The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) established the “Foods for Specified Health Uses (FOSHU)” designation in 1991 as a regulatory system for the approval of health claims on labels that refer to the physiological effects of foods or food components on the human body. This labeling system has been revised twice, most recently in 2005. Thus, “Food with Health Claims” (FHC) in Japan consists of two categories. One is “Foods with Nutrient Function Claims” (FNFC), for which health claims on labels can be freely used if the product satisfies the standard for the minimum and maximum levels per daily portion of consumption; the other is FOSHU. FOSHU are foods that contain beneficial dietary ingredients that maintain or promote human health, or that improve risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases. In the present system, FOSHU health claims are individually reviewed and approved on the basis of scientific evidence. In addition to the existing FOSHU, three new types of classifications were established in February 2005: the new regulatory standards of “Standardized FOSHU” and “Qualified FOSHU” and the new health claim “Reduction of disease risk”.
An FEM algorithm was developed to determine the viscoelastic properties of soft tissues of agar/agar-gelatin gels based on the curve-averaged data from stress relaxation experiment of parallel plate compression and FEM optimization technique. This approach enabled more realistic and pertinent expression of the mechanical behavior of the gels than conventional methods, and allowed simultaneous and logical characterization of all viscoelastic parameters, based on geometry, relating to both Prony series and Maxwell model such as elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, relative modulus, relaxation time, and dynamic viscosity, etc. Several assumptions were made in the FEM model such that the soft tissue materials were homogeneous in phase and isotropic, gravity effect was negligible, and the response was transient and controlled by displacement. To demonstrate the validity of the FEM model, the results of FEM optimization were compared with those of conventional method of nonlinear regression for agar/agar-gelatin gels, and also the predicted mechanical behavior of FEM on compressive creep as an interrelation with stress relaxation by the FEM model was compared with the experimental creep of 1% agar gel. The reliability of the FEM optimization method was confirmed by small stress deviation within 4.7% between experimental data and the FEM simulation using optimized parameters for stress-relaxation evaluation for agar/agar-gelatin gels and by strain deviation within 3.4% for creep prediction of 1% agar gel.
Aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) is a safe and efficient vegetable-oil extraction process that may also result in edible protein hydrolysates. In this study, an AEE process was developed to recover oil and protein hydrolysates from blanched peanut. The enzyme type and enzyme concentration for the most efficient extraction were selected. Under the condition of pH8.50, 60°C, an enzyme level of 1.5% and 8 h incubation, peanut protein hydrolysates (PPH) yield of 82.5% and oil yield of 92.2% were achieved when using alcalase2.4L. The fatty acid composition of oil obtained by AEE vs. hexane-extraction was very similar. The good oil quality could save the refine cost for edible. The functional properties of PPH were first investigated and they showed good effects of scavenging DPPH (α- dipheny -β- picrylhydrazyl) free radical and inhibiting the angiotensin-I-convertine enzyme (ACE).
The mechanical properties of cabbages (var. T-520) of various head sizes were evaluated by carrying out a tensile test and a puncture test on fifth leaves. Fracture properties of a strap-shaped specimen that was pulled perpendicular to a secondary vein well correlated to the puncture properties of the mesophyll part. The fracture load, fracture stress, and elastic modulus obtained in parallel tension to the fiber were significantly greater than those for the perpendicular direction. The mechanical properties of the fifth leaves of cabbages were not influenced by head size, although they varied within a leaf and among individual leaves. This observation suggests that head size of cabbages is not important to determine the quality of shredded cabbage; thus, large size is more suitable for the industrial production of shredded cabbage.
Preserving of food by drying, has been became an important subject in food industry. Turkey has a high potential at fruit production. Grape has an economically important role in Turkey's export. The effects of different dipping solutions on hot air drying of grapes were studied. The Sultana grape was used ın drying experiments. Seedless grapes treated with oleic acid and potassium carbonate solutions or untreated were dried by air at 50°C, 60°C and 70°C. Pretreated grapes dried faster than naturally dried. According to colour results, red colour on grapes pretreated with oleic acid solutions was preserved beter than naturally dried. Drying rates of grapes were modelled by the Page and Exponential equations. The model results agreed with experimental results.
Wheat bran was extracted with water and subcritical water from 50°C to 260°C for 5 min. The highest extracted yield of ca. 53% on a weight basis was achieved at 200°C, at which the maximum saccharide content was also obtained. The protein, total phenolic, hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural contents were the highest at 240°C. The radical scavenging activity was also the highest at 240°C. It was demonstrated that the extract prepared at 250°C had the ability to suppress the autoxidation of linoleic acid by lengthening the induction period. The bran extracts prepared from 50°C to 200°C exhibited emulsifying activity.
To develop a new method for identification of Listeria monocytogenes genetically similar to clinical isolates, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of 126 isolates of L. monocytogenes from clinical and environmental samples were performed based on sequence analysis of parts of four genes (hlyA, clpC, inlA, and plcA). Based on the sequences of the isolates in this study, SNP typing showed that hlyA, clpC, inlA, and plcA genes were categorized into 9, 14, 17, and 21 types, respectively. MLST showed that the isolates were grouped into 35 types including 12 types of clinical isolates. Out of those, four MLST types were found in food or environmental and clinical isolates. In particular, all clinical isolates with serotype 1/2a were grouped into the same hlyA SNP A5 type. A method using real-time PCR combined with Cycling Probe Technology was developed for rapid identification of SNP type of L. monocytogenes genetically similar to the clinical isolates. By using this method, the 1/2a clinical isolates showing MLST-2 were successfully identified with a specific primer set and a cycling probe designed on the basis of sequence of hlyA. Furthermore, clinical isolates of serotype 4b showing MLST-4 or -35 were successfully identified by a method using cycling probes based on sequences of clpC and inlA.
Cabbage shreds and cucumber slices were dipped in water or solution of mustard extract agent (MEA) and hop extract agent (HEA) with or without sucrose fatty acid ester (SE) and stored in an MA package at 10°C. With cabbage shreds, counts of mesophiles and coliforms were 0.3 to 0.7 logs lower in samples treated with MEA with or without SE than with the water-dipped control for the first 2 days of storage. However, MEA accelerated the growth of lactic acid bacteria. When HEA was combined with MEA and SE, growth of all bacteria on treated cabbage shreds were retarded for 5 days of storage relative to that on control shreds. Treatment with MEA and HEA reduced the depletion of O2 and accumulation of CO2 and ethylene in the MA package containing cabbage shreds and the reduction was greater when combined with SE. In contrast, cucumber slices treated with MEA with or without SE accelerated respiration and ethylene production and did not retard any bacterial growth during MA storage at 10°C.
Fucoxanthin exhibits a preventative function with degenerative diseases such as cancer and metabolic syndrome without side effects. Therefore, commercial-scale preparation of fucoxanthin is needed, but it has been very difficult to find the required resources to do so. The aim of this study is to develop a preparation method of fucoxanthin using waste parts of cultured kombu (Laminalia japonica). Around 79,000 t of cultured kombu is discarded in Japan during thinning out and forming processes, which includes a high amount of fucoxanthin (21.3-17.8 mg/100 g fresh weight). Waste parts of kombu were examined to obtain better quality fucoxanthin. Heating increased fucoxanthin recovery, and additional washing with tap water reduced the salt content of the fucoxanthin extract. Cutting waste parts of kombu into 5-mm wide strips made extraction easier without the leakage of fucoxanthin during handling. After freezing and transportation to the extraction factory, kombu showed the best recovery of fucoxanthin and the lowest content of salt following two extractions with 3 volumes of absolute ethanol. To remove chlorophylls the extract was subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Finally, 1490 g fucoxanthin was obtained from 10 t of waste parts of kombu and the recovery ratio was 82%. The fucoxanthin obtained was stable and reduced by only 2% in 6 months storage at 4°C. Thus, waste parts of cultured kombu are a good bioresource for fucoxanthin extraction.
The long-chain alcohol and aldehyde contents and compositions were determined in seven types of the non-centrifuged cane sugar kokuto (Kokuto A to G). Long-chain alcohols, known as policosanols, have been reported to have beneficial effects on human health. Policosanols were extracted effectively with hexane/methanol (20:1 v/v) and long-chain aldehydes were extracted with chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v). These compounds were then analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Trimethylsilyl ethers, the policosanol fragments, and a number of unique aldehyde fragments were analyzed to identify the source compounds. Octacosanol (C28-OH) was confirmed to be the main component in all kokuto samples. Moreover, the production process influenced the policosanol and long-chain aldehyde contents in kokuto. Kokuto A, which was produced by an open pan boiling method, showed the highest content of policosanols (86 mg/100g) and long-chain aldehydes (9 mg/100 g).
The anti-rhinitis properties of Sparassis crispa were investigated in mice. To examine the immunomodulative activity of oral administration of S. crispa, splenocytes obtained from ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice fed S. crispa were restimulated in vitro with the same antigen. Oral administration of S. crispa induced IFN-γ, but inhibited IL-4 and IL-5 secretion, and suppressed ovalbumin-specific IgE secretion by ovalbumin-stimulated splenocytes. The effects of S. crispa were further investigated by using the allergic rhinitis model in BALB/c mice. Nasal symptoms, sneezing and nasal rubbing induced by ovalbumin challenges were inhibited by oral administration of S. crispa in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, ovalbumin-specific serum IgE levels were diminished in this model. These results demonstrated that S. crispa may be effective in suppressing symptoms of allergic rhinitis through its immunomodulating activities.
Six anti-allergic phlorotannins from the brown alga Eisenia arborea were examined for their inhibitory effects on oxidation and hyaluronidase activities. To investigate the radical scavenging activities of the phlorotannins, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was evaluated. Although the radical scavenging activity of a typical scavenger, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), was the strongest, the six tested phlorotannins exhibited activities of various degrees. When the hyaluronidase inhibitory activity was examined, eckol inhibited the hyaluronidase activity similar to the typical inhibitors, EGCg and disodium cromoglycate. The other five phlorotannins inhibited the enzymatic activity stronger than the above inhibitors. Since the six phlorotannins from E. arborea expressed radical scavenging and hyaluronidase inhibitory activities, E. arborea could be used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic food ingredient.