of L. fructivorans by the carbonation treatment. These results suggest that the present technique is an effective microbial inactivation method for alcoholic beverages such as sake.
Two new ortho-benzoyloxyphenyl acetic acid derivatives, vacciuligins A (1) and B (2), were isolated, along with five known compounds, quercetin 3-O-α-arabinopyranoside (3), syringetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside (4), syringetin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside (5), protocatechuic acid (6), and syringic acid (7) from the methanol extract of the fruit of Vaccinium uliginosum L., and their chemical structures were determined from spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 displayed almost identical antioxidative activity as that of α-tocopherol, and 4-7 were identified as stronger antioxidants than α-tocopherol by the ferric thiocyanate method. Moreover, 1, 3, 6, and 7 exhibited stronger radical-scavenging effect than that of α-tocopherol. In addition, twelve anthocyanins in the methanol extract were identified by high performance liquid chromatographic analysis.
Various protein containing soft wheat flours were stored at room temperature (15-25°C ) for 12 months. Pancakes baked using these flours yielded higher pancake springiness when tested. The wheat flours were fractionated to water solubles, gluten, prime starch and tailings fractions by an acetic acid fractionation technique. A gradual increase in the interaction between prime starch and tailings fractions was observed after inclusion of these fractions in each flour. However, the stored time for complete interaction varied in relation to flour protein content. It was found that the increase of pancake springiness was strongly associated with the interaction between prime starch and tailings fractions in stored wheat flour. Mixograph profiles showed a gradual increase in the hydrophobicity of wheat flour with increased storage. Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) profiles of these flours indicated that the maximum viscosity increased and pasting temperature decreased; these effects were probably attributable to the hydrophobic interaction of flour fractions.
The effects of high-molecular-weight glutenin (HMWG) subunits on the physical properties of yellow alkaline noodles (YAN) were investigated by using 10 near-isogenic lines (NILs) that only differed in HMWG composition and the recurrent parent Harunoakebono (HA). Although there were some differences among NILs, including HA, regarding protein content, other characteristics of the flours, such as the ash content and the starch traits, were not notably different. Differences in HMWG composition had a significant effect on the micro SDS-sedimentation volume (MSDSS), breaking force (BF, an index of hardness) and breaking deformation (BD, an index of extensibility) of raw noodles and the BF and BF/BD (an index of elasticity) of boiled noodles. In particular, the BF of raw and boiled noodles were significantly and positively correlated with MSDSS, which is an index of flour protein strength (the quality of flour protein). There were no significant differences in the physical properties of YAN between HMWG subunits 1 and 2 at the Glu-A1 allele. In a comparison of all subunits at the Glu-B1 allele, subunits 17+18 and 20 had significantly higher and lower BF than subunits 7+9 (HA) in raw noodles, respectively, and the BD of subunits 6+8 and 20 was also significantly lower than that of other subunits. No large differences were observed in the physical properties of subunits at the Glu-B1 allele in boiled noodles, with a few exceptions. At the Glu-D1 allele, subunits 2+12, 4+12, and 2.2+12 basically had smaller BF and BF/BD in raw and boiled noodles than subunits 5+10 (HA). The physical properties of NILs with subunits 17+18 and 2.2+12 were similar to those of HA with subunits 7+9 and 5+10. Conversely, those of NIL with subunits 20 and 2.2+12 were extremely small compared to those of HA. The results obtained in this study indicate that the dough strength (the quality of flour protein), as evaluated by MSDSS, has a significant effect on the physical properties of YAN, and that a desirable texture of boiled YAN with a large BF and BF/BD, especially BF, was obtained from flour with HMWG subunits with positive effects on dough strength. Regarding HMWG composition, subunits 2+12, 4+12, and 2.2+12 had the most negative effect on texture, particularly BF, of YAN, followed by subunits 20 and 7+8. In contrast, subunits 5+10 and 17+18, especially the former, had positive effects. NILs with both subunits 5+10 and 17+18 had the best YAN texture (the largest BF and moderate BF/BD values for boiled noodles) among all NILs.
Rhizopus oryzae U-1 water extract (ROU-we) was administered orally to rats at 10mg/kg body weight for 9 days. Salmonella enteritidis was inoculated at a dose of 109CFU/animal. The following protective effects of ROU-we against infection were examined: cell counts of Salmonella in organs of infected rats (liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes); phagocytic capacity of collected peripheral monocytes and peritoneal macrophages; cell counts of respective helper T-cell subclasses (Th0, Th1, and Th2); and the leukocyte percentage in peripheral blood. The Salmonella cell count in the liver of the ROU-we group decreased significantly compared to that of the control group and the peripheral monocytes' phagocytic capacity increased 4.5-fold. Moreover, the ROU-we group's Th1 response was higher than the infected control group. However, the healthy control group and the ROU-we group showed similar Th1/Th2 balance and cell count tendencies. These results suggest that ROU-we activated peripheral monocytes and improved Th1/Th2 balance, thereby strengthening immunity against Salmonella infection.
The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effects of small intakes of tsao-ko, turmeric and garlic on the levels of body fat, plasma lipids, lipid peroxides, glucose and liver lipids in adult mice. Six groups (n=8 per group) of adult male mice (25 weeks old) were fed a diet containing 1% or 0.1% tsao-ko (Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemair), turmeric or garlic powder for 90 days. The final percent change in body weight tended to be lower in mice in the tsao-ko diet group than that in turmeric diet group. There was a significant reduction in plasma and liver triacylylglycerol concentrations in mice on the 0.1% tsao-ko diet compared with those in the 0.1% garlic diet group. Plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower in animals on the 1% tsao-ko and garlic diets compared with those on the 1% turmeric diet. The hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of tsao-ko were more pronounced than those of turmeric or garlic.
The carotenoid content, potentially an antioxidant, of 70 vegetables in Japan was determined by reversed-phase HPLC. α-Carotene was detected in 55 of 70 vegetable samples; β-carotene, in all 70; lycopene, in four types of tomatoes and Kintoki carrot; capsanthin, in only two types of sweet peppers; lutein, in 68 of the 70; zeaxanthin, in 30 of the 70; and β-cryptoxanthin in 12 of the 70 samples. All leafy vegetables contained relatively high levels of β-carotene and lutein. In contrast, fruits showed variable carotenoid compositions. A high content of lycopene was quantified in tomatoes and capsanthin was found only in red sweet peppers. In root crops, orange carrots contained high levels of α- and β-carotene, and a high level of lycopene was found in the Kintoki carrot. In other crops, such as head, beans, pods, inflorescences, and spears, carotenoid content was not found to be high in this study.
We examined the relationship between flour/starch properties and the yellow alkaline noodle (YAN) color or physical properties of Kitanokaori, a Hokkaido hard wheat cultivar, and four other samples. Regarding flour properties, Kitanokaori had low polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and low amylose content. A time-course experiment showed that a raw noodle sheet made from Kitanokaori had less reduction in color brightness than sheets made from other flour samples that had high PPO activity. This finding suggests that the brightness stability of the Kitanokaori noodle is caused by its low PPO activity. Regarding physical properties and texture, Kitanokaori had high breakdown and low setback viscosity, as measured with a Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), and high elastic indices of the starch gel and YAN as a result of the low amylose content. In assessment of the eating quality, the total score of YAN made from Kitanokaori was higher than that obtained from other samples. This was because Kitanokaori had high elasticity and smoothness, which was related to its low amylose content, and the reduction in hardness related to low amylose was suppressed, since the protein properties of Kitanokaori are relatively strong. The results of comparison demonstrated that the superior qualities of YAN made from Kitanokaori could be attributed to the low PPO activity and low amylose content of the flour.
Compounds at the surface of oil droplets in a porcine bone extract soup were investigated. Adsorbed proteins and phospholipids from the cream phase were analyzed. Amino acid analysis revealed that the proteins contained a higher amount of hydrophobic amino acids than gelatin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the protein and sequencing analysis revealed that the peptide had sequences such as Val-Phe-Pro and Val-Tyr-Pro. As a result of homology searching with the protein database (Pub-Med, NCBI), Val-Phe-Pro corresponded with proteins in myosin heavy chain or α-actin, and Val-Tyr-Pro corresponded with that in hemoglobin. Phospholipids were detected with molybdenum blue reagent on thin-layer chromatography. It was revealed that the phospholipids consisted of phosphatidilcholine, lyso-phosphatidilcholine and sphingomyelin. A model emulsification experiment was then performed in which a gelatin containing soy lechithin was obtained from an oil-in-water emulsification under boiling conditions.
Black mate tea was extracted with different 50% solvents (acetone, N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), ethanol and methanol) for 2, 8 and 18h. The extracts were screened for polyphenol content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Total polyphenol content of the extracts ranged from 97.01 to 119.28mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (dw) tea depending on the solvent used and extraction time applied. In general, methanol was the least efficient solvent for polyphenol extraction from black mate tea and the efficiency of the others was found to be similar. All extracts showed antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and reducing power. Different trend was observed for each method with respect to solvents used. The extracts possessed antibacterial activity depending on the solvent used and bacterium tested and the results sowed that black mate tea extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against selected bacteria, except for E. coli O157: H7. While S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive to all extracts, E. coli was the most resistant among bacteria tested.
Five bitter-tasting peptides were isolated from charcoal-untreated sake, following a Sepabeads resin separation, an initial reverse-phase chromatography (RP-HPLC), a gel permeation-chromatography, and a second RP-HPLC. The isolated peptides consisted of six to thirteen amino acid residues. The N-termini were uniformly pyroglutamate residues. Based on the rice protein database, the peptides were derived from two different N-termini of the rice glutelin acidic subunit. One of them was reported as a prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor. The thirteen amino acid peptides in charcoal-untreated ginjyo-type sakes were lower than that in charcoal-untreated jyunmai-type sakes. The thirteen amino acid peptides were not detected in the commercial ordinary-type sake analyzed. The concentration of analyzed peptides of nine to thirteen amino acid residues in charcoal-untreated sake exceeded their preliminary estimated sensory threshold values, suggesting that they contribute to the sensory quality of charcoal-untreated sake.
Edible seaweeds were collected from Indonesia, a tropical country that does not show seasonal variations in temperature, to evaluate their health-related activities. Ethanol and acetone extracts were prepared from 3 green and 3 brown algae. The ethanol and acetone extracts from Padina australis showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity. These extracts also had the highest concentrations of total phenol and flavonoid. Both the ethanol and acetone extracts of the 6 Indonesian seaweeds decreased Caco-2 cell viability when such cells were treated with 600μM hydrogen peroxide. However, when Caco-2 cells were treated with 700 or 800μM hydrogen peroxide, the ethanol and acetone extracts from P. australis increased cell viability significantly more than those from the other seaweeds. This study indicates that organic extracts of seaweed have useful health-related functions.