Food Science and Technology Research
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Print ISSN : 1344-6606
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Volume 6 , Issue 2
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
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Review
  • Fumitaka HAYASE
    Volume 6 (2000) Issue 2 Pages 79-86
    Released: August 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Maillard reaction occurs extensively in food systems and in vivo. In an intermediate Maillard reaction of proteins with glucose, 3-deoxyglucosone (3DG) was generated from Amadori compounds in an early stage, leading to generation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). 3DG modified lysine residues to form pyrrole aldehydes (lysyl-pyrraline), and arginine residues to form imidazolone compounds, and is speculated to be a cross-linker responsible for the polymerization of proteins. 3DG is also thought to be related to the evolution of fluorescence during Maillard reaction. The fluorescent compound has been identified as lysyl-pyrropyridine which is formed by the loss of five molecules of water from the reaction between 2 molecules of lysine residues and 2 molecules of 3DG. In the protein-glucose and pentose reaction systems, crossline and pentosidine have reportedly been formed as fluorescent and crosslinking compound, respectively, as well as pyrropyridine. Immunochemical and chemical methods have clearly indicated the progressive accumulation of AGEs in tissue proteins in aging. In diabetes, AGE accumulation in general is accelerated and linked to arteriosclerosis, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, and cataract. 3DG, which has weaker mutagenicity, reacted readily with 2′-deoxyguanosine in nucleosides. Two major products (G-A and G-B) were isolated, and G-A was identified as N-(1-oxo-2,4,5,6-hydroxyhexyl)-2′-deoxyguanosine. G-B was identified as a diastereomer of G-A. Blue pigment was isolated from the reaction between D-xylose and glycine. Blue pigment which was designated Blue-M1 (blue Maillard reaction intermediate-1) was identified as novel pyrrolopyrrolylium compound and is assumed to be a dimer of yellow colored pyrrolopyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde compounds. Blue-M1 that reacts readily to yellow compounds has a polymerizing activity, suggesting that it is an important Maillard reaction intermediate through the formation of melanoidins. Melanoidins have many positive physiologic effects.
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Food Technology and Engineering
Technical paper
  • Xianwei XU, Nobuhiro HASEGAWA, Umeyuki DOI, Hayato UMEKAWA, Takao TAKA ...
    Volume 6 (2000) Issue 2 Pages 87-93
    Released: August 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The investigation was designed to study whether DHA in fish oil encapsulated in porous starch granules coated with water-insoluble corn protein, zein, can be utilized during passage through the gastrointestinal tract in rats. The in vitro digestion trial showed that zein used for coating starch granules was decomposed by proteolytic enzymes. After feeding porous starch granules containing fish oil, coconut oil, or corn oil for 3 weeks, serum triglycerides and phospholipids were significantly lower in the rats on fish oil than in the other rats. The proportion of DHA in total fatty acid of the fish oil group was significantly higher in both liver and brain lipids than in the other two groups. These results clearly show that fish oil encapsulated in porous starch granules coated with zein could be digested and absorbed. Moreover, it was confirmed that the granules had been changed morphologically by scanning electron microscopic analysis of the contents of the alimentary sections, showing that the film of zein had been digested in stomach and small intestine. The digestibility of fish oil in the capsules was shown to be 96.8%.
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Orignal papers
  • Tomoyuki FUJII, Toshimasa YANO, Hitoshi KUMAGAI, Osato MIYAWAKI
    Volume 6 (2000) Issue 2 Pages 94-98
    Released: August 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The dynamic light scattering (DLS) method was applied to measure the cluster radii of polyacrylamide and agarose solutions near the sol-gel transition point. In the case of polyacrylamide, primary clusters were formed first and secondary clusters on a larger scale were sequentially formed in the progress of the polymerization process. The z-average radius of the secondary cluster near the sol-gel transition point increased divergently with an increase in acrylamide concentration to the transition point. By fitting the data with the scaling law, the sol-gel transition concentration and the critical exponent were determined to be 1.53 % and 0.84, respectively. The z-average radius of the agarose cluster also showed a tendency to diverge with an increase in concentration to the sol-gel transition point. With fitting by the scaling law, the sol-gel transition concentration and the critical exponent of the agarose solution were determined to be 4.5×10-2% and 0.92, respectively, at 27.0°C. Thus, the percolation theory was proved to be effective to describe the cluster size distributions near the sol-gel transition point for both polyacrylamide and agarose solutions.
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  • Susana E. ZORRILLA, R. Paul SINGH
    Volume 6 (2000) Issue 2 Pages 130-135
    Released: August 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A simplified mathematical model was developed to predict the temperature profiles during meat patty cooking by double-sided pan-frying. Conduction was considered the main mechanism for heat transfer, and enthalpy formulation was used to avoid the discontinuity problem of the phase change during melting. The energy involved for vaporizing water was considered using appropriate boundary conditions. The model was solved according to a method based on an explicit finite difference approximation and was validated by comparing predicted and experimental temperature profiles obtained at 163°C and 204°C at the bottom platen and 177°C and 221°C at the top platen, respectively. The experimental and predicted data were in good agreement. The model was used to examine the sensitivity of patty cooking to different process conditions.
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  • Yukinori SATO, Osato MIYAWAKI
    Volume 6 (2000) Issue 2 Pages 136-139
    Released: August 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Proton relaxation was measured in 1H-NMR for saccharide solutions. The proton relaxation curve for saccharide solutions was almost mono-exponential and spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin relaxation (T2) times were determined from the curve. T1 and T2 were described well by the second order function of solute molality with the correlation coefficient over 0.994. The B-coefficients for T1 and T2 correlated well with the B-coefficient of viscosity and also with the number of equatorial OH groups of saccharide molecules, suggesting that the saccharide solution structure was reflected in these parameters in spite of the effect of proton exchange between water and solute.
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  • Kenji SAKAI, Yoshihiro MURATA, Hiroshi YAMAZUMI, Yuko TAU, Masatsugu M ...
    Volume 6 (2000) Issue 2 Pages 140-145
    Released: August 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    When minced and autoclaved model kitchen refuse was inoculated with a small amount of non-autoclaved model kitchen refuse as seed culture, incubated at 37°C for 3-5 days and intermittently pH neutralized, 27-45 g/l of lactic acid was accumulated with a small amount of acetic acid and ethanol. The highest accumulation and highest productivity levels of lactic acid were observed at an initial and adjusted pH of 7.0 and a 6 h interval of pH adjustment. After several hours of lag, the lactic acid bacteria became the dominant cell type during the incubation, while the number of coliform bacteria and clostridia decreased. Such selective and stable accumulation of lactic acid was achieved in dozens of different experiments with various refuse preparations. In contrast, with continuous pH adjustment, Iactic acid once accumulated was labile and a small amount of butyric acid was produced, increasing the number of clostridia. The dominant bacteria isolated from the fermentation with intermittent pH adjustment were identified as Lactobacillus plantarnm and L. brevis.
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Food Science and Chemistry
Technical paper
  • Toshiyuki IBARAKI, Toshinao ISHII, Emi IKEMATSU, Hironobu IKEDA, Hidea ...
    Volume 6 (2000) Issue 2 Pages 126-129
    Released: August 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The chemical components and quality stability of pre-cut Welsh onion wrapped in an unperforated or micro-perforated orientated polypropylene (OPP) film package were evaluated during storage at 10°C. The concentration of oxygen (O2) in the unperforated OPP package decreased rapidly to 2% while that of carbon dioxide (CO2) increased. Therefore, the onion underwent anaerobic respiration, ethyl alcohol was produced and some of the chemical components were lost. Moreover the cellular tissue of the vegetable became water-soaked. The O2 concentration in the OPP film package with too many micro-perforations decreased slightly, so that ethyl alcohol was not detected but there was a loss of chemical components. The quality of the product was diminished and the onion was unmarketable after 6 days of storage. For cut Welsh onion packed in perforated OPP film (with 24 micro-perforations), the O2 concentration in the package was not as low as in the modified atmosphere packaging for onion, but did decrease to 10%. Ethyl alcohol could not be detected and there was no or only slight loss of chemical components, so that the onion was still marketable after 6 days of storage.
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Original papers
  • Masateru ONO, Chikako MASUOKA, Yusuke ODAKE, Satoshi IKEGASHIRA, Yasuy ...
    Volume 6 (2000) Issue 2 Pages 106-114
    Released: August 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The methanol extract of the aerial part of Tessaria integrifolia (common name: pajaro bobo), which is used as an herb for the treatment of asthma and liver injury in Peru, showed a stronger antioxidative activity than the standard synthetic antioxidant, 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA). From this extract, five new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids were isolated along with eighteen known compounds, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR data. Among them, eleven phenolic compounds, four flavonoids, two lignans and five caffeoyl quinic acid derivatives were examined for their antioxidative activity using the ferric thiocyanate method, and nine compounds indicated a stronger antioxidative activity than the standard natural antioxidant, α-tocopherol at a concentration of 0.5 mM. Especially, two flavonoids were identified as stronger antioxidants than BHA. The scavenging effect of the phenolic compounds on the stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl was examined. All tested compounds showed this scavenging effect, with the effect of five caffeoyl quinic acid derivatives and three flavonoids being almost twice or more that of α-tocopherol at a concentration of 0.01 mM.
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  • Toshihiko SHOJI, Masuko KOBORI, Hiroshi SHINMOTO, Akio YANAGIDA, Tomom ...
    Volume 6 (2000) Issue 2 Pages 119-121
    Released: August 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A crude apple polyphenol (CAP) fraction partially purified from unripe apples was found to inhibit adipose differentiation in mouse fibroblast 3T3-L1 cells. CAP inhibited the increase in intracellular levels of glycerophosphate-3-dehydrogenase (GPDH), one of the most important enzymes in the pathway for triacylglycerol biosynthesis, that occurs upon differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes and decreased the triglyceride content of the cells. In particular, apple condensed tannins (ACT), purified from CAP, inhibited the increase in GPDH activity when these cells differentiated. In contrast, phloridzin, (+)-catechin, and (−)-epicatechin, which were also present in the CAP fraction, decreased the triglyceride content of the cells but did not inhibit the increase in GPDH activity These results suggest that ACT such as procyanidins inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes.
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  • Ayumi HARUKAZE, Sonoe SUGIYAMA, Yuko IWAMOTO, Masatsune MURATA, Seiich ...
    Volume 6 (2000) Issue 2 Pages 122-125
    Released: August 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A convenient analytical method for diferulic acids (diFAs) in foods was developed. Rice flour (10 g) was stirred in 250 ml of 0.1 N NaOH at room temperature for 50 h. Liberated phenolics were extracted with ethylacetate and analyzed with HPLC. Three major diFAs:(5, 5'-diFA (1), 8-O-4' diFA (2), and 8, 5'-diFA benzofuran form (3)) were quantified. The contents of diFAs determined by this direct liberation method were greater than those determined after cell wall was prepared from rice sample. Contents of diFAs in food samples (27 items) were determined by this method. Seeds or fruits of the monocotyledon plants rice, wheat, Chinese water chestnut, banana, and pineapple contained diFAs (2 (1.9-410 μg/g)> 3 (1.0-390 μg/g)>1 (0.8-180 μg/g)). We did not detect diFAs in edible parts of the monocotyledon plants arrowhead, asparagus, devil's tongue, or taro, or of the dicotyledon plants buckwheat, lotus root, potato, or pumpkin.
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Notes
  • Mizuo YAJIMA, Tsutomu TAKAYANAGI, Ichiro MATSUO, Koki YOKOTSUKA
    Volume 6 (2000) Issue 2 Pages 99-101
    Released: August 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Antimicrobial substances were isolated from the 50% ethanol extract of paprika seeds by ODS open column chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. Ten compounds (1-10) which demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MIC=1.3-2.6 mg/l) were isolated. The structure of the major compound, 4 (MIC=2.6 mg/l), was determined to be 3β-O-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(l→3)-β-D-glucopyransyl-(1→3)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyransyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranosy}-2α-hydroxyl-(25R)-5α-spirostane by MS, NMR and sugar analyses.
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  • Hiroko NAGANO, Zenya SHOJI, Asako TAMURA, Miyuki KATO, Masashi OMORI, ...
    Volume 6 (2000) Issue 2 Pages 102-105
    Released: August 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Rice papers made of non-glutinous rice are a common food item in Vietnam and Thailand. Called as Banh Da Nem in Vietnam, rice papers are used very often in the making of a traditional dish called Nem, i.e., Vietnamese spring rolls. The amino acid content in the rice papers extracted with water was found to be 2 to 3 fold higher than that in cooked rice, showing that the protein was resolved by microbial enzymes during the rice paper processing. Among organic acids, Iactic acid is most common in rice papers, indicating that lactic bacteria is involved in the manufacturing. Many Gram-positive bacteria: Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus acidominimus, Staphylococcus capitis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Gram-negative bacteria: Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., along with wild type yeast were isolated from the milled-rice.
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  • Koji NAGASHIMA, Takeshi SHIMIZU, Kouichi TAKESHI, Makoto KAWAKAMI, Dai ...
    Volume 6 (2000) Issue 2 Pages 115-118
    Released: August 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We devised a simple and efficient method of preparing chromosomal DNA from Gram-positive bacteria for use as a template in PCR, which consists of achromopeptidase treatment followed by Chelex 100 treatment. Using template DNA prepared by this method, it was possible to detect as few as one colony forming unit of some kinds of food-related bacteria using universal primers targeting the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene or specific primers for bacterial genes under fixed thermocycling conditions.
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  • Nozomi ANDO, Kiharu IGARASHI, Asako TAKENAKA, Yukihiko HARA
    Volume 6 (2000) Issue 2 Pages 146-149
    Released: August 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The preventive effects of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC), gallic acid (GA), and a mixture of EGC and GA, and also of (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECg), (−)-epicatechin (EC), and a mixture of EC and GA against paraquat (PQ)-induced oxidative stress were compared in rats to determine whether the preventive effects of the EGCg and ECg against oxidative stress can be obtained by a mixture of their components or not. An increase in lung weight induced by PQ feeding was relieved by supplementing EGCg or ECg to the PQ diet, and the magnitude of relief was stronger than that achived by a mixture of EGC and GA, or EC and GA. An increase in liver TBARS, and decreases in the catalase activity in liver mitochondrial fraction and in liver triacylglycerol concentration, which were all induced by PQ feeding, were also relieved or tended to be relieved more effectively by EGCg or ECg than by either of the mixtures mentioned. These results demonstrated that the preventive effects of EGCg and ECg in vivo cannot be obtained by ingesting the mixtures of their components.
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