The Korean Health Functional Food (HFF) act is expected to protect the consumer and promote health of the people by providing them with correct information about HFF. The new act makes it easy for new ingredients in HFF to be introduced. Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) manages its dual registration system for HFF, which are general standard HFF and HFF recognized individually. Any HFF which satisfies the general standard can be approved without submitting scientific evidence. However, HFF containing a new ingredient should be recognized individually by KFDA evaluation for its safety and efficacy. Depending on 4 levels of scientific evidence, 4 types of claims are determined. They include other-function and reduction-of-disease-risk claims. Red ginseng (steamed ginseng) occupied 45.2% of Korean total HFF market in 2007. The market is expected to grow more, reaching 4 trillion Won in 2010. Big companies will dominate the HFF market. Integrative study to combine food science, molecular biology, and nutrigenomics are helpful to HFF research and safety.
We examined the effects of several tea extracts containing certain polyphenols on the physical properties of egg white gel. The results of compression tests showed that it was possible to increase the strength of the egg white gel by treatment with various tea extracts. The image analysis of thin sections of egg white gels by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the network filaments were larger in the modified gel than in the egg white gel. The thickening of the filaments of the network structure suggests that tea extracts improve the strength of the egg white gel.
The mechanical properties of cabbages (var. Yumebutai) with different head densities were evaluated by stress relaxation and a puncture test of whole cabbages, and also by a tensile test of strap-shaped specimens. The resistance of whole head to compression at small deformation was well correlated to head density. Mechanical properties in the fifth leaves of cabbages did not correlate to head density, although tensile properties varied within an individual leaf, with direction of tension, and among individual leaves. The observation suggests that head density influences mechanical resistance of whole head at small deformation, and may relate to properties for cutting with an industrial shredder; however it is not a significant factor for mechanical properties of shredded cabbage.
This study has utilized two sets of 15 olive oil samples that were tasted by the same 50 regular olive oil consumers in Çanakkale to examine both consumer preference and consumer buying intention via applying path analysis. Data evaluation through the path analysis has proved that the causal relation between the L value and consumer preference was significant (p = 0.001). Acidity had some negative effects; but was not statistically significant for the consumer preference. Similarly, in this study consumer buying intention was indicated to be affected mostly by the perceived flavor of oil samples (p = 0.022). What is more, constructed models in this path helped to explain consumer preference and buying intention by 97.1% and 88.8%, respectively. The combined effect of acidity and the L value on consumer preference, and the combined effect of appearance and flavor on buying intention were highest among the other pairs. In general, the consumers were found very conscious about their choices, and would prefer and buy more limpid, less acid and more flavorful olive oils.
In this study, the three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopic technique was applied to discriminate the wines with different variety, brewery and vintage. A total of 42 wines produced in geographic origin of Changli county were analyzed. The results showed that the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of wine samples with different variety, brewery and vintage had different fluorescence peaks. The fluorescence peaks were found in excitation wavelengths 260 , 290 and 329 nm. However, the number, location and fluorescenece intensity varied with the types of wines. The fluorescence spectra of the wine samples were evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA performed on the whole collection of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra allowed for a wide range of wine samples. These results showed that three- dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy may provide useful fingerprints that can determine the identity of wines from the Changli region.
Hypoallergenic wheat flour (HWF) in which gluten is partially hydrolyzed by enzymes has recently been developed. However, the manufacturing of HWF products is difficult compared to that of normal wheat products due to the marked physical property differences of HWF. In this study, we first investigated the manufacturing conditions of Japanese wheat noodles using HWF and then evaluated their physical properties. HWF noodles were prepared by combining HWF with sodium alginate, starch, curdlan, and salt solution, and then soaking in calcium lactate solution before boiling. The addition of sodium alginate increased rupture strength of HWF noodles, and the addition of starch and curdlan significantly improved rupture strength and hardness. However, rupture strength of HWF noodles was markedly lower than that of normal wheat flour noodles. These results suggest that HWF combined with sodium alginate, starch, and curdlan may be suitable for preparing noodles for wheat allergy patients.
Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are important intermediate compounds in the Mail-lard reaction of pentose and hexose, respectively, under acidic conditions. Recently we found a novel yellow compound named furpipate from a heated solution containing furfural and lysine. Here we describe the formation of furpipate derivatives in a heated solution containing furfural or HMF in the presence of lysine. Three derivatives, decarboxylated-furpipate, 5-hydroxymethylfurpipate, and decarboxylated5-hydroxymethylfurpipate, were isolated and identified. 5-Hydroxymethylfurpipate, (Z )-3-[2-(5-hydoxymethyl-furylmethylidene]-3H, 4H, 5H, 6H-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid, is a novel compound and the major yellow pigment of the heated solution containing HMF and lysine.
In this study, Tarhana, which is a traditional and nutritious Turkish cereal food, was supplemented with whey concantrate (WC) in stead of yoghurt. The effects of WC addition on the chemical, nutritional and sensory properties of tarhana samples were determined and compared with the control sample made with yoghurt. The moisture, crude ash, protein and fat contents of the samples changed between 10.53 and 11.28%; 1.507 and 1.758%; 9.75 and 12.52% and 0.87 and 6.33%, respectively. As major minerals, Mg, Ca, P, Na and K contents of WC added tarhana samples versus the control, increased, while protein amounts were decreasing, significantly (P<0.01). The addition of WC resulted the samples lighter in color and lower in acidity. The phytic acid contents of WC added tarhana samples are decreased significantly (P<0.01) by the fermentation. Tarhana sample with 12.5% WC which is equivalent to the yoghurt in solid amount, were judged with high overall acceptability values by the taste panelists. It may be acceptible up to 25% whey addition level with higher nutritional value.
This study aims to investigate the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as trolox equivalent (mmol g-1) of nineteen edible wild plants traditionally used in Ayvalik using four different assays, CUPRAC, ABTS, FRAP and Folin. The order of ten plants exhibiting the higher capacities could be listed as: Daucus carota (1st wrt CUPRAC, ABTS, and FRAP), Sonchus oleraceus (2nd wrt CUPRAC, ABTS, and FRAP), Sonchus asper (3rd), Rumex pulcher (4th wrt CUPRAC, ABTS, and Folin), Cichorium intybus (5th wrt CUPRAC, ABTS, and Folin), Papaver rhoeas (7th wrt CUPRAC, ABTS, and FRAP), Foeniculum vulgare (8th wrt CUPRAC and FRAP), Urtica pilulifera (6th wrt CUPRAC, 8th wrt Folin), Rumex acetosella (7th wrt Folin, 9th wrt CUPRAC and FRAP), and Nasturtium officinale (11th wrt CUPRAC and Folin). The three edible wild plants (Daucus carota, Sonchus asper subsp. glaucescens and Sonchus oleraceus) with CUPRAC antioxidant capacities of 0.37±0.05, 0.31±0.03, and 0.34±0.05 mmol trolox g-1, respectively, may be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidants to be incorporated in current diets to protect human health. CUPRAC method proved to be most effective among electron-transfer based TAC assays since it responded to a wide variety of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants.
The aim was to estimate sensory pork quality in relations to its carcass and technological value. The research was executed on 57 hogs. The studied meat from hogs were characterized by appropriate slaughter and technological value (pH, drip loss, cooking and technological yield). The large variability of visual quality of meat (colour, marbling) was observed. The appropriate visual quality of meat in relationship to marbling was originated from carcass by meatiness above 56.7%. These meat samples were also characterized by relatively high drip loss (> 5.95%) in comparison to meat samples originated from carcass with meatiness below 56%, although the relationship was not statistically significant. The mean value of meatiness 56.3% provided a high sensory eating quality of meat after heat treatment. The eating quality was mainly related to flavour and texture. The expected quality of raw meat based on visual evaluation was not correlated with high eating quality (experienced quality) of meat after heat treatment.
The flavor release of commercial gummy jellies was studied. Time-intensity (T-I) assessments, electromyography (EMG) of the jaw-closing muscles, and mechanical tests were conducted to characterize the gummy jellies. After a preliminary sensory test and round-table discussion by expert panelists, six samples of gummy jelly were selected from 25 products to represent the various gummy jelly products produced in Japan. Six trained panelists participated in the T-I assessment coupled with EMG measurement. Sourness was perceived shortly after starting to chew; it reached a maximum intensity after sufficient mastication (18-32 chewing strokes) and lasted for a relatively long time (16.8-45.9 s) after the main chewing activity had finished. The results obtained from EMG measurements and T-I assessments showed that sourness was perceived mildly and late with very tough samples, strongly and early with tender and rubbery samples, and mildly and early with samples that were easy to chew. Thus, sourness and texture are closely related in the gummy jelly products commercially available in Japan.
Lemon flavonoid (LF) prepared from lemon peel predominantly contains eriocitrin as an antioxidant. It is indicated to have low bioavailability compared with lemon flavonoid aglycone (LFA), which predominantly contains eriodictyol. This study attempted to prepare LFA which has high bioavailability, using enzymes that are commonly used in the citrus industry, such as cellulase, naringinase, hesperidinase, and pectinase. LFA containing the highest amount of eriodictyol (19.4%) was prepared with naringinase, a debittering enzyme for citrus juice. Ten male normolipidemic subjects ingested LFA (3.7 g) after an overnight fast, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was prepared from 0-4 h plasma after intake of LFA. The LDL oxidizability was measured with lag time of the conjugated diene formation induced by an oxidative inducer. LDL in 0.5 h plasma after ingestion of LFA was shown to have a significantly longer lag time for oxidation than that before ingestion (P<0.05). LFA was suggested to have the resistance effect of LDL to oxidation ex vivo. Eriodictyol, homoeriodictyol, and hesperetin were not detected in plasma by HPLC analysis, but they were detected in plasma treated with β-glucuronidase and sulfatase. The flavonoids were suggested to be glucuro- and/or sulfo-conjugates and to be metabolites in plasma after ingestion of LEA.
We evaluated whether the agar plate method using a Baird Parker + rabbit plasma fibrinogen (RPF) agar could be used in place of the combination of a latex agglutination test (PS-latex) and a tube coagulase test for identification of Staphylococcus aureus from other strains of staphylococci. The PS-latex and tube coagulase tests showed positive results for 96 (100%) and 87 (90.6%) S. aureus strains, respectively. However, the PS-latex test showed positive results for 32 non-S. aureus strains. On the other hand, the agar plate method was positive for all the strains of S. aureus and showed no false-positive or -negative results. Next, we developed a highly sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA). The interference by protein A and an unknown protein were eliminated using proteolytic digestion. This improved method is useful for SEA detection.
Nine phanerogam plants (common lady's-mantle, bear's garlic, common sweet flag, agrimony, goldenrod, common speedwell, european mistletoe, horsetail and milfoil) were evaluated regarding their total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity. The flavonoid contents ranged from 0.72 (goldenrod) to 0.25 mmol/g dry matter (horsetail). The contents of quercetin, rutin, kaempferol and myricetin were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Quercetin content was found to be very low in goldenrod and mistletoe extracts (0.20 µmol/g dry matter in european mistletoe) and almost undetectable in the other seven extracts. The rutin content was much higher, ranging from 96.25 (goldenrod) to 0.49 µmol/g dry matter (common sweet flag). Except for horsetail, kaempferol was found in all other eight extracts, the biggest quantity (2.15 µmol/g dry matter) being in the goldenrod extract. Myricetin was only found in goldenrod and agrimony (0.35 and 0.08 µmol/ g dry matter respectively). Goldenrod and milfoil showed the highest values for the antioxidant activity, expressed as mol quercetin equivalent, in the DPPH · (1,1diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method, namely 0.00542 and 0.00532. These results suggest them to be used as natural sources of antioxidants instead of synthetic ones.