This paper focuses on the “cultural cradle” that gave rise to a distinctive idea of masculinity and counter-culture as seen in records of day laborers’ own monologues preserved in a collection of workers’ diaries. The main material for the paper comes from the ‘Diaries of day laborers’ (total of two volumes) collected and compiled by the Bureau of Social Affairs of the city of Tokyo in the early Showa period. As for the masculinity of day laborers, the peculiar “expression” style was symbolized in discourses on “drinking, gambling, and prostitution.” On the other hand, in order to grasp the day laborers’ expressions of masculinity in relation to the totality of masculinity, this paper focuses the discussion on the “cultural cradle” = various elements that promoted these “expressions”. Concretely, this paper examines (1) the actual conditions of daily laborers and their consciousness, (2) their awareness of “others”, and (3) the forms of entertainment and culture favored by day laborers,correlating the various factors.
The results can be summarized in the following three points. First, what formed the “cultural cradle” of the masculinity and counter-culture of day laborers was the ambivalent consciousness of “frightened” and “resentment” leading to an inverted form — “frightened masculinity (frightened but masculine)”. This consciousness was formed during the depression years and in “not sociable” relationships with “others” such as intermediate contractors, Korean laborers and women. Second, the appeal of this counter-culture was not constant. We can see this in the fact that there were a significant number of day laborers with academic backgrounds who tried to stand outside of the counter-culture as well as the Korean laborers who also stood outside of this counter-culture. Third, the “cultural cradle” of their masculinity was amplified or eliminated in the context of femininity. This can be clearly seen from their reactionary remarks against “Modern girls” and the reality of a form of “sociable” entertainment called “Yasugi-bushi” which was popular among day laborers.
In today’s Korea, articles on misogyny and misandry are often found in the media. Also, many Koreans consider misogyny and misandry to be a serious problem. In this paper, I will focus on Korean masculinities in order to clarify the cause of misogyny.
Section 1 reviews Korean masculinity studies. Through the review, it becomes clear that Korean masculinity has been analyzed using the concepts of “militarism” and “militarization.”
Section 2 will clarify the change of Korean masculinities from their relation with militarization. Firstly, there have been points in common between the military regime’s masculinities and the prodemocracy masculinities. Secondly, the masculinities called for by the military regime and the IMF Era were similar. Thirdly, since the 2000s, the difference between men and women has been maintained by a way of thinking that men who serve military service are victims of society.
Section 3 examines the reasons why men are hostile to women using the framework of Messner and Ito. Firstly, a general sense of deprivation felt by today’s young men makes it difficult for them to feel superior to women. Secondly, because of the socialization of male-dominated values in the militarized society, young men’s anger is directed at women.
In other words, the reason for the spread of misogyny is recent women’s social advancement despite the fact that a debasing attitude toward women still exists in society. In order to break out of the negative cycle of misogyny and misandry, people should realize the following: Firstly, Korean society is a militarized one. Secondly, there is a possibility that people are being socialized by militarization. And lastly, there are differences and inequalities between men.
Feature films are fictional. Even if the film is realistic, we cannot accept it uncritically as the film reflects reality. However, it is inevitable that the temporality and regionality where the film is produced and released are reflected on the feature film (especially commercial films). For this reason, we explore the stories that society has entrusted to local films by deciphering them. This article discusses family styles through films in Malaysia and Indonesia. Both countries are multiethnic, multi-religious and multi-lingual, and the majority religion, Islam, has a major impact on society, while Islam is positioned in society as one of several religions. In Malaysia, characterized by ethnic ranks and Islamic authority, love and companionship across ethnic and religious differences becomes an issue. However, Yasmin Ahmad’s films appeal that the problem to be solved is not the difference in ethnicity or religion but the power relationship between parent and child or between married couple. There have been more Indonesian films featuring polygamy with women playing a leading role in foreign countries, which can be understood as an attempt to create a family based on the value of Islam. We interpret it as showing that women who are trying to live away from the interference of their parents and the community are finding it difficult to balance their career with a good mother.