An experiment system was built to measure the impulsive response signal and connected to two detectors, an accelerometer and a TCS (thickness and crack sensor). The received signals were then analyzed using the spectrum circuit, and the data were recorded. The response time of the impulse on the non-cracked areas was less than 0.66 ms, and on or near the cracked areas was above 0.82 ms. The response time recorded using accelerometer and TCS showed no significant difference, yet the TCS performed with buffer force and cheaper than accelerometer. Thus, the TCS was chosen and used in the commercial system. 400 million eggs detected for making preserved eggs, an accuracy of 97% required by the producer for this local made machine was satisfied as well. The automatic inspecting system represents the first device for both hen and duck eggs.
A two-step heating process, long low temperature-short high temperature cooking cycle, is used to maximize fat reduction in roast beef. First, the beef was cooked at a low temperature for a long time; then, it was cooked at a higher temperature for a short time. The study examines cooking loss, fat content, texture, and inosine 5’-monophosphate (IMP) production of cooked meat under different heating conditions. In an oven, the internal temperature of the meat increased to a transition point of 48 or 54°C at oven temperatures of 80 or 100°C and reached 60°C at 220°C. The fat was reduced by up to 44.2% compared to 27.8% under conventional roasting conditions. In addition, the two-step heating process kept the meat tender and juicy but improved IMP content.
A lipase from a Sporidiobolus pararoseus strain was purified from culture filtrate by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, and DEAE-Toyopearl 650M, Butyl-Toyopearl 650M, and Toyopearl HW-55 chromatography. The purified enzyme appeared as a single band with a molecular mass of 37 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The optimum temperature and pH were approximately 60°C and 6.0, respectively. The specificity toward triglyceride was similar to that of pregastric esterase Lipase PGET. Addition of the lipase during the mozzarella cheese-making process produced a strong cheese flavor. Taken together, the lipase produced by S. pararoseus is considered a potential replacement of pregastric esterase in the dairy industry.
Cellulose treated by a steam explosion method can be dissolved into aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. The regenerated cellulose shaped from the cellulose-dissolving system can be used as a food material with various shapes, such as fiber, film, and particles. In the present study, the cellulose was blended with polysaccharides, and the structure and mechanical properties of cellulose-polysaccharide blend films were compared with commercial edible films. The tensile strength, tensile elongation, and bursting strength of cellulose-starch blend films in wet conditions were comparable to those of sheep casings and collagen films. In the viscoelastic measurements, mechanical properties of commercially available films of biopolymers such as starch, pullulan, and agar were greatly influenced by temperature and moisture; however, cellulose-starch blend films were much less influenced. This is a new characteristic achieved by blending starch with cellulose. Cellulose and cellulose-starch blend films were resistant to hot water, i.e., keeping their film forms in hot water. Moreover, disintegration of the blend films commonly seen in hot water can be controlled by blending carrageenan or sodium alginate as a third component.
The effect of heat treatments (boiling, autoclaving, microwave cooking and roasting) on the levels of certain antinutritional factors (phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor, α-amylase inhibitor, lectin activity and tannins) and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of peanut and sesame seeds were investigated. All heat treatments significantly reduced the levels of all the investigated antinutrients and improved the IVPD of peanut seeds. Of the attempted treatments, autoclaving, boiling, roasting-salting and oil-roasting were the most effective in reducing the levels of antinutrients and improving IVPD of peanut. Roasting in both brown and white sesame seeds partially eliminated the studied antinutrients (the reduction ranged from 15.6% to 61.2% in all antinutrients) and improved IVPD (increased by 10% and 9.1%, respectively). Also, Tehineh (sesame butter-like) contained lower levels of antinutrients than raw sesame seeds and exhibited a higher IVPD (82.8%).
Compounds which can be formed over the course of roasting coffee beans were investigated and isolated. One of these compounds was identified as 3-hydroxy-6-methylpyridine (3,6-Py). 3,6-Py and the coffee prepared from light-roasted coffee beans which contain this compound tended to suppress increases in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice, indicating that 3,6-Py formed during the roasting of coffee beans may be able to mitigate liver injury. The amounts of 3,6-Py were higher in French-roasted than light-roasted coffee beans of the Brazil Santos and Colombia Excelso varieties, suggesting that this compound might be produced under a more severe roasting condition. However, suppressive activity against liver injury was stronger in coffee from light-roasted than French-roasted beans. As the amounts of chlorogenic acid, which is known to have hepatoprotective activity, were higher in coffee from the light-roasted than French-roasted beans, stronger hepatoprotective activity in the coffee from light-roasted beans might be mainly concerned with its higher content of chlorogenic acid.
Whole grain finger millet and sorghum successively replaced commercial soft-type wheat flour in the formulation of multigrain cookies (MGC) at 10-30% levels each. MGC were supplemented with fructoligosaccharide (FOS) at levels of 40%, 60%, and 80% sugar replacement basis. The quality attributes of cookies were evaluated in terms of spread ratio, hardness and nutritional characteristics. The spread ratio of control cookies (CC) was 4.400 and that of MGC with FOS ranged between 4.769 and 7.100. The initial hardness of CC was 70.0 ± 1.6 N and that of MGC with FOS ranged from 69.7 ± 0.7 N to 48.0 ± 1.2 N. MGC with FOS were significantly (p < 0.05) less hard than CC. Sensory data indicated moderate acceptability (OAA score = 7.3 ± 0.5) of MGC with FOS at 60% sugar replacement level, 20% finger millet and 30% sorghum. Total fibre including FOS (per 100 g) was estimated to be 17.4 g and 1.3 g for MGC with FOS and CC respectively. Caloric content of MGC with FOS was 11.7% lower than the CC. Acceptable cookies could be prepared with 50% whole-MG incorporation and up to 60% sugar replacement.
Using high-performance liquid chromatography, 11 sulfur-containing flavor precursors were determined quantitatively in seven Allium vegetables: garlic (Allium sativum), onion (A. cepa), Welsh onion (A. fistulosum), Chinese chive (A. tuberosum Rotter), rakkyo (A. chinense G. Don), ‘asatsuki’ (A. schoenoprasum), and leek (A. porrum). The determinants were S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine derivatives, methiin, alliin, isoalliin, cycloalliin, deoxyalliin, N-(γ-glutamyl)-S-methyl-L-cysteine, N-(γ-glutamyl)-S-(2-propenyl)-L-cysteine, N-(γ-glutamyl)-S-(E-1-propenyl)-L-cysteine (Glu-PEC), N-(γ-glutamyl)-S-(2-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide, N-(γ-glutamyl)-S-(E-1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (Glu-PECSO) and S-(2-carboxy-propyl) glutathione. The constituents of the flavor precursors, methiin, alliin and isoalliin, were compared among the seven Allium vegetables. Molar ratios of methiin/alliin/isoalliin (M/A/I, %) were similar in onion (16/0/84), Welsh onion (19/0/81), asatsuki (11/0/89), and leek (19/0/81). Garlic, Chinese chive and rakkyo showed specific ratios of 17/78/5, 80/13/7 and 68/0/32, respectively. The storage compounds of isoalliin, a major flavor precursor that is common among seven Allium vegetables, were Glu-PEC in garlic and Glu-PECSO in onion.
Growth depression of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in pink shrimp under a high CO2 atmosphere was studied. A strain was isolated from prawn and identified as V. parahaemolyticus. The identified strain was used to inoculate pink shrimp and stored at 20°C under air, N2, and CO2. The plate count under CO2 16 h after inoculation was significantly lower than those under air and N2. The plate count under a steady state of CO2 was lower by log 3.6 to log 3.7 than those under air and N2. The growth of V. parahaemolyticus in/on the shrimp was fitted and simulated using the Gompertz equation and a new logistic model, to determine its growth rate parameters. CO2 reduced the value of the parameter equivalent to maximum plate count.
Myofibrillar protein prepared from chicken breast muscle was incubated with several concentrations of glucose or maltose for 6 h at 60°C and 35% relative humidity in order to obtain glycosylated chicken protein. When the ratio of the weights of the myofibrillar protein and glucose or maltose exceeded 1:6 or 1:3-5, respectively, the solubility of each type of glycosylated chicken protein in 0.1 M NaCl solution exceeded by about 60%, although the myofibrillar protein was insoluble in a low ionic strength solution. Solubilization of chicken myofibrillar protein required a small quantity of glucose compared with carp myofibrillar protein. Neither sample underwent denaturation when held at 50°C for 2 h.
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