Cereal germination involves a series of complex physiological and biochemical processes that are influenced by multiple internal and external factors. Previous studies have shown that certain non-thermal processing techniques can be used to effectively induce a range of physiological and biochemical changes in cereal seeds, thereby increasing the digestibility and bioavailability of cereals and enhancing the nutritional value, flavor, and quality of cereal sprouts. Here, we provide an overview of the principle of promoting cereal germination to enrich physiologically active components review the effects of treating cereal seeds with three new non-thermal processing technologies, namely, ultrasound, microwaves, and magnetic fields, on the contents of enzymes and various other seed components during germination. Finally, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of applying the above techniques to cereal germination.
To improve issues of workability and insufficient volume of bread containing rice gel or puree, low-adhesiveness ground rice purees were produced using a stone grinder. Hardness and adhesiveness of ground purees were much lower than those of conventional rice puree. The hardness of bread containing ground purees was significantly lower than that of bread containing rice flour at 1 and 5 d storage at 5 °C and comparable to that of wheat flour. The distribution of amylopectin chain lengths was almost identical; however, the molecular weight of amylopectin of ground purees was lower than that of rice flour and conventional rice puree. These results suggested that ground purees produce softer bread due to the smaller amylopectin molecules following shearing and digestion of amorphous regions by grinding, indicating that ground purees improve food quality and are much easier to use than conventional rice puree.
The objective of this study was to clarify whether the natural mastication behavior of Japanese who habitually consume rice changes among high-quality rice cultivars or not. A newly developed cultivar in Yamagata Prefecture, “Yukiwakamaru”, as well as “Haenuki”, “Tsuyahime”, and “Koshihikari” were selected. Rice samples were produced in Yamagata city in 2017, milled, cooked, and served under the same conditions. The cooked rice samples had similar amylose and protein contents, moisture, and specific volume. Instrumentally measured textural parameters of a grain of cooked rice were also similar when grain size was considered. Electromyography (EMG) from both masseter and suprahyoid muscles was recorded during natural mastication of nine-g rice samples by eleven healthy subjects. More than fifty EMG variables were examined and none differed significantly among cultivars. The results suggest that the texture of cooked rice prepared from high-quality cultivars is similar and does not significantly influence the natural mastication behavior.
In this study, accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of capsanthin from red paprika was optimized by response surface methodology using a Box–Behnken design. Three independent variables (temperature, static time, and extraction solvent) were studied at 1 500 psi. As the response variable, capsanthin was quantitatively determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) using a BEH C18 column after validating the capsanthin analysis method. The optimal extraction conditions were temperature of 100°C, static time of 5 min, and extraction solvent of 50% acetone/ethanol (v/v). Under the optimized condition, the yield of capsanthin extraction was 26.86 ± 3.70 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), in good agreement with the predicted value (26.12 mg/100 g dw). Compared to conventional solvent extraction, the amount of organic solvent and required extraction time was reduced. This study provides technical guidance for the industrial extraction of capsanthin and improves the utilization of red paprika.
The objective of this study was to compare the effect of papain, bromelain, kiwifruit protease, ficin and ginger extract with different concentration (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 U/g) for improving the quality properties of beef rump steaks. The pH, cooking loss, Warner–Bratzler shear force, texture, colour, myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), collagen heat solubility, content of soluble protein (CSP), electrophoresis and sensory evaluation are invested. The result showed that all of plant-origin proteases and ginger extract can improve quality characteristics of rump steaks, and ginger extract was found to be the most effective at reducing cooking loss and contributing to the desirable red color and sensory properties, while papain and bromelain were found to be the most effective at decreasing Warner–Bratzler shear force. Ginger extract can be applied in the industrial scale and household level as a convenient and effective method to improve meat qualities. Furthermore, high-quality rump beef steaks at a keen price would be more available for Chinese consumers.
The protective effect of glass bottles with different levels of transparency (clear or amber glass) on the quality of extra virgin olive oil was evaluated after exposure to sunlight or storage in clear glass bottles covered with aluminum foil for 5 weeks. Oils stored in clear glass bottles had significantly higher values of all quality parameters (free fatty acids, peroxide value, and K270), and lower pigment (chlorophylls and carotenoids) and phenolic contents than the same oils stored in covered or amber glass bottles. Oils stored in covered glass bottles showed no deterioration, whereas oils stored in amber glass bottles contained primary oxidation products. Sunlight exposure produced acrolein in the oils stored in clear glass bottles, but not to the same extent in oils stored in covered and amber glass bottles. These results show that low transparency packaging provides protection against sunlight-induced oxidative deterioration of extra virgin olive oil during storage.
The waste clam shells from Corbicula fluminea is a problem that needs to be solved in Taiwan. We aimed to develop the shell powder for use as antimicrobial agent in soybean curd (tofu) preservation. The calcined clam shell powder (CCSP) characteristics, antimicrobial ability and influence on tofu quality were studied. The results have shown the significantly inhibitoratory effect on Aspergillus niger, Bacillus cereus, Kloeckera apiculata were found. Tofu (1.0 and 1.5 g/L CCSP addition) exhibited dimensional reticular structure, and the sensory evaluation of tofu which added with 0.5 and 1.0 g/L of CCSP showed higher mouthfeel, texture, and lower beany-flavor. The shelf-life of tofu could be extending for 3 d when added with 1.5 g/L of CCSP. The CCSP was firstly reported as an antimicrobial agent in the paper. On the basis of the overall observations, CCSP can be regarded as a natural antimicrobial agent on tofu processing and preservation.
The thermal and acid stability of Oryza sativa rice albumin (RA), which suppresses postprandial hyperglycaemia, was evaluated for its use in foods. RA showed high thermal stability, with a peak temperature (Tp) of 100.8 °C by differential scanning calorimetry measurement. However, its Tp shifted to 52.0 °C with the addition of dithiothreitol, suggesting that the heat resistance of RA is attributed to its rigid structure supported by intermolecular disulphide bonds. The α-amylase inhibitory activity of RA was retained even after heating to 100 °C, although it gradually decreased with longer heating times or increasing concentrations of RA. RA showed high nitrogen solubility and surface properties, such as emulsifying and foaming properties, even under acidic conditions, as opposed to other common food proteins (i.e., casein, soy protein isolate, and dried egg white). These findings suggest that RA can be used as an additive in various foods.
Vortex-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (VA-DLLME) coupled with a high performance liquid chromatography–diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was applied for the determination of phenolic acids (gallic, ferulic, and syringic) in vegetable oils. A deep eutectic solvent (DES) – a green extraction solvent – was synthesized by stirring choline chloride and urea at 80 °C until clarification. The experimental parameters affecting extraction efficiency, such as volume of extraction solvent, ionic strength, and extraction time were all optimized. Under optimal conditions, good linearities with the phenolic acids were achieved in the range 0.1 to 10 µg g−1. The limits of detection varied between 0.010 and 0.021 µg g−1, and the limits of quantification between 0.035 and 0.071 µg g−1. The proposed DES-VA-DLLME-HPLC-DAD method is simple, time-saving, eco-friendly, and can be successfully applied to the extraction of phenolic acids from soybean, peanut, and blending vegetable oils with recoveries ranging from 75.6% to 103.4%.
Here, we examined the preventive effect of Hyuganatsu orange juice (Citrus tamurana Hort. ex Tanaka) on osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and evaluated whether the underlying mechanism involves altered calcium absorption in the intestinal tract. Twenty-five postmenopausal healthy women aged 59–64 years were randomly divided into two groups: the control and Hyuganatsu groups. The treatment group consumed Hyuganatsu orange juice daily for 3 months. As a result, decreases in serum levels of intact procollagen type I N-propeptide (IPINP), a parameter of bone formation, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), a parameter of bone resorption, were observed. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups with respect to other serum parameters used for clinical evaluation of osteoporosis and liver function. In addition, we measured the rate of intestinal calcium absorption, a major determinant, using everted sacs of rat intestine in vitro, and found that the addition of active components such as water extract (WE) and WE-ultrafiltration (WEU) of Hyuganatsu orange juice to the incubation medium led to a marked increase in the absorption of calcium in the intestinal tract. We also observed that arabinogalactan was the active component of Hyuganatsu orange juice. Together, our results suggest that Hyuganatsu orange is a useful citrus fruit and that daily drinking of juice may be effective in preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
Pandan leaf extract, a major source of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), encapsulated in rice starch aggregates was investigated to improve shelf life for its pleasant flavor and color by spray drying a mixture of non-glutinous or glutinous rice starch, gum acacia, and fresh pandan leaf extract under various conditions. An increase in the amount of pandan leaf extract resulted in a darker green color with a larger amount of chlorophyll. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that the microstructure of the product consisted of spheres with an average diameter of 34.14–50.98 µm. The spray dry process, which comprises high temperature treatment of the mixture matrices, caused a change in the pasting properties, as compared with native starch. Quantitative determination of 2AP realized using headspace SPME-GC-MS-SIM revealed that rice starch aggregates are able to entrap 2AP. Encapsulated 2AP was released into the headspace with rice starch gelatinization.
The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on acrylamide generation was studied using an equimolar asparagine-glucose model system that was dissolved in ultrapure water or buffer at initial pH values of 5.0 and 9.0. The concentrations of acrylamide and melanoidins were determined after treatment at 120 µC for 60 min within a range of 100 to 300 MPa. The pH prior to and after treatment was also measured. The generation of acrylamide in all model systems was significantly suppressed under elevated pressure conditions. The strength of correlations among pressure value, acrylamide and melanoidins concentration differed depending on the initial pH condition of the model system. It was suggested that the suppression of acrylamide generation occurred due to the different effects of pressure, which depends on the solution pH, on the Maillard reaction involving acrylamide formation. Based on these findings, we propose that application of HHP to heat processing of foods could be effective to reduce acrylamide content.
The used of insects as protein sources is growing rapidly for a variety of reasons, including global food security, sustainability, nutritional value and animal welfare. The nutritional composition and functional properties of extracted proteins from two cricket species (A. domesticus and G. bimaculatus) were investigated. Both cricket species contained high amounts of proteins (60–70% dry weight) with all essential amino acids and 10–23% lipids. The amount of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and several minerals, such as P, Na and Ca were also high. Proteins were isolated from both cricket species by solubilisation at pH 11.0–12.0, followed by pH 4.0 isoelectric precipitation. The cricket proteins have high water capacity, moderate foaming capacity and stability with high emulsion activity. Therefore, they certainly could be further utilized as ingredients in various food types that could be an alternative nutritional source for both direct consumption and processing for protein extracts.
It has been ascertained in our laboratory that fucoidan, a polysaccharide contained in Saccharina japonica, shows anti-allergic activity through galectin 9 secretion in blood. A crude fucoidan fraction was chromatographically fractionated into three fractions using a Toyopearl-DEAE 650 M column in stepwise elusion with 0, 0.5 and 1.0 M NaCl in 0.05 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4). Each fraction was assessed using the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction. The non-absorbed fraction of the three fractions suppressed PCA, whereas the fractions eluted with 0.5 M and 1.0 M NaCl did not. Moreover, it was discovered that heat treatment of fucoidan at 50 °C for 10 min abolished its anti-allergic activity in the PCA reaction. Using DEAE chromatography, it was demonstrated that heat-treatment of the crude fucoidan fraction decreased the non-absorbed fraction, which possessed the anti-allergic activity, and increased the two fractions eluted with 0.5 M and 1.0 M NaCl. This clearly revealed the importance of temperature in maintaining the anti-allergic activity of fucoidan.
Despite the increasing attention garnered by Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) for its health benefits, its use has been limited by the difficulty in dehulling and a rutin hydrolysis-induced bitter taste caused by endogenous rutinosidase activity. Using circulating fluidized bed at 200 °C, the buckwheat was observed to produce a popcorn-like gelatinized product. Gelatinization was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry, and rutinosidase activities were examined using activity staining on native-PAGE, and the substrate (rutin) and product (quercetin) were quantified by LC-MS. Owing to denaturation of rutinosidase in the heat-treated products, the rutin content was retained without the formation of the bitter product quercetin. Nutritional analysis of pre- and post-treated products showed retention of the macro and micro nutrients even after heat-treatment. The popped Tartary buckwheat could, therefore, be obtained by simple treatment, and might reveal new opportunities to utilize pre-gelatinized and rutin-rich properties by rutinosidase denaturation.