The objective of this study was to investigate effect of the steamed soybeans inoculated with Rhizopus oligosporus in advance then Bacillus subtilis on the protein of fermentd soybeans. Soluble nitrogen content and degree of hydrolysis of soy protein increased with increasing fermenting time both of the two-step fermentation and single starter culture of B. subtilis. The amino acid composition of the two-step fermented product fluctuant during fermentation, of which glutamic and aspartic acids had the highest content. However, The most bands of soy protein components with molecular weight above 20 kDa on electrophoretogram of the product by the two-step fermentation became faint. It meant the concentration of these proteins decreased after 24 h of fermentation.
In order to exploit and utilize peanut industry resources and produce additional high value products, the use of microwave-assisted technology for extracting water soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from peanut hull was investigated. The factors that influence the SDF extraction were studied via response surface methodology. Regression models for the relationships between these factors and SDF extraction yield as well as the percentage content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) were established. The optimum parameters were a liquid-to-solid ratio of 1:16, microwave power of 700W, heating time of 6min, and heating temperature of 90°C. Under these conditions, the SDF extraction yield and NSP percentage content reached 2.68% and 56.06%, respectively. The IC50 values for SDF scavenging of hydroxyl free radicals, superoxide anion free radicals, and DPPH free radicals were 0.78 mg/mL, 6.66 mg/mL, and 5.12 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the iron and molybdenum reduction capacities were similar to 8.015 μg/mL and 28.505 μg/mL ascorbic acid reduction capacities, respectively.
To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect, enteric-coated ginger and garlic essence tablet was produced through the modern pharmaceutical manufacture technique. Rats fed high-fat diet were developed to moderate degree of hyperlipidemia. Experimental group was assigned to orally expose to three different doses of essence tablet for 30 consecutive days. Through the course of treatment serum total cholesterol (TCh) and triglyceride (TG) in 220 mg/kg BW group were significantly lower than that in control group. In addition, a double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on patients with newly diagnosed exclusive hyperlipidemia. Participants were randomly divided into two groups of 52 cases each. Experimental group received one piece of ginger and garlic essence tablet twice daily. At the end of the 30-day trial, TCh and TG in experimental group were significantly lower than the baseline, respectively. Moreover, TCh and TG in experimental group were significantly lower than that in placebo group. Specifically the mean changes of TCh and TG in experimental group were extreme significantly higher than those in placebo group. These data implied that enteric-coated ginger and garlic tablet remarkably improved blood lipid profile in rats fed high-fat diet and hyperlipidemic subjects.
Mixed vegetable powders – composed of purple sweet potato, red cabbage and beetroot at a 2:1:1 ratio – were incorporated with cereal base by an extrusion process to obtain a functional, ready-to-eat breakfast cereal. This study investigated the effects of mixed vegetable powder level (8, 12 and 16%), screw speed (300, 350 and 400 rpm) and feed moisture content (13, 15 and 17%) on the physical and functional properties of extrudates in breakfast cereal production using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken experimental design. The results showed high correlation coefficients (R2) of multiple regression equations about the relationship among product responses and process variables, and no significant lack of fit (indicating a best-fit model). The optimum conditions were determined from the overlaid area found by superimposing the individual contour plots of responses. Correspondingly, the verification of results showed good agreement between the responses of experimental values at selected optimum conditions and the predicted values from regression equations.
Myosin denaturation and cross-linking during the preheating process of Alaska pollack salted surimi at various preheating temperatures were studied. Thermal gel properties of preheated-gel and those after heating at 90°C were measured. At 15°C and 25°C, loss of salt- and urea-solubility of myosin preceded ATPase inactivation and cross-linking. At 35°C, a very quick ATPase inactivation and loss of salt-solubility was followed by a loss of urea-solubility of myosin. Myosin cross-linking reaction followed these changes. Preheating at these temperatures increased the breaking force of the two-step heated gel. At 45°C, despite a quick loss of ATPase and salt-solubility, urea-solubility remained high and no cross-linking was observed. Furthermore, there was no increment in breaking force upon preheating at this temperature. Thus, myosin aggregates, as revealed by the loss of urea-solubility as well as the cross-linking reaction, were important in improving thermal gel properties.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of winter savory (Satureja montana L.) on the peripheral body temperature of people who experience a ‘feeling of cold’ (hie-sho). We conducted a clinical trial with a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-ingestion crossover design. First, under cold-water loading conditions, the ingestion of powdered winter savory extract (WSE) was found to accelerate the recovery rate of the medial middle-finger temperature. Next, under daily living conditions, the peripheral temperature of the wrist, medial and dorsal middle finger, and middle toe after WSE ingestion was found to be higher than that after the placebo ingestion. In addition, the blood flow and thermal sensation data agreed with the changes in the peripheral body temperature observed by WSE ingestion. This is the first report to demonstrate that WSE ingestion has a warming effect on the peripheral body temperature of people who experience a ‘feeling of cold’.
Grape seed is a potential source of edible protein, so effective extraction of protein component from grape seed seems to be very important. However, so far, such information is unavailable. In this study, the conditions for protein extraction from the grape seeds were optimized by the single factor test and the response surface methodology (RSM). A box-behnken design (BBD) was used for experimental design and analysis of the results to obtain the optimal extraction conditions. Solvent/meal ratio, extraction temperature, pH and extraction time were found to have a significant effect on the protein yield. From the single factor test, the optimal range of extraction conditions was obtained. Based on the RSM analysis, optimum extraction parameters were obtained as following: solvent/meal ratio 22.5/1 (v/w), extraction temperature 35°C, pH 9.8, and extraction time 29 min. Under the optimized conditions, the experimental values were in good agreement with those predicted by the model. These results help design the process of optimal protein extraction from grape seeds for future use in food industry.
The mobile genetic element IS4Bsu1 of Bacillus subtilis (natto), the commercial strain used for natto fermentation, was found to spontaneously translocate to the swrA gene, which led to a defect in poly-γ-glutamic acid (γPGA) synthesis. The γPGA defect of NAFIS1 (swrA::IS4Bsu1) was restored by a plasmid harboring the swrA gene. The insertion of IS4Bsu1 to the swrA gene appeared not to interfere with minJ gene expression, located downstream of the swrA gene, because a defect in cell motility exhibited by NAF16 (minJ::Spcr) was not observed in NAFIS1 (swrA::IS4Bsu1). We found that the minJ gene is essential for γPGA synthesis.
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