In this study, chemical components, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of tomato seed oil were investigated. GC-MS analysis of tomato seed oil showed 87 constituents representing 95.20% of the oil, and the major components cycloeucalenol (25.67%), oleic acid (16.70%), linoleic acid (7.85%), palmitic acid (6.08%) and octadecanoic acid (5.78%) constituted 62.08% of it. Antioxidant activity of the tomato seed oil was characterized by Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Activity (HRSA) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). In the HRSA test, tomato seed oil (EC50 = 2.76 ± 0.16 µg/mL) showed better antioxidant activity than that of butylated hydroxytolune (BHT) (EC50 = 436.70 ± 0.02 µg/mL). But in DPPH assay, the tomato seed oil (IC50 = 1590.01 ± 0.01 µg/mL) exhibited relatively weaker antioxidant activity than that of BHT (IC50 = 69.01 ± 0.02 µg/mL). Finally, the tomato oil exhibited moderate to potent, broad-spectrum antibacterial activities against seven clinically significant bacterial strains.
As there is little study on grugru palm, the knowledge of the properties of the fruit pulp and powder is important in the fruit production recovering and in the enhancement of the processes of dehydration for better conservation, development and preparation of diverse foods. The objective of this study was to characterize the bioactive compounds and the physicochemical features of grugru palm pulp and powder. Grugru palm fruits were harvested in the Araripe Plateau, Ceará State, Brazil, and dehydrated by two drying methods (in oven with air circulation and lyophilization) with and without addition of drying adjuvant (maltodextrin). After analysis, results revealed that pulp and powder of grugru palm are products with high content of soluble solids and low acidity, highlighting the high levels of β-carotene and vitamin A. The lyophilized powder T3 have showed the best results in relation to the physicochemical and bioactive parameters.
Management of agro-industrial waste is an important area of study for researchers with multifarious objectives. Conversion of such wastes into useful food products has emerged as a bountiful industry e.g. mango seed kernel. It contains appreciable quantities of edible oil thus holds various food applications due to presence of higher amount of oleic and stearic acid. In the present research, the lipid fraction from mango kernel were extracted and explored for their potential to replace (varying from 5 to 25%) normal shortenings in cereal baked products. In the first phase, lipid fraction was characterized for various physical and chemical traits. Later, the products were evaluated for their textural and color profile along with physical and chemical characteristics. Lastly, trained taste panel was hired to assess the suitability of product for commercialization. The results were quite conclusive that the lipid fraction melts at normal temperature (26.2°C) thus can be used to replace normal biscuits shortening. The results further indicated that addition of mango kernel lipid fraction influenced physical characters of cookies significantly, while chemical parameters remained insignificant. However, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values decreased showing the improved oxidative stability and reduced free radical production. The sensory panelists were of the view that cookies containing 15 & 20% mango kernel lipid fraction are suitable for human consumption. In the nutshell, extraction of mango kernel lipid fraction and its utilization in baked products can results in saving millions of foreign exchange reserves for Pakistan thus contributing food security in edible oil sector.
We investigated factors that affect the desirability of Cheddar-type cheeses among collegiate women in Japan using sensory and instrumental analyses. The sensory characteristics of seven Cheddar cheeses were analyzed, i.e., volatile composition; fatty acid composition; low molecular weight compounds including amino acids, amines, and organic acids; texture; and color. PCA models based on the sensory attributes and instrumental analyses of the cheeses demonstrated that the texture, pH, flavor intensity, and amount of amino acids in Cheddar cheeses affected their desirability. Volatile compounds detected by headspace SPME-GC/MS explained the flavor intensity, whereas those detected by SDE-GC/MS were related to a desirable aroma after eating. The descriptive sensory analysis showed that “butter” and “mango” aroma characteristics, which were related to methyl ketone and ester volatile compounds, were important factors that affected Cheddar cheese desirability. The sensory properties changed throughout ripening because of variations in these components.
Ultrasound assisted osmotic dehydration (UOD) combined hot-air drying (AD) process was investigated in this study. The influences of operation parameters such as ultrasonic energy density and solution concentration on weight reduction ratio (WRR) were discussed. The effects of UOD on the following AD of carrot slices were also studied. The results showed that ultrasonic energy density and solution concentration have positive and significant effects on WRR. Osmosis dehydration (OD) pretreatment without ultrasound assistance before AD has negative effects on the total processing time and the effective moisture diffusivity. Yet when ultrasound is applied, the increase of ultrasonic energy density could shorten dehydration time of the following AD process and total processing time. UOD prior to AD has positive effects on improving carotenoid content of product and reducing process energy cost. So it's definitely concluded that UOD pretreatment is an effective and complementary method for traditional AD process.
Rapidity is the biggest advantage of vacuum cooling in the food industry, especially for cooked meat. However, the largest volumetric displacement does not guarantee the best temperature uniformity because the structure of the food can affect the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer in food during the vacuum cooling process. Because the temperature uniformity is one of the most important factors in the cooling effect, it is necessary to achieve a uniform temperature distribution across the portion of food by choosing the best evacuation scheme. In this paper, the volumetric displacement was varied with the pressure to conduct a vacuum cooling experiment for heated ham. The results were evaluated by measuring the real-time temperature distribution on the ham section using a sensitive infrared thermal imaging system. The results indicated that properly varying the volumetric displacement during the cooling process can not only uniformize the temperature distribution across the ham section but that it can also reduce both the weight loss and energy consumption. Consequently, a reasonable varying volumetric displacement can help improve the vacuum cooling effect.
Chlorella sp.-XJY isolated from the Ili River in Northern Xinjiang was cultivated under mixotrophic conditions. The maximum biomass and crude polysaccharide production significantly increased (2.06 g/L and 145.5 mg/L, respectively) under mixotrophic conditions than under photoautotrophic conditions. Dilute alkaline was employed to extract crude polysaccharides from Chlorella sp.-XJY. The effects of time, temperature, and pH value on extraction yield were investigated using response surface methodology. The optimal conditions were determined as follows: 3.2 h extraction time, 96.4°C extraction temperature, and pH 10.94. Analysis of variance showed that the contribution of the quadratic model was significant (R2 = 0.9808) for the responses. Under the optimum conditions, the extraction yield of crude polysaccharides was 10.56%, which matches well with the predicted yield of 10.72%.
The heterogeneous moisture diffusion of milled rice grains at 25, 35 and 45°C was simulated in 3D using the finite element method. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of temperature on moisture absorption and to predict the heterogeneous moisture diffusion in milled rice grains. Major routes and cracks channeled and facilitated rapid moisture movement in the grain. High temperature increased the rate of moisture movement. The moisture diffusion coefficient expressed as a function of moisture, temperature and time adequately described the heterogeneous moisture diffusion characteristics in milled rice. The integration of the logistic function of time reduced the root mean square error (RMSE) values between the experimental data and the numerical solution. Moreover, the RMSE values were much lower than the values modeled with moisture and temperature only. Modeling moisture transfer using the major routes of moisture revealed an increase in the modified frequency factor of the moisture diffusion coefficient.
The powder of freeze-dried sweet corn was stored under different conditions at 4, 20 and 37°C for 12 weeks, and the stability of lutein and its isomers during storage were studied. It was found that total lutein content declined depending on storage conditions and the kind of lutein isomer. The highest residual of all-trans-lutein was found stored at 4°C with vacuum and dark. Under the storage of air and light at 37°C, major isomers 9-cis-lutein, 9′-cis-lutein, 13′-cis-lutein and 13-cis-lutein showed significant increases by 35.0, 50.0, 38.4 and 37.1%, respectively, of its original content after 12 weeks of storage, which indicated isomerization might take place during storage. The kinetics of all-trans-lutein degradation under different conditions followed first order kinetics well, the apparent rate constant values were lowest under vacuum and dark and highest under air and light at each storage temperature, confirming potential detrimental effects of oxygen and light on lutein loss.
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a novel DNA amplification technique, is widely used in molecular diagnosis although it is very easy to be contaminated by the huge amount of its own amplicons. An improved visual LAMP method for the event specific identification of GM rice TT51-1 and a rice endogenous reference gene (sucrose phosphate synthase, SPS) was established. Pre-loaded calcein and manganous ion into the LAMP reaction offered not only an easy way to read results by colour change from orange to green but also a closed- tube system to reduce contaminations caused by amplification products. The LAMP assays could be finished within 60 min, and the limits of detection (LODs) were estimated as low as 10 and 20 copies of rice haploid genomic DNA, respectively, about 10-fold more sensitive than that of conventional PCR. The specificities of the assays were also well evaluated with optimized system and conditions. The developed one-step visual LAMP assays in this study provided a promising tool for the convenient and effective detection of GM crops.
Changes of the volatile profile in farmed ovate pompano stored in ice were investigated in order to determine fish freshness. The volatile organic compounds were analyzed by head space solid phase microextraction (SPME) and GC/MS analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to characterize the freshness levels with time. PCA could differentiate fish freshness level based on their different volatile profile. Major compounds that contribute to the separation were acetaldehyde, 2-methyl-butane, hexane, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, benzaldehyde, and hexadecane. The results show that fish volatile profile analysis could be a potential useful and rapid tool to characterize fish freshness during storage in ice.
A comparison of the browning of fish species grilled using far-infrared (FIR) heating was evaluated. Japanese amberjack (Seriola quinqueradiata), Japanese Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus niphonius), salmon (Oncorhynchus masou), and red sea bream (Pagrus major) were used. Temperature and colour (CIE L*, a*, and b* values) of the sample surface were monitored over time. The rate of L* change was evaluated by treating the browning reaction as a first-order reaction. Colour changes based on a* and b* values were correlated with L* values using empirical equations. During browning, the trajectories of sample colour changes followed almost the same pattern, except for salmon, which was probably due to astaxanthin content. Samples with higher fat content browned faster, according to their higher frequency factor (k0) of the browning rate. An empirical equation for k0 prediction based on sample fat content was obtained, giving fairly good approximations to measured values.
The efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) to inactivate foodborne pathogens and indigenous microbiota on shell eggs was evaluated and compared to chlorine dioxide (CD), acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) and NaClO solution. The eggs were artificially inoculated with S. enteritidis, E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus and sprayed or immersed with SAEW, alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW) followed by SAEW (AlEW+SAEW), CD, AEW and NaClO solution, respectively. The effect of SAEW on the natural microbiota of shell eggs was also determined. Spraying shell eggs with SAEW, CD and NaClO solution at an ACC of 60 mg/L had no significant bactericidal difference for foodborne pathogens and indigenous microbiota on shell eggs, and the difference of disinfection effect between SAEW and AEW was not significant, whereas the bactericidal activity of SAEW for E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus, total aerobic bacteria and moulds and yeasts was significantly higher than that of CD and NaClO solution at ACCs of 80 or 100 mg/L. SAEW was found to be more effective when used in conjunction with AlEW, and higher reductions were obtained with the immersion treatment. Results indicate that the disinfectant efficiency of SAEW is equivalent to or higher than that of chlorine dioxide and NaClO solution and therefore SAEW shows the potential to be used for sanitization of egg shells as an environmentally friendly disinfection agent.
The potential toxic properties and safety of Chinese cherry seed oil (CSO) were investigated by in vitro and in vivo toxicity tests. The acute oral toxicity study revealed no significant difference for the macroscopic results, the mortality and the body weight gain at 4000 mg CSO/kg bw (p > 0.05). The results in the bacterial reverse mutation test indicated the doses levels of 100 - 5000 µg/plate did not induce mutations. The mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test was used to evaluate structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations, compared with the negative control, the results showed no significant difference in micronucleus formation and the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes and micro nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes at the concentrations of 500 - 2000 mg CSO/kg bw (p > 0.05). According to the mouse sperm abnormality test, CSO has no toxicity on mutagenesis of germ cell at the dietary exposure of 500 - 2000 mg/kg bw. In 28-day oral toxicity test, the food intake, organ weight and the biochemical and hematological parameters of all animals were not significantly different among the tested and the control groups (p > 0.05).
Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was performed on an extract prepared from chicken soup stock and 9 aroma-active compounds were selected. On the basis of high flavor dilution (FD) factors in combination with the results of the identification experiments, methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-4-methylthiazole, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were suggested as primary aroma compounds of chicken soup stock. Recombination and omission experiments of the identified aroma-active compounds in taste-reconstituted chicken soup stock revealed the main flavor profile of each compound as “roast”, “roast meaty”, “boiled meaty”, and “fatty”, respectively. A comparison of the overall flavor of the recombined mixture and the chicken soup stock revealed a high similarity, suggesting that these four compounds are important contributors to the aroma of chicken soup stock.
To improve the quality of fish (sea bream) served to elderly people who have difficulty in chewing and/or swallowing, the effects of various concentrations of protease (papain) on the palatability, and physicochemical and histological properties of minced sea bream (MSB) were examined. In papain-treated MSBs, an increase in the total free amino acid content and a significant decrease in meat toughness were observed with increasing concentrations of papain. Sensory evaluation revealed that the texture of the 0.2% and 0.3% papain-treated MSBs was more tender and easier to eat than 0.1% papain-treated MSBs. However, MSBs treated with 0.1% and 0.2% papain were tastier than those treated with 0.3% papain, with the latter treatment leading to the highest levels of bitter components (hypoxanthine and inosine) in the fish meat. Additionally, histological examination confirmed the complete disappearance of muscle cells and connective tissues in 0.3% papain-treated MSB. These results suggest that processing of MSB with a papain concentration of 0.2% is the most suitable for palatable consumption of this fish by the elderly.
The present study focused on variation in the fatty acid (FA) composition of the different lipids in black, red and green rice brans. Total lipids were fractionated using TLC into nine subfractions. The lipids comprised mainly triacylglycerols (TAG: 78.0 - 81.6 wt%), free FA (FFA: 5.6 - 8.8 wt%), and phospholipids (PL: 6.3 - 7.0 wt%). The PL components included phosphatidyl choline (52.6 - 57.2 wt%), phosphatidyl inositol (22.3 - 25.2 wt%) and phosphatidyl ethanolamine (11.4 - 16.4 wt%). Comparison of these cultivars showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in FA composition of TAG, FFA and PL. FA composition of TAG among the three cultivars was characterized in the rice brans: unsaturated FA were predominantly concentrated at the sn-2 position (97.7 - 98.5 wt%) and saturated FA primarily occupied the sn-1 or sn-3 position (29.8 - 31.8 wt%). Comparison of individual PLs revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) in FA composition. Black and red rice brans were very similar, with green rice bran exhibiting a few differences. The results revealed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the proportional composition of FA with increased degree of milling.
Volatile compounds from fresh and pickled bamboo shoots were extracted using a headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and analysed with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a gas chromatography olfactometry (GC-O). Result showed that a total 68 major volatile compounds were identified in fresh and pickled bamboo shoots by GC-MS analysis; 38 volatile compounds in fresh bamboo shoots were identified. Among them, 2-pentylfuran, hexanal, benzaldehyde, 1-hexanol and (E)-2-nonadienal were the main volatile compounds. As for pickled samples, 52 major volatile compounds were identified, the main of which included ethanol, 1-hexanol, hexanal, methoxy-phenyl-oxime and acetic acid. Moreover, 17 flavor-active compounds in fresh samples were identified by GC-O analysis. Grass and astringent flavor were the key flavor-active compounds. As for pickled samples, 19 flavor-active compounds were identified by GC-O analysis. Pungent and rancid flavor were the main flavor-active compounds. The differences of flavor features between fresh and pickled bamboo shoots suggested that flavor components in fresh bamboo shoots had obviously changed after the pickling process.
Aromatic compounds were isolated from an extract of Eurotium herbariorum NU-2, which is used in the process of manufacturing karebushi (a katsuobushi). The seventeen compounds were identified as anthraquinone derivatives (A1-A6), eurotinone derivatives (B1, B2), indole-containing diketopiperazine derivatives (C1-C6), and benzaldehyde derivatives (D1-D3). 2-Methyleurotinone (B1), isoechinulin A (C6), tetrahydroauroglaucin (D1), isodihydroauroglaucin (D2), and flavoglaucin (D3) exhibited significantly higher DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity compared to α-tocopherol, a standard radical scavenger (P < 0.05). Asperflavin (A4), isoechinulin B (C1), neoechinulin B (C2), and variecolorin O (C4) had similar activity to α-tocopherol. The extract of E. herbariorum NU-2 exhibited high radical scavenging activity compared to other filamentous fungi from katsuobushi, and also contained higher levels of isoechinulin B (C1), echinulin (C5), tetrahydroauroglaucin (D1), and flavoglaucin (D3). The concentration of tetrahydroauroglaucin (D1) in the filamentous fungus extract was highly correlated with the radical scavenging activity.
Daqu, as an essential saccharifying and fermentative agent during Chinese liquor manufacture, is closely related to the quality and yield of liquor. In order to explore the microbial community structure during the process of Daqu production, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) patterns were analyzed. The results obtained by measuring the PLFA contents of pure mycelium and raw materials demonstrated that PLFA analysis was appropriate to explore the characteristics and shifts of the microbial community in Daqu sample. Analysis of the microbial community of Daqu by PLFA method suggested that fungi predominated the total amounts of biomass in Daqu. In addition, changes in contents of fungi and bacteria were also investigated during Daqu-making. From the shaped stage to the finished stage of Daqu, fungi dominated gradually, and a small amount of bacterial biomass were detected in all finished Daqu samples. In three finished Daqu samples, the fungal biomass accounted for 68.85% - 80.11% of total biomass. Furthermore, the contents of gram-positive bacteria were higher than that of gram-negative bacteria in all Daqu samples.
The palI gene promotes plasma membrane localization of PalH in Aspergillus nidulans. We analyzed the role of palI in the ambient pH signal transduction pathway of A. oryzae by disrupting the palI gene. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridization analyses indicated that homologous recombination occurred at the resident palI locus. palI disruption resulted in significantly decreased pacC expression and alkaline protease activity. Based on these results, we believe that palI plays an important role in the ambient pH signal transduction pathway of A. oryzae. While the palI-disrupted strain showed some growth on plates at alkaline pH, the palH-disrupted strain showed no growth. Thus, the results indicate that palI plays an important but not essential role in the pH signal transduction pathway of A. oryzae.
We observed clear differences in glucose accumulation in milled grains between 8 japonica and 8 indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars subjected to hot-water (60°C) treatment for 30 min. The mean glucose content increased rapidly, from 8.9 to 123 mg/100 g DW in japonica grains and 4.6 to 54 mg/100 g DW in indica grains. The difference in glucose content between the two ecotypes corresponded to the observed significant difference in hydrolytic activities on gelatinized starch, which were much higher in japonica grains. Whereas, the mean α-glucosidase activity of the two ecotypes did not significantly differ. There was a significant correlation between the glucose content under hot-water treatment and glucose liberating enzyme activity.
Free and glycosidically bound volatile compounds in different parts of Eureka lemon were studied. Free volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME). Bound volatile compounds were isolated from juice by adsorption onto an Amberlite XAD-2 column, and then hydrolyzed by almond β-glucosidase. Both the free volatile compounds and the released aglycones were analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectromerty (GC-MS). Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) was also used to determine the aroma-active compounds in juice and peel. Totally 29 and 34 free volatiles were found in juice and peel, respectively. Terpenes and aldehydes were the most abundant compounds in free fractions. Four and six bound volatile compounds were found in juice and peel with a total concentration of 127.8 and 1161.52 µg/L. Benzenic and terpenic compounds were the main bound volatiles found in Eureka lemon fruit. Mannose and glucose were found as sugar moiety in juice, and glucose was found the only sugar linked to bound volatiles in peel.