The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of pork jerky prepared under two curing methods (immersion and tumbling). Jerky was dried using cured pork meat immersed for 6, 12, 24, or 48 h, or tumbled for 10, 20, 30, or 60 min. In jerky manufacturing, the tumbling process had a significant influence on increased moisture contents, reduced textural hardness, and improved in sensorial tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance compared to immersion. Within the same curing method, longer curing times resulted in an increase in the moisture content, redness, and TBA values. Additionally, the sensorial texture, juiciness, and overall acceptance of pork jerky tumbled for 30 and 60 min had significantly higher sensory scores than other treatments.
In this article, a method of ultrasonic extraction (USE) was used to extract flavonoids from peanut hulls. Orthogonal array design experiment was employed to get the optimum extraction conditions. The optimum USE conditions were as follows: ethanol concentration was 65%; solid/liquid ratio (g mL-1) was 1:65; temperature was 60°C; ultrasonic frequency was 45 Hz; ultrasonic power was 150 W; initial pH of feed liquid was 6.0; time for extraction was 3 h. The optimum extraction yield of flavonoids was 8.23 mg g-1. The antioxidant activity of the crude extract was tested with phosphomolybdenum complex method, the reduction of K3Fe(CN)6 and DPPH assay. The IC50 value for DPPH radical scavenging lied 14.86 μg ml-1, and 28 μg mL-1 of PHF exhibited total antioxidant activity and reducing power which were comparable to that of the ascorbic acid standard at 52.41 and 15.41 μg mL-1, respectively.
We aimed to develop UV-blocking clear films for foods using the harmless titanium dioxide. The blocking rate for short-wavelength UV light (200 nm − 300 nm) was 99.2%, while that for long-wavelength UV light (300 nm − 400 nm) was 70.9%. The coating was transparent and adhered strongly to the films according to the JIS rule.
A study was designed with the aim to investigate the effect of different additives such as CMC (carboxy methyl cellulose), ascorbic acid, lecithin and sodium propionate on the dough and chapatti making characteristics, and also to check the staling of chapatti. The additives were added at different concentration (CMC 0.5, 0.75 and 1 %, ascorbic acid 0.3, 0.35 and 0.4 %, lecithin 0.5, 0.75 and 1 % and sodium propionate 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 %) in wheat flour and analyzed their effect on dough rheology along with baking and sensory attributes of chapattis during storage period of 24 h. The results of the present study showed that additives improved the rheological characteristics of wheat flour as compared to control. The additives like CMC and lecithin improved the pasting property, water absorption capacity, dough development time and dough stability of wheat flour. Additives like sodium propionate and ascorbic acid along with CMC and lecithin reduced the mould growth during the storage period of 24 h. The addition of additives improved almost all the sensory attributes as compared to the control.
The traditional Japanese beverage amazake was evaluated as a possible treatment for oxidative stress. For this purpose, the radical scavenging activities of four kinds of amazake were investigated by determining diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical, galvinoxyl radical and superoxide anion radical quenching activities using a spectrophotometric method and an electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. ESR measurements were used to assess the superoxide anion radical scavenging activity by employing dimethylpyrroline N-oxide as a spin trapping reagent. The ferricyanide-reducing activity and chelating activity were evaluated spectroscopically. The results indicated that amazake made from brown rice had stronger radical scavenging, metal chelating and metal reducing activities than amazake produced from white rice and sake cake (by-product of sake).
Speciality fat with no trans fatty acids prepared by blending palm oil fraction with rice bran oil showed melting characteristics similar to those of commercial vanaspati. This fat is used in preparation of Indian traditional foods such as Parota, Mysorepak, Sohan papdi and Badusha substituting vanaspati and the quality was evaluated in comparison with those prepared using vanaspati. The appearance, texture and sensory analyses of all the products prepared with speciality fat were similar and comparable with those prepared with vanaspati. The products prepared with vanaspati and commercial samples contain trans fatty acids (0.3 − 6.3%), whereas those prepared with speciality fat did not contain any trans fatty acids. The study therefore revealed that the trans-free speciality fat prepared using palm oil fraction and rice bran oil could be used as vanaspati (trans fatty acids 17.7%) substitute to prepare a range of traditional foods and thereby improve nutritional quality.
An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate the reproducibility of a combustion method for determining crude protein in macaroni products according to the Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS). Fourteen participating laboratories analyzed five test materials (five pairs of blind duplicates) of macaroni products by the combustion method. Six different types of instruments commonly used for the combustion method in Japan were included in this study. After removal of statistical outliers, the repeatability and reproducibility of this method were found to be 0.16 − 0.53 % and 0.89 − 1.1 %, respectively. The HorRat values of this method were 0.25 to 0.31. The results for the combustion method were compared with those for the Kjeldahl method used on the same test materials and reported previously. Differences of means between the two methods were 0.10 − 0.13 % in five test materials. The differences did not considerably affect judgment near the standard values 11 % and 12 % of the JAS.
The thick and deep tastes of dairy products such as sweet cream and cheese are important factors, and they are expressed by the word Koku in Japan. To identify compounds that have an impact on Koku, sweet cream was fractionated using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation, solvent extraction, and chromatography and the resulting fractions were screened by performing sensory evaluation at each step. The Koku-containing fractions selected by sensory evaluation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, and 7 long-chain fatty acids (decanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid), 3 long-chain aliphatic delta-lactones (5-dodecanolide, 5-tetradecanolide, and 5-hexadecanolide), and cholesterol were identified as main components. Reconstitution experiments performed with these 11 compounds revealed that the long-chain fatty acids and long-chain aliphatic delta-lactones contribute to the Koku of sweet cream.
We investigated the anti-allergic effect of fermented grape pomace from Vitis vinifera Koshu (FG), using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. FG showed greater inhibitory effect on degranulation than Lactobacillus plantarum NB strain (NB strain), which was used for fermentation, and grape pomace (G). Furthermore, we separated FG into three fractions with distilled water containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (acidified water) (F1), ethyl acetate (F2) and methanol (F3) in order to investigate the active ingredients in FG, and analyzed their inhibitory mechanisms on degranulation. The F2 sample, which contained mainly low polymerized phenolic ingredients, showed a strong inhibitory effect, whereas the F3 sample, which contained mainly polymeric proanthocyandins, showed the highest inhibitory effect among all samples. It was confirmed that phenolic ingredients in FG act on various stages of degranulation. These results suggest that FG may exert anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects by acting on various stages of the degranulation response of mast cells.
We screened for inhibitors of enzymatic browning among fermented broths of lactic acid bacteria (58 strains), extracts of spices (7 samples), and food additives (34 samples) from the standpoint of practical use. We found that hinokitiol, a preservative, definitely inhibited the browning of apple sections. An apple section sprayed with a 0.02% hinokitiol solution did not turn brown for 2 h at room temperature. Hinokitiol competitively inhibited apple polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The Ki value of hinokitiol against apple PPO was 5.5 μM, while the Km value of chlorogenic acid was 2.5 mM. Furthermore hinokitiol non-competitively inhibited tyrosinase and the discoloration of shrimp caused by tyrosinase during cold storage.
The objective of investigation was to study the influence of water activity on physicochemical properties (PCP) of defatted groundnut (Arachis hypogea), sunflower (Helianthus annus), rice bran (Oryza sativa) and soybean (Glycine max). Moisture free samples equilibrated at relative humidity (RH) levels from 22 − 84% were used for determination of PCP. Bulk density of samples decreased with increasing RH levels for sunflower, rice bran and soybean. Water absorption and emulsion activity of groundnut and sunflower increased with RH levels. However, an opposite trend was seen for rice bran and soybean. Fat absorption of all samples increased with increasing RH. Protein solubility of groundnut and sunflower was very high at RH of 84% in alkaline pH range. Protein solubility of rice bran was not affected by RH, whereas for soy flour it decreased with increasing RH. It can be concluded that water activity influenced the PCP of oilseed flour to a significant extent.