Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn. is an effective medical plant, and is also used as a healthy and adjuvant therapy functional food. Although a considerable amount of scientific research was reported on F. tataricum in the last decades, it is currently scattered across various publications. The present review comprises the traditional uses and ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological research on F. tataricum in the last decades. A large number of chemical studies and pharmacological during the last decades have demonstrated the vast medicinal potential of F. tataricum. The objective of this review is to bring together most of the scientific research available on F. tataricum and evaluate its effects and mechanisms.
Myosin is the major protein in fish muscle and determines the quality of the muscle. Fish myosin is typically unstable, especially myosin from cold-water fish species. Accordingly, an understanding of species-specific myosin denaturation is important for evaluating the quality of fish muscle. The myosin molecule consists of a head and tail portion and thus the denaturation of these two regions was analyzed upon the heating and freezing of myofibrils (Mf). Moreover, preferential actin denaturation determines myosin denaturation in Mf upon treatment with high concentrations of salt or by freezing. The indices for detecting myosin and actin denaturation in Mf were successfully applied to evaluate the quality of Bluefin tuna samples and frozen surimi. In addition, the unique myosin denaturation observed with squid Mf is discussed.
Melanin is a natural pigment with great development potential as a healthful food colorant. Low cost fermentation medium using wheat bran extract as a major nutrient source, was evaluated for production of melanin from the fungus Auricularia auricula in submerged culture. Effects of wheat bran extract, l-tyrosine and CuSO4 on tyrosinase activity and melanin yield were investigated. Results showed that wheat bran extract, l-tyrosine and CuSO4 concentrations influenced tyrosinase activity and increased melanin yield. Box-Behnken design indicated the following optimal medium composition: wheat bran extract 26.80% (v/v), l-tyrosine 1.59 g/L and CuSO4 0.11 g/L. Under these conditions, the highest melanin yield (519.54 mg/L) was obtained. The present study avoids the use of purified tyrosinase, expensive chemical methods or the cumbersome extraction of melanin from animal or plant tissues. These results might provide a reference for the development of a cost-effective medium for commercial production of melanin used in food industry.
In this study, an efficient complex enzyme-assisted extraction technology was developed and optimized to extract polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus mycelia (HEP) using the Box-Behnken design based on the results of single factor experiments. As a result, the optimal protocol was as follows: an extraction time of 79 min, an extraction temperature of 50°C, a pH of 5.7 and a ratio of water to raw materials of 33.4 mL/g. These optimal extraction conditions achieved the highest yield (13.9 ± 0.3%) of HEP. The purified fraction (HEP-2) was composed of glucose, galactose, mannose, fucose, arabinose, xylose and rhammnose. HEP-2 manifested an obvious inhibitory effect on the growth of HeLa cells. The overall findings implied that enzyme-assisted procedure is a superior method and that HEP-2 might be useful for developing natural and safe antitumor drugs.
Shrimp and squid often cause food allergy. In order to prevent malnutrition, allergic patients are advised that they can eat foods that contain allergy-inducing ingredients as long as the intake does not cause an allergic reaction. However, there is no hypoallergenic treatment applicable to invertebrate seafood. Thus, in this study, we aimed to develop a hypoallergenic treatment for invertebrate seafood by removing the major allergen tropomyosin (TM) in invertebrate seafood. When muscle samples of shrimp and squid were subjected to boiling for 10 min, only 11.2 and 35.0% of TM remained in the muscles, respectively. Thus, boiling is considered to be an efficient hypoallergenic method, particularly with respect to shrimp.
Production of lactulose from lactose in subcritical aqueous ethanol was analyzed through a series of kinetic experiments. Assuming first-order reaction kinetics for both the reversible isomerization between lactose and lactulose and the hydrolysis of these disaccharides, the rate constants for these processes were estimated from our previous results (Soisangwan et al., in press) using the concentration-time integrals method. In subcritical water, the rate constants for the hydrolysis of lactose and lactulose to their constituent monosaccharides were found to be greater than the rate constant for the isomerization of lactose to lactulose. In subcritical aqueous ethanol, on the other hand, the rate constant for this isomerization reaction was found to be greater than the rate constants for both of the hydrolysis processes. The activation energies for the isomerization of lactose to lactulose and its reverse reaction were determined as 105 and 153 kJ/mol, respectively.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the influence of sweeteners on the in vivo aroma release from beverages and aroma perceptions. Equi-sweet and lemon-flavored model beverages were prepared using sucrose, acesulfame potassium (ACK), aspartame (ASP) and sucralose. The amounts of in-mouth odorants exhaled through the nostrils during the consumption of the model beverages were compared using the Retronasal Flavor Impression Screening System (R-FISS) by 4 trained panelists, and the relationship between the in vivo aroma release and their aroma perceptions was evaluated. As a result of the sensory evaluation using quantitative descriptive analysis, the lemon-like aroma of the beverage containing ACK was perceived to be significantly weaker, while the green aroma of the beverage containing sucralose and the spicy aroma of the beverages containing ASP and sucralose were perceived as significantly stronger than the other beverages. In contrast, there were no in-mouth odorants showing significant differences in their amounts that were common to the 4 panelists. Therefore, it was found that the sweeteners could have a small impact on the in vivo aroma release from the model beverages. These results suggested that differences in aroma quality of the model beverages by the types of sweeteners could result from factors other than the in vivo aroma release. Furthermore, it is highly likely that the taste-aroma interactions caused by the aroma and taste compounds would be one of the factors having a significant impact on the different aroma perceptions of the beverages containing the different sweeteners.
The nutrient content of the leaves of sweet potato cultivar Koganesengan was determined to be 35.0 kcal energy, 89.0 g water, 3.9 g protein, 0.8 g fat, 1.0 g carbohydrates, 1.2 g minerals, and 4.1 g dietary fiber/100 g fresh weight. The polyphenol content of the leaves was 11.5 g chlorogenic acid equivalents per 100 g dry weight. Some reports have described that the consumption of dietary fiber and polyphenols is effective in treating dyslipidemia. Therefore, we investigated the influence of sweet potato leaves on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet. After 35 days of rearing, the weight gain and adipose tissue weight were lower in the rats fed a high-fat diet supplemented with sweet potato leaves than in those not fed sweet potato leaves. Plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels, and liver total cholesterol level were significantly lower in rats fed sweet potato leaves compared to rats fed the high-fat diet alone. These results suggested that the simultaneous intake of sweet potato leaf and the high-fat diet inhibited the excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in rats.
We successfully identified the main constituents responsible for the high antioxidant properties of the leaves of Paeonia anomala (Paeoniaceae) for the first time. P. anomala is an endemic plant widely found throughout Mongolia, and its air-dried leaves are main ingredients in some kinds of herbal teas. Infusions of P. anomala leaves are also used as home remedies for the treatment of liver and kidney ailments by the local population. Three major antioxidative constituents were isolated from the ethyl acetate layer of a P. anomala leaf ethanol extract via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay-guided fractionation, consisting of liquid-liquid partition, two types of open column chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. Chemical structures of the purified compounds were identified using LC-MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR as methyl gallate, pentagalloylglucose, and tellimoside. The identified compounds contributed to 35% of the total DPPH radical scavenging activity of the P. anomala leaf ethanol extract.
This study was conducted to identify key components that attenuate oral fat sensations in oolong tea. Oolong tea is often consumed with fatty food because of its “refreshing” effects during the course of a meal. We hypothesized that oolong tea gives a cleanness sensation via psychological and physical effects. We showed through a sensory study that oolong tea consumption significantly reduces oral fat sensations as compared to water. Interfacial tension was measured to evaluate the emulsifying properties of teas and its components. Oolong tea and tea-leaf saponins were significantly lower when compared with other teas and major tea components. Furthermore, the emulsion made from tea-leaf saponins and corn oil was stable after 24 h. Moreover, polyphenol enhanced oolong tea showed significantly decreased oral fattiness when compared with oolong tea. Thus, tea-leaf saponins appear to be key components in reducing oral fat sensation.
The characteristics of the volatiles from 43 ‘Fuji’ apples representing 14 different apple production regions in China were investigated using headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results obtained from this experiment showed that sixty-four volatile compounds were identified in ‘Fuji’ apples collected from 43 counties in China. The major volatile compounds were identified as 2-methyl butyl acetate and hexyl acetate. The composition of volatiles and their contents in ‘Fuji’ apples varied in different regions. All of the ‘Fuji’ apple samples could be classified into the following groups using a principal component analysis of the volatiles: (1) apples with high concentrations of hexyl acetate and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, which were collected in Shandong (Qixia, Wendeng, Penglai, Zhaoyuan, Jiaonan and Yishui), Shanxi (Wanrong, Ruicheng and Linyi), and Gansu Ninglang, (2) apples with high contents of 2-methyl butyl acetate and 1-hexanol, which mainly came from North Shaanxi, Henan Sanmenxia, Liaoning Wafangdian and Liaoning Suizhong, (3) apples with high contents of hexyl butanoate, butyl acetate and hexyl 2-methyl butyrate, which were mainly collected in Gansu (excluding Ninglang), and (4) apples without any characteristic volatile composition. In addition, it was found that mean annual temperature was significant correlated with 2-methyl butyl acetate,butyl 2-methyl butanoate, hexyl acetate, and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate. Longitude was significantly correlated with butyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate.
Methods for the production and isolation of the tea components teadenols A and B were developed because of their potential anti-metabolic syndrome activity. Aspergillus sp. (FARM AP-21280) was inoculated to a modified Czapek-Dox medium containing (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate (GCG) and incubated at 25°C. The maximum contents of the teadenols were observed at 19 days, and the contents increased depending on the initial EGCG concentration. The addition of green tea powder to the medium enhanced the production of teadenols. In the modified Czapek-Dox medium containing 5.0% EGCG and 1.0% green tea powder, teadenols A and B were efficiently produced at 3.22 ± 0.23 and 4.49 ± 0.38 mg/mL, respectively. The teadenols were purified by sequential chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and InertSustain™ C18 columns. After purification by preparative HPLC, 0.27 g teadenol A (29.7% recovery) and 0.45 g teadenol B (42.9% recovery) were obtained from the 970 mL culture filtrate.
To explore the hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of tea seed oil, we administered tea seed oil and olive oil to rats to construct the rat hyperlipidemic model induced by high-fat diet, determined biochemical parameters in blood with biochemical kits and biochemical analyzer, calculated arteriosclerosis index (AI) and liver coefficient (LC), detected pathological changes of the livers by microscope and analyzed statistically significant difference of the parameters among the groups. Results showed that tea seed oil can significantly inhibit the body weight gain of rats induced by the high fat diet, significantly decrease concentration levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase in serum as well as the values of arteriosclerosis index (AI) and liver coefficient (LC) of the hyperlipidemic rats, significantly increase concentration levels of high density lipoprotein Cholesterol of the hyperlipidemic rats, significantly diminish the accumulation of lipid droplets in liver and abate liver damages of hyperlipidemic rats. Conclusion is that tea seed oil has good hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects on hyperlipidemic rats.
Sedum aizoon is an edible medicinal plant with various pharmacological activities distributed widely in China. The flavonoids of S. aizoon have been shown to possess a variety of important biological activities. In this work, a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was employed for the efficient extraction of flavonoids from S. aizoon leaves. The influences of MAE conditions including temperature, extraction time, solvent to solid ratio, and ethanol concentration on the yield of flavonoids were systematically investigated by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology (RSM) experimental design. Under the optimal MAE conditions of extraction time 20 min, extraction temperature 57°C, solvent to solid ratio 20 mL/g, and ethanol concentration 80.6%, the flavonoids yield reached 24.87 ± 0.26 mg/g and was much higher than that of conventional Soxhlet extraction (CSE) method (18.67 ± 0.35 mg/g). The obtained flavonoids exhibited strong antioxidant activities with IC50 value of 0.315 mg/mL in the DPPH radical-scavenging experients. The results indicated that MAE was a simple and efficient technology for the extraction of flavonoids from S. aizoon leaves and the flavonoids may serve as new potential natural antioxidant for functional food ingredients and additives.
There is an increasing interest in developing renewable and degradable gelatin films for various applications. However, gelatin has to be modified before use due to its poor mechanical properties, sensitivity to water and microorganisms. In this work, gelatin films were modified physically and chemically. Effects of the molecular size of the modifying agents on the properties of the structure and properties of gelatin films were discussed. It was found that alcohols with higher molecular weight endowed the gelatin films with reduced migration ratio in water, showing an excellent plasticizing stability. Films chemically modified with macromolecule dialdehyde starch (DAS) showed obviously lower swelling ratio than that modified with small molecule glutaraldehyde (GTA). The present work indicated that the plasticizers and crosslinking agents with proper molecular size and molecular weight endowed the physically and chemically modified gelatin films with superior physical properties, providing useful information for the modification of gelatin and other biopolymers.
The lactic acid bacterial flora during processing of Xiaoshan pickle radish were investigated. The samples were pickled with the product from three different markets by spontaneous fermentation. The average pH value varied from 6.8 ± 0.1 to 4.6 ± 0.2. There was no significant difference between the number of bacteria and pH value in samples from different product sites. A total of 387 gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates were obtained. All isolates were identified as Lactobacillus sakei and Leuconostoc lactis by physiological tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Leuc. lactis was the dominated species in the initial stages of fermentation, but in late stages L. sakei had a remarkly increasing and the percentage were 0.0%, 16.7%, 50.0%, 81.8%, 80.0%, 83.3% and 100.0% respectively from stage “A”(before washing with clean water) , “B” (after washing with clean water), “C” (before first curing), “D”(after first curing), “E” (before second curing), “F” (after second curing) to “G” (product ready-to-eat).
This study investigated the optimization of L-lactic acid production from banana peel as an unutilized biomass, by multiple parallel fermentation (MPF) with Bacillus licheniformis and Aspergillus awamori. To optimize L-lactic acid production, the factors studied consisted of banana peel, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, Tween 80, magnesium sulfate heptahydrate, sodium chloride, yeast extract, and ammonium sulfate. Optimization of these component factors was performed using the Taguchi method with an L8 orthogonal array. The optimal concentration for MPF using biomass substrate was as follows: L-lactic acid production was 28.01 g/L in the medium containing 10% banana peel, 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.05% Tween 80, 0.1% magnesium sulfate heptahydrate, 0.1% sodium chloride, 1.5% yeast extract, and 0.2% ammonium sulfate. The result indicates that MPF with B. licheniformis and A. awamori could constitute part of a potential industrial application for banana peel as a currently unutilized biomass for L-lactic acid production.
Much attention has been focused on the potential health-promoting effects of quercetin, a flavonoid that is metabolized by the intestinal microbiota. However, there are few reports on the intestinal bacteria that degrade quercetin. We isolated the quercetin-degrading bacterium strain 19 – 20 (Accession no: LC175305) from human feces. Based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the bacterium exhibits 100% similarity to Clostridium orbiscindens (Accession no: Y18187). Quercetin degradation was observed to increase in a time-dependent manner when co-incubated with strain 19 – 20 in vitro; the majority of quercetin was degraded within 24 hr. Strain 19 – 20 quercetin degradation was inhibited by resveratrol. Co-incubation of quercetin and resveratrol significantly reduced strain 19 – 20 quercetin degradation. This is the first report of the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on quercetin degradation by intestinal bacteria.
Rice endosperm enzyme activity affects the qualities of cooked rice. In this study, we aimed to investigate the differential localization of various enzymes in the endosperm of milled rice. Using hydrolytic enzyme analysis, we confirmed the activities of amylase, protease, and lipase. We milled brown rice to yields of 30 – 90%, at intervals of 10%, and then extracted enzymes from the milled rice. Total protein content was reduced by about 43% with 60% removal of the outer layer, resulting from the decrease in milling yield from 90 – 30%. However, the water-soluble protein content was only approximately 0.3% in both the inner and outer layers. Moreover, the activities of esterase (C4), acidic and alkaline phosphatase, leucine allyl amidase, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphodiester hydrolase, α- and β-galactosidases, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, debranching enzyme, β-amylase, and α-glucosidase were similar between the inner and outer layers. In contrast, the activities of esterase lipase (C8), valine allyl amidase, cystine allyl amidase, trypsin, β-glucosidase, α-mannosidase, α-amylase, and polygalacturonase were greater in the outer layer. Thus, these results showed that measurement of rice endosperm enzyme activity could be used to assess enzyme localization.
The purpose of this study is to select LAB that produce daidzein during soymilk fermentation from among 32 strains isolated from Japanese traditional fermented sushi and pickles. Fourteen strains showed more than 0.5% titratable acidity at 48 h fermentation in soymilk. These strains were applied to a daidzein production test. Seven strains including 5 Lactobacillus plantarum strains, 1 Lb. sakei subsp. sakei strain, and 1 Lb. coryniformis strain yielded more than 4.0 µg/g daidzein in soymilk after 48 h fermentation. Lb. plantarum JAB2001 showed the highest titratable acidity (0.5%) and the highest daidzein yield (10.10 µg/g) during soymilk fermentation at 40°C for 12 h. Strain JAB2001 could be used as a starter culture of fermented soymilk products.
We investigated how different processing of soy foods impacts their hypolipidemic properties. Male rats were fed a diet containing 300 g/kg of roasted soybean, powdered soy milk, dried fresh tofu, or kori tofu for 21 days. Roasted soybean, a fiber-rich food, significantly increased the fecal total lipid content. The fecal excretion of bile acids was significantly stimulated by fresh tofu and kori tofu, both of which contain coagulated protein. Soy milk and tofu products, which are relatively rich in protein, partly suppressed hepatic lipogenesis compared to roasted soybean. Unfortunately, the impact of these differences was not apparent in reducing lipid levels in serum and liver. Given these observations, constant consumption of each soy food may modulate intestinal lipid absorption and hepatic lipogenesis differently.